You must enable JavaScript to view this site.
This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Review our legal notice and privacy policy for more details.
Close
Homepage > Publication Type > CrisisWatch > CrisisWatch Database

CrisisWatch Database

Region / country

period from    to 

134 results found
Items 51 - 100 of 134 First   Previous   Next   Last

Somalia

  |  1 Aug 2010

Deteriorated

Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for 11 July bomb attacks in Kampala killing at least 85 (see Uganda), confirming group’s intent and capability to export conflict to wider region and drive foreign forces out of Somalia. Following 11 July bomb attacks in Uganda, al-Shabaab leader Sheikh Mukhtar Abu-Zubeyr 15 July threatened further Kampala attacks, warned Burundi would be targeted next. AU said it would increase AMISOM’s strength to 8,000 troops and allow these forces to pre-emptively attack al-Shabaab. Guinea, Djibouti, Uganda and Burundi among countries ready to send more troops. Scores of civilians killed as renewed fighting broke out 18 July between al-Shabaab and govt forces north of Mogadishu. Reports emerged 21 July of AU internal documents issued April and June expressing concern over  AMISOM’s indiscriminate shelling of residential areas. 13 alleged al-Shabaab killed in northern Puntland late July during clashes with govt forces pursuing southerners alleged to pose security threat to region. Also in Puntland, militia leader Skeikh Mohamed Saiid Atom 28 July declared allegiance to al-Shabaab and vowed jihad in semi-autonomous state; al-Shabaab spokesman in Mogadishu denied links. International Maritime Bureau reported attacks in Gulf of Aden dropped by nearly two-thirds in first half of 2010 compared to 2009 but rose in Somali basin and wider Indian Ocean.

Somalia

  |  1 Jul 2010

Unchanged

Deadly fighting between AU-backed govt soldiers and Islamist militias continued in Mogadishu: at least 17 civilians reportedly killed 3 June; 2 AU peacekeepers killed same day; 12 people killed 18 June. 13 died in clashes between govt soldiers and police in Mogadishu 13 June; details unclear.  At least 24 reported killed in early month fighting between al-Shabaab and pro-govt Ahlu Sunna wal Jama’a (ASWJ) militia in central Somalia; thousands of civilians reportedly fled. ASWJ 9 June said they recaptured key town of Dhusomareb. Political uncertainty continued as 3 ministers, including defence minister, announced resignations 8 June citing govt’s failure to restore order. President Sheik Sharif 17 June ordered investigation into army’s use of child soldiers after highly critical UN report.

 

Somalia

  |  1 Jun 2010

Unchanged

Deadly clashes between govt/AU forces and Islamist militias continued amid heightened political uncertainty. PM Sharmarke and govt reportedly lost vote of no confidence 16 May when parliament met for 1st time since Dec. President Sheikh Sharif 20 May reinstated Sharmarke after earlier calling for his resignation. Parliamentary speaker Madobe, reported rival of Sharmarke, resigned. Sharif Hassan Sheik Adan, reported ally of president, elected new speaker 28 May. In Mogadishu at least 30 killed, dozens injured in 1 May blasts; at least 14 killed when al-Shabaab insurgents attacked presidential palace 23 May. UNSG Ban 22 May urged international support for transitional govt at UN-sponsored Somalia conference in Istanbul. EU High Rep Ashton visited region 18 May to discuss piracy; several hijackings reported during month.

Somalia

  |  1 Mar 2010

Unchanged

In Mogadishu, at least 21 civilians killed in shelling by Islamist militia al-Shabaab 7-11 Feb. Al-Shabaab early month began moving hundreds of reinforcements into capital, 12 Feb proclaimed “all out war” against govt. UNHCR 17 Feb reported thousands fled city over previous 2 weeks. 5 killed in shootout between security forces over non-payment of salaries 11 Feb. 4 killed in suicide bomb targeting military convoy and defense state minister 15 Feb; minister escaped unharmed. Reports of numerous clashes in southern and central Somalia. UN official in south reported that new rules imposed by U.S. to prevent flow of humanitarian aid to Islamist militia were imposing “impossible” restrictions on aid deliveries. Al-Shabaab 28 Feb ordered World Food Program to halt operations. Reports of several successes in international anti-piracy operations; Danish special forces under NATO command recovered 2 trawlers off Gulf of Aden early month.

Somalia

  |  1 Feb 2010

Unchanged

Fighting between Al-Shabaab, rival Hizbul Islam and pro-govt militia Ahlu Sunna Waljamaca surged in central Somalia early month, with at least 138 killed and 63,000 newly displaced in 2 weeks of clashes for strategic control over Dusamareb, Baladwayne, and Dhobley. At least 20 killed, including civilians, in heavy militants attacks on govt and AMISOM bases in Mogadishu 29-31 Jan. Al-Shabaab early month claimed it was exchanging fighters with Yemeni rebels, 29 Jan announced it had united with smaller Kamboni rebel group and joined international al-Qaeda jihad. Govt 2 Jan announced discovery of 2 Yemen arms shipments destined for militia. UN’s WFP 5 Jan withdrew staff and suspended aid in South indefinitely due to insecurity and al-Shabaab demands for payment; cuts to affect some 1m people. Insecurity continued in semi-autonomous Puntland; 2 MPs shot dead over month. Large UK cargo ship seized 2 Jan in one of several bold piracy attacks. EU 25 Jan agreed to deploy new “EUTRA” mission to train 2,000 Somali troops in Uganda; training to commence spring 2010. Tensions with Nairobi increased following arrest of 12 Somali MPs by Kenyan authorities during unrest that followed arrest of radical cleric Abdullah el-Faisal (see Kenya).

Somalia

  |  3 Jan 2010

Unchanged

Parliament 27 Nov approved full 18-member cabinet, after earlier 22 Nov parliamentary session descended into chaos as MPs, divided over procedures, failed to vote on nominees chosen 12 Nov by new PM Mohamed Abdullahi. More than 20 civilians killed 17 Nov in 2 separate explosions and subsequent gunfire between AU peacekeepers (AMISOM), govt soldiers and al-Shabaab; at least 9 civilians killed 30 Nov in heavy clashes at Bakara market, southern Mogadishu.   AMISOM apologised for 2 civilians killed, 7 injured 23 Nov when AMISOM convoy leaving airport accidentally fired on civilian group. Security Council 23 Nov renewed authorisation granted to states and regional organisations co-operating with Somalia’s transitional government to fight piracy off coast.

TFG Parliament erupts in dispute over Cabinet ratification”, Garowe, 22 Nov. 2010.

For latest report, see Crisis Group Africa Briefing N°74, Somalia’s Divided Islamists, 18 May 2010. 

 



Somalia

  |  1 Jan 2010

Unchanged

At least 22 killed, including 3 govt ministers, in devastating suicide attack on Mogadishu university graduation ceremony 3 Dec, triggering wide condemnation; al-Shabaab denied responsibility. 14 civilians killed in capital 19-20 Dec in shelling between al-Shabaab and govt troops. Heavy fighting also reported between rival Islamist militias in and around Beledweyn late month and in Dhuusa Marreeb 3 Jan, reportedly killing at least 47. President Sheikh Sharif early Dec replaced police commander Qeybdid following international pressure for his removal over corruption; army chief of staff General Dhumaal also removed. 500 soldiers returned mid-month from 6-month French-led military training program in Djibouti. Al-Shabaab 17 Dec banned UN agencies from south for “disrupting justice”. Security continued to deteriorate in Puntland with further bombings targeting public officials and accompanying rise in vigilante action; authorities blame “immigrant” Rahanweyn ethnic group for attacks, arrested hundreds. UNSC committee 11 Dec said UN officials investigating Somali businessmen suspected of channeling funds to insurgents were receiving death threats. Piracy attacks continued off coast.

Somalia

  |  1 Dec 2009

Unchanged

Fighting continued on several fronts, with clashes in Mogadishu, south’s Bakool region, and bomb attacks in north’s Galkayo city targeting govt sites and hotels 30 Oct-1 Nov reportedly leaving dozens dead. Clashes between govt troops and al-Shabaab forces surged again in Mogadishu 7 Nov. Al-Shabaab late month took control of 2 towns in lower Jubba following further battles with rival militia Hizbul Islam. Security deteriorated in Puntland: govt imposed brief curfews in all major towns following string of assassinations and bombings targeting govt officials. Tensions between Puntland and Transitional Federal Govt further increased, over allocation of donor funding and federalism. PM Sharmarke during early month interviews in UK stressed need to reach out to non “ideological” Islamist fighters, called for international anti-piracy policy to focus on livelihoods in coastal regions. Several piracy attacks over month. EU 17 Nov endorsed plans to deploy up to 2,000 military personnel to train Somali forces in Uganda. WFP announced risk of widespread famine in Dec after U.S. suspended aid deliveries over inadequate policing. Al-Shabaab 25 Nov demanded WPF halt imports, procure food locally, empty warehouses by 1 Jan.

Somalia

  |  1 Nov 2009

Unchanged

Fighting flared in southern port town Kismayo between former allies Hizbul Islam and al-Shabaab, following struggle for control of town; at least 12 killed, hundreds fled. At least 30 killed in Mogadishu 22 Oct in shelling by al-Shabaab directed at President Sheik Sharif’s plane; al-Shabaab accused AMISOM of firing heavy artillery - denied by AMISOM - and threatened to attack Ugandan, Burundian capitals in retaliation. Increase in piracy following end of monsoon season; Chinese ship and 25 crew seized 19 Oct in one of furthest off-shore attacks.

Somalia

  |  1 Oct 2009

Unchanged

FM Ali Ahmed Jama 3 Sept announced several senior figures in Islamist group Hizbul Islam had agreed to join President Sheik Sharif’s administration after negotiations. Heavy fighting continued across Mogadishu and south. Early month mortar fire into residential areas in Mogadishu’s port area killed at least 5 civilians; govt and AU troops control in city reportedly reduced to a few blocks. U.S. helicopters killed alleged terrorist Saleh Ali Nabhan and several al-Shabaab fighters in 14 Sept attack near Roobow village in south. Followed by defiant 16 Sept call by al-Shabaab leadership for foreign reinforcements and 17 Sept suicide attacks on AMISOM Mogadishu base, in which govt police chief and some 20 peacekeepers killed; Hizbul Islam leader Dahir Aweys urged further attacks. Some 17 others, mainly combatants, killed in fighting between al-Shabaab and govt forces outside of Yet town 21 Sept before al-Shabaab took control. Reports of fighting between al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam in Kismayo late month. Reports Somali refugees crossing Kenyan border at rate of 7,000 per month.

Somalia

  |  1 Sep 2009

Unchanged

Continued fighting in and around capital, as Dahir Aweys, leader of Islamist militia Hizbul Islam, 23 Aug rejected govt call for Ramadan truce and pledged to continue battle with al-Shabaab “brothers” against govt/AU forces. At least 60 killed in mid-month clashes across central Somalia as govt troops sought to advance on al-Shabaab-controlled territory, prompting fresh Islamist attacks on strategic Beledweyn town; al-Shabaab forces reportedly retook central towns of Balad Wayne and Bula Burte mid-month. Over 30 killed from 21 Aug in Islamist attacks on govt positions in Mogadishu and in fighting around key route to Afgoye town. Ethiopian troops late month reportedly captured strategic town Belet Wayne near Ethiopian border. President Sheikh Sharif announced imposition of emergency rule 19 Aug. TFG and Puntland officials 23 Aug signed deal on cooperation, stipulating that the region operate as counter-piracy base and increasing its diplomatic and economic independence. UN announced over half of Somalis require emergency assistance, as humanitarian situation continued to worsen.

Somalia

  |  1 Aug 2009

Unchanged

Mogadishu and central Somalia hit by several bouts of intense fighting over month. At least 51 killed, 212 injured in Mogadishu over July, with fighting particularly heavy early month. Reports security director of transitional govt (TFG) killed 11 July. AMISOM 12 July began assisting TFG forces as govt made first serious advances against al-Shabaab; AMISOM denied reports troops moved to front line but acknowledged limited defensive action; govt continues to press for strengthened AMISOM mandate. In Hiran region: 31 killed in fighting between Al Shabaab and moderate Islamist Ahlu Sunna Waljamaca 22-23 July; govt claimed to have retaken Beledweyn town end month. UN Human Rights Commissioner Pillay warned bombings into residential areas, civilian executions by Islamist troops may amount to war crimes. TFG, AMISOM, UN Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS) 26 July announced formation of new Joint Security Committee to support Somali security institutions. AU early month urged UNSC to impose sanctions on Eritrea over alleged support for Islamist forces; UNSC divided, but some members 9 July threatened to consider action. 2 French officials kidnapped by suspected al-Shabaab members late month.

Somalia

  |  1 Jul 2009

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Scores dead in fighting between Islamists and govt forces in South and Centre. 123 reportedly killed in clashes between pro-govt Islamic group and hardline Islamists in Webho town north of Mogadishu early-June; Islamist militia Hizbul Islam denied reports leader Aweys killed in attacks. Security minister Omar Hashi Aden and at least 34 others killed in 18 June suicide attack on hotel in Beledweyne. In Mogadishu: 22 killed including police Chief Colonel Said in heavy fighting 17 June, director of Shabelle radio station murdered. 6 Al-Shabaab fighters killed in attack on govt checkpoint north of capital in Galgalato 14 June. UN reported some 122,000 civilians displaced from Mogadishu since fighting escalated early-May. Parliamentary speaker 20 June announced “state of emergency”, called for external assistance; call backed by AU Chair Ping 21 June. Ethiopia responded announcing readiness to return but only with international mandate. Al-Shabaab threatened to “invade” Kenya unless it reduces its heavy troop presence on Somali border. EU 15 June authorized extension of anti-piracy operation Atalanta to end-2010, expansion to Seychelles.

Somalia

  |  1 Jun 2009

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Mogadishu rocked by intense fighting, as alliance of anti-govt Islamist factions led by influential Islamist leader Aweys launched large-scale offensive in and around capital from 7 May, taking control of large parts of city and nearby strategic points Mahadday and Jowhar; mortars fired into presidential palace 23 May. Some 200 civilians killed, hundreds wounded, over 46,000 displaced in heavy shelling into residential areas. Violence coupled with severe drought fuelled fears of greater humanitarian crisis. Followed earlier moves by Aweys to cement Islamist alliance. UNSC 15 May called for investigation into govt allegations Eritrea providing military support to al-Shabaab, denied by Asmara (see Eritrea). UNSC members in 8-day Africa mission met with AU envoys, expressed concern over threat of violence to transitional govt, presence of foreign fighters. Reports of sizable incursions by Ethiopian troops into Hiran region, denied by interior ministry and Addis Ababa. Govt mid-month called on international community to support establishment of anti-piracy coastguard. Piracy conference in Malaysia ended 19 May with call on UN to consider joint off-coast security mechanism, in apparent pull-back from proposals for an international maritime force. 200 pirates in Puntland late-month renounced criminal activities, reportedly under pressure from local leaders.

Somalia

  |  1 May 2009

Unchanged

Influential Islamic cleric Sheikh Aweys returned 23 Apr after 2 year exile. Considerable uncertainty over political implications; in fiery speech to supporters in Mogadishu 24 Apr ruled out talks with govt until “bacteria” of AMISOM troops leave. Sharia law unanimously endorsed by parliament mid-month. Govt 24 Apr announced country’s first national budget since 1991. Security improving in Mogadishu, marked by return of 60,000 refugees since Jan, but targeted attacks continue: 8 killed by mortars near parliament late month; 2 senior Islamic Courts Union members, 1 MP assassinated by suspected al-Shabaab militants working to hit list of govt supporters. Nearly 30 killed in clashes between pro- and anti-govt Islamist factions in Beledweyne 20-21 Apr. Increase in piracy early month, indicating spread of attacks southeast; 6 killed, several arrested in high-profile release operations by French, U.S. and Russian forces. Somaliland authorities sentenced 9 pirates arrested off Somaliland coast to 15-20 years; several await trial in Kenya. At 23 Apr international donors conference states pledged $213m in support to national security force and AMISOM.

Somalia

  |  1 Apr 2009

Unchanged Risk Alert

President Sharif on inaugural tour mid-month to 4 regional states, reportedly securing assistance in govt, military capacity building. Cabinet 10 March endorsed Sharif’s call for installation of Sharia Law; now passes to parliament. Sharp upsurge in tensions between al-Shabaab and pro-govt Islamic group Ahlu Sunna Waljamaca; 11 killed in fierce fighting from 15 March as latter took control of Wabho, north of Mogadishu; 6 more killed in central Bay region late month. Interior Minister wounded, guard killed in 26 March bombing attack and 8 killed in fighting between police and al-Shabaab 30 March, as violence continued in Mogadishu. Al-Qaeda 20 March urged Somalis to rise against “apostate” Sharif govt. Govt 20 March formally called on UNSC to deploy peacekeepers, raising tensions in Mogadishu and amid signs of intra-govt divisions. AMISOM bolstered by 3rd Ugandan battalion late month; fears of corresponding surge in al-Shabaab attacks fuelled by reports group increasing arms imports. Several piracy attacks over month but levels still down since 2008.

Somalia

  |  1 Mar 2009

Unchanged

New President Sheikh Sharif 9 Feb toured Mogadishu, said open for peace talks with groups opposed to Djibouti Agreement, ready to introduce sharia law, form inclusive govt. Sharif 13 Feb appointed Omar Abdirashid Sharmarke as PM – Canadian citizen and Marjeteen sub-clan member, son of president killed in 1969 coup. Choice endorsed by parliament, met with widespread approval apart from Islamist rebels. Sharmarke said he would seek dialogue with Al-Shabaab to end violence, 21 Feb appointed 32-member cabinet; 2 members subsequently resigned due to clan politics. But Al-Shabaab 12 Feb repeated opposition to Sharif, vowed to continue attacking AU forces, and 22 Feb killed 11 AU Burundi peacekeepers in attack on Mogadishu base. Fierce fighting in Mogadishu from 24 Feb between Interim Government of National Unity troops, backed by AMISOM and newly-formed insurgent umbrella grouping, Hizb al-Islam (Islamic Party). Clashes left at least 80 people killed before 27 Feb truce. Reports throughout month Ethiopian troops back in Somalia; Ethiopia denied. Prominent journalist shot dead in Mogadishu 4 Feb by unidentified gunmen; Islamists 12 Feb fired mortar bombs at UN-chartered supply ship, killing 4. In East Africa tour starting 24 Feb in Djibouti, Iranian President Ahmedinejad met Somali PM Sharmarke and pledged to support new govt. Ukrainian tank carrier captured by pirates Sept 2008 released early Feb.

Somalia

  |  1 Feb 2009

Unchanged

Progress on Djibouti agreement with expansion of Parliament and election of moderate ARS leader Sheikh Sharif Ahmed as president. Ethiopian troop withdrawal resulted in power vacuum, fighting between Islamist groups. Ethiopian withdrawal from Mogadishu completed 15 Jan, celebrated by residents; Islamist groups took control of 4 of 6 vacated bases. Ethiopian withdrawal completed 26 Jan with departure from Baidoa; Al-Shabaab same day seized parliament building, installed Sharia law. Violence increased after withdrawal, including 20 Jan Islamist attacks on Mogadishu police stations killing 19; 24 Jan suicide bomb on AU base killing at least 15, mostly civilians. Early Jan fighting in Galgadud region between Al-Shabaab and other Islamists killed over 50, caused 50,000 to flee. MPs meeting in Djibouti voted 26 Jan to expand parliament, adding 275 MPs in line with Nov Djibouti agreement – 200 for ARS, 75 for civil society; 28 Jan swore in 149 ARS MPs, extended TFG mandate 2 yrs; 30 Jan elected ARS leader Sheikh Sharif new president. UNSC 16 Jan expressed provisional intent to set up UN peacekeeping force, pending further review of security situation; subject to further decision by 1 June. Also urged AU to increase AMISOM from 3,200 to 8,000, requested UNSG Ban set up trust fund, develop force mandate by 15 Apr. 2 WFP staff shot dead 6, 8 Jan, prompting WFP to threaten withdrawal.

Somalia

  |  1 Jan 2009

Unchanged Risk Alert Resolution Opportunity

Resignation of President Yusuf and Ethiopian troop withdrawal fuelled fears of Islamist ascendancy, govt collapse and increasing violence, but also possibly removed key obstacles to inclusive peace. After criticising peace deal signed by TFG and Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) as too clan-based, President Yusuf mid-Dec tried to sack PM Nur Hassan Hussein and name new PM Guled. But parliament 15 Dec voted Hussein sacking illegal, 16 Dec unanimously endorsed Djibouti peace agreement, 17 Dec voted to impeach Yusuf as obstacle to peace. IGAD 21 Dec announced sanctions on Yusuf; following international pressure Yusuf 29 Dec resigned. Elections due within 30 days, parliament speaker Madobe named interim president. Deadly violence continued in Mogadishu and elsewhere between Al-Shabaab and govt/Ethiopian troops and between Islamist militias, intensifying following Yusuf's resignation. Despite U.S. pressure, UNSG Ban 16 Dec ruled out UN peacekeeping mission to Somalia; suggested bolstering AMISOM. AU 22 Dec agreed to keep its peacekeeping force in Somalia for further 2 months; also urged Ethiopia to delay troop withdrawal until further AU troops deployed. Ethiopia late Dec/early Jan started troop withdrawal. UNSC 2 Dec renewed June resolution giving navies right to pursue pirates into Somali waters; 16 Dec approved resolution allowing countries to pursue Somali pirates on land with TFG permission. Sharp Dec reduction in piracy incidents reported.

Somalia

  |  1 Dec 2008

Unchanged

PM Nur Hassan and President Yusuf failed to agree on new cabinet or form new transitional govt by 12 Nov Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) deadline. 4th round of peace talks opened 22 Nov in Djibouti, following 21 Nov passing of June Djibouti agreement deadline for Ethiopian troop withdrawal; talks concluded 26 Nov with agreement to create 200 new parliament seats, incl 75 reserved for civil society. But expectations low and hardline Islamist groups not party to deal. UNSC 20 Nov agreed to impose sanctions on those contributing to Somalia violence and instability. Ethiopia 28 Nov announced plans to withdraw troops by end-2008. Violence continued: Al-Shabaab made further gains during month, including port towns of Merka and Barawe; 40 civilians reported killed, 70 injured in late-month clashes in Mogadishu. International outcry over late Oct stoning to death of 13-yr old rape victim accused of adultery in Al-Shabaab-controlled Kismayo. Somali piracy activity spiralling, with 17 Nov capture of Saudi oil supertanker signalling increasing pirate capacities; EU 10 Nov launched 1st anti-piracy naval mission. Puntland region presidential candidates rejected govt-appointed election commission ahead of Jan 2009 elections.

 

Somalia

  |  1 Nov 2008

Unchanged Risk Alert Resolution Opportunity

Violence continued, with dozens killed in Mogadishu during month; Transitional Federal Govt (TFG) stronghold of Baidoa under Al-Shabaab attack; UN driver killed in southern port Merca 7 Oct. Some 450 Burundian AU peacekeepers arrived in Mogadishu by plane 11 Oct. Further reports of govt forces’ defections to Islamic Courts. TFG and faction of Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) 26 Oct signed ceasefire in Djibouti and agreed to national unity govt, dependent on Ethiopian troop withdrawal by early 2009 and AU/UN force. TFG given series of conditions to fulfil by Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) meeting in Nairobi 29 Oct; ARS representatives also in attendance. U.S. late Oct called for extension of TFG mandate, set to expire within 6 months. Ethiopia’s opposition increased pressure on govt to withdraw troops from Somalia; calls rejected by PM Meles, but said would adhere to withdrawal schedule. Fighting reported between Islamic Courts and Al-Shabaab 19 Oct near Mogadishu. Kenya announced 9 Oct will train up to 10,000 Somali troops, drawing threat of attack from Somali Islamists. Stand-off continued between pirates of Ukrainian tank carrier and growing international naval presence. EU 2 Oct agreed to establish anti-piracy operation off Somali coast, to deploy Dec, planned to last a year. UNSC 7 Oct resolution called for states to combat piracy; NATO sent 7 warships mid-month. Woman stoned to death 27 Oct in Islamist-held Kismayo. Some 30 killed in near-simultaneous suicide car bombings in Bossaso (Puntland) and Hargeisa (Somaliland) 29 Oct (see Somaliland).

 

Somalia

  |  1 Oct 2008

Unchanged

Devastating violence continued between Islamists and AU, Ethiopian troops with scores killed, including 2 peacekeepers 14-15 Sept; 30 civilians 22 Sept in Bakara market. UNHCR reported thousands fleeing Mogadishu. Ethiopian troops 5 Sept shot some 20 civilians in Bardale, prompting TFG district commissioner to switch allegiance to Islamists. Al-Shabaab 16 Sept warned all flights to Mogadishu airport must cease; 19 Sept attacked landing AU supply plane. MP assassinated 9 Sept. Reports 7 Sept of Somali soldiers, Ethiopian officer switching allegiance to militants. International Contact Group for Somalia met 16 Sept in Djibouti seeking diplomatic, financial support for peace process. Djibouti negotiations between govt and opposition Alliance for Re-liberation of Somalia on implementation of 18 Aug agreement disrupted 21 Sept by dispute over Ethiopian troop withdrawal. UNSC stated 4 Sept would consider peacekeeping force subject to improved security situation, political progress; asked UNSG Ban to report back with contingency plan in 60 days. Ethiopian PM Meles 21 Sept said troops will remain in Somalia to support TFG. Rift opened 23 Sept between President Yusuf and parliament over latter’s rejection of Yusuf call for reinstatement of resigned cabinet ministers. In Islamist-controlled Kismayo, key Islamic Courts movement figure 5 Sept rejected new local administration as not sufficiently inclusive of local clans. Further incidents of piracy reported, including 25 Sept seizure of Ukrainian ship carrying 33 tanks.

Somalia

  |  1 Sep 2008

Deteriorated

Violence escalated across country, with southern port Kismayo falling to Islamist insurgents 22 Aug after 3 days of fighting killed at least 100, as political crisis between President Yusuf and PM Nur Adde intensified. 18 Aug deal between Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and faction of opposition Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) established political and security committees, set 30-day ceasefire deadline, 120 days for requested stabilisation force authorisation and deployment, and Ethiopian troop withdrawal. Both sides called for enlarged peacekeeping force as UNSC 19 Aug extended AMISOM mandate by 6 months. ARS said ceasefire dependent on Ethiopian troop withdrawal schedule; Al-Shabaab and Eritrea-based ARS hardliners including Sheikh Aweys rejected agreement. PM, president and parliament speaker 26 Aug signed deal in Addis to mend rift. Ethiopian PM Meles suggested possible policy shift on involvement in Somalia, including potential troop withdrawal; FM criticised TFG divisions. Row sparked by PM’s dismissal of Mogadishu governor and Yusuf ally, Mohammed Dheere, with two thirds of cabinet ministers resigning 1 Aug. Yusuf accused top Ethiopian army chief in Somalia 17 Aug of connections with insurgents. Major clashes between Al-Shabaab and govt, Ethiopian troops in Mogadishu and elsewhere, including 15 Aug Ethiopian attack on 2 minibuses killing 60. 3 aid workers, 1 AU peacekeeper killed through month; 2 foreign journalists, 2 local staff abducted. UNHCR Somalia boss freed 27 Aug after 2 months captivity; Medecins sans Frontières closed clinic in capital. Pirates seized 4 ships, 130 crew in 48 hours 20-21 Aug.

Somalia

  |  1 Aug 2008

Deteriorated

Divisions in Islamist opposition threatening already fragile June peace deal, as hardliner Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys 23 July claimed leadership of Asmara-based opposition Alliance for Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) from moderate Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed; UN envoy Ould-Abdallah dismissed claim. Aweys rejected govt-ARS Djibouti deal for failing to set firm deadline for Ethiopian troop withdrawal, though ARS central committee 19 July endorsed agreement despite missed ceasefire deadline. Aweys said 28 July would not negotiate with Ahmed’s faction, promised to pacify country through Islamic law. Violence continued: Al-Shabaab attacked govt headquarters in Baidoa 7 July, killing 4 soldiers; some 19 killed in end-month Beledweyne clashes. PM Nur Hussein Hassan called for immediate UN troop deployment agreed in June deal, Ould-Abdallah urged ”decisive” UN action 23 July; AU extended AMISOM mandate by 6 months but 23 July said incapable of stabilising situation, Rwanda promised troops by year-end; 1 peacekeeper killed 1 Aug. Humanitarian operations threatened by apparent targeting of aid workers and lack of navy escorts for food shipments. Gunmen shot dead UNDP Somalia head in Mogadishu 5 July; 4 other Somali nationals working for local NGOs, WFP and 3 elders helping distribute food killed in month. Islamists denied targeting aid workers, blamed govt and Ethiopian forces; Aweys 23 July promised protection.

Somalia

  |  1 Jul 2008

Unchanged

Amid continued insecurity, peace deal signed 9 June at UN-backed Djibouti talks, between Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and members of opposition Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) headed by former ICU chairman Sheikh Sharif – cessation of hostilities within 30 days, Ethiopian troop withdrawal within 120 days dependent on UN peacekeeping force deployment. But deal rejected by Islamist groups including Asmara-based opposition and Al-Shabaab militia; Islamist leader Sheikh Aweys 10 June vowed insurgency to continue. Heavy fighting in capital Mogadishu killed some 100 early June; scores killed throughout country – local group recorded over 2,100 deaths in 2008. Peace activist shot dead 22 June, WFP driver 12 June, local BBC journalist 7 June; 10 aid workers reported kidnapped in month, including Mogadishu head of UNHCR, 3 released, some 12 remain missing. UNSC 2 June unanimously adopted resolution authorising states to enter Somali waters to combat piracy. Nigeria reported 800 soldiers available to join beleaguered AU peacekeeping force.

Somalia

  |  1 Jun 2008

Unchanged

UN-backed talks between Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Asmara-based opposition continued 1 June in Djibouti, after indirect talks 12-16 May; SRSG Ould-Abdullah reported progress initial round. Security situation continued to worsen: suspected U.S. airstrikes on south 25 May; fighting, bombings throughout month in, around Mogadishu. 7-10 May clashes killed some 40; over 20 dead following 26-27 May attacks targeting AU forces; 7 civilians killed 26 May. In south, Islamists recaptured Jilib, other towns mid-month; inter-clan fighting killed 23, displaced thousands. Militants sought revenge for al-Shabaab commander death in 1 May U.S. airstrike, targeted foreigners: 2 aid workers kidnapped 21 May, 2 killed on 7, 17 May. Unidentified militia bombed Canada-based oil exploration site in Puntland’s Bossaso port 25 May. UN 22 May report claimed neighbouring countries, some AU forces providing arms; Kampala, Addis rejected. UNSC resolution 15 May requested UNSG report on UN strategy, contingency planning for peacekeeping force; suggested possible sanctions for political spoilers, arms embargo violators. UNSC to meet TFG, opposition, civil society leaders in Djibouti 2 June, part of 9-day Africa mission starting 1 June. Mogadishu airport reportedly mortared 1 June ahead of President Yusuf’s flight to Djibouti. Thousands protested high food prices in Mogadishu 5-6 May; estimated 3.5m will need food aid by end year.

Somalia

  |  1 May 2008

Deteriorated

Over 100 killed in 19 to end Apr clashes: some say fighting in Mogadishu heaviest since 1991; several key towns, districts fell to Islamist militants. U.S. airstrike 1 May reportedly killed al Shabaab commander, Aden Hashi Ayro, believed al-Qaeda boss in Somalia, and some 9 others. 21 reportedly executed by alleged Ethiopian soldiers in capital mosque 19 Apr: 50 children reportedly abducted: Ethiopia denied involvement. Ethiopian forces also accused of 28, 30 Apr retaliatory attacks on civilians in Baidoa, at least 16 killed. 4 teachers – 2 Kenyan, 1 Briton of Somali origin – killed 13 Apr when suspected insurgents took control of Hiraan regional capital Beledweyne. 4 reported killed in southern town Merka in grenade attack on cinema. Further 20 killed in early Apr violence across country. Alliance for Reliberation of Somalia in Asmara agreed 10 May meeting with Transitional Federal Government – first since 2006; called for UN mediation. 8 Apr suicide attack on AU base killed 1 Burundian peacekeeper, 4 civilians. Dramatic rise in piracy including attacks on French yacht, Spanish fishing boat, Dubai-flagged cargo ship, all later released. 2 UN contractors – Kenyan, Briton – kidnapped 1 Apr, still missing; UNHCR vehicle escaped 5 Apr Puntland ambush.

Somalia

  |  1 Apr 2008

Deteriorated

Islamist-led insurgency escalated outside Mogadishu, with hit-and-run attacks on key strategic towns – 11 killed 30 March in Buulo Burte attack, 7 soldiers killed in 26 March Jowhar raid; humanitarian situation continued to deteriorate. In Mogadishu: some 20 killed as Ethiopian troop shelled Bakara market 29 March after presidential compound mortared during President Yusuf meeting with Ethiopian FM Seyoum; 25 March police station attack killed 5. U.S. air strike 3 March against “known al-Qaeda terrorist” in southern town Dobley killed up to 6, prompted hundreds-strong anti-U.S. demonstration there. Unmanned U.S. drone crashed Lower Shabelle 28 March. U.S. formally designated militant al Shabaab and aliases foreign terrorist organisation, said al-Qaeda affiliate, 18 March. Al Shabaab commander said 20 March U.S. designation promotes unity, recruitment. PM Nur Hassan Hussein said 12 March willing to talk to al Shabaab and other opposition, as part of national reconciliation plan to be headed by UN envoy Ould-Abdallah. PM held first official meeting with Hawiye clan elders in Mogadishu 24 March. Rival groups continue to fight over checkpoint control in, around capital; 5 March attack killed 6.

Somalia

  |  1 Mar 2008

Deteriorated

Islamist-led insurgency spread, with attacks reported in Lower Shabelle, Puntland, Hiran, Bay, Bakool and Juba regions. Blast in Bossaso cinema popular with Ethiopian immigrants 5 Feb killed 20; claimed by militant al Shabaab. In Mogadishu, fighting and roadside bombs killed at least 20, while President Yusuf’s compound heavily shelled 16-17 Feb. Targeted assassination of officials continued with up to 10 killed. PM Nur Hassan Hussein said 12 Feb Transitional Federal Government (TFG) ready to start peace talks without preconditions: rejected opposition Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) precondition of withdrawal of Ethiopian troops; said will not travel to Asmara for meetings. UNSC approved 6-month extension of AMISOM mandate 20 Feb, while humanitarian agencies put number in need of urgent aid at 2 million 5 Feb. Médecins Sans Frontières suspended Somalia operations 1 Feb after 28 Jan killing of 3 staff. UNDP Mogadishu offices repeatedly attacked 8 Feb.

Somalia

  |  1 Feb 2008

Deteriorated

Fighting intensified in Mogadishu mid-month while Islamist-led insurgency spread beyond capital. Divisions deepened between al-Shabaab and Asmara-based Alliance for Re-Liberation of Somalia making opposition representation in any future political process more problematic. New PM Nur Hassan Hussein arrived in Mogadishu first time 20 Jan. Mortars fired at his accommodation in president’s house (President Yusuf remained in UK undergoing medical treatment). Hussein’s new 18-member cabinet, down from 31, ratified 10 Jan – 3 ministers yet to be named. Further Burundian soldiers joined Ugandan AU contingent 20 Jan, contribution totalling 850. AU Commission Chair Konaré’s 18 Jan report called for 6-month extension to AMISOM peacekeeping force; criticised states’ failure to honour pledges (some 3,300 of requested 8,000 now deployed); warned anti-government activities spreading to previously peaceful areas. Strategic Assessment Mission on possibilities of deploying UN force and DPKO fact-finding mission continued. Harassment of press continued, several journalists arrested or attacked in capital and Puntland. 3 Médecins Sans Frontières staff killed in Kismayo by roadside bomb, 28 Jan; 2 others also killed in attack.

Somalia

  |  1 Jan 2008

Unchanged

New PM Nur Hassan Hussein dissolved cabinet 16 December, 2 weeks after 5 senior officials resigned in power-sharing row. New cabinet to consist of 18 ministers and 5 deputies, compared with 73 total in previous government. Insecurity continued, particularly in Mogadishu. At least 50 killed in month including 13 December mortar attack on capital’s main market. Mayor’s spokesman and army colonel killed by landmines end-month. Roadside bomb targeted army convoy in Baidoa 15 December. Senior national security ministry official Sheikh Qasin Ibrahim Nur said 80% of country out of government control and unsafe. Ethiopian PM Meles Zenawi accused UN 20 December of exaggerating scale of crisis. Ethiopian troops left key central town of Guriel, 28 December. In semi-autonomous Puntland region gunmen temporarily abducted 2 MSF workers 25 December prompting departure of foreign MSF staff; French journalist held for 8 days, released 24 December. First Burundian soldiers, some 100, finally deployed to join AU force.

Somalia

  |  1 Dec 2007

Deteriorated

Mogadishu violence escalated again: at least 80 reported killed 8-9 November after insurgents dragged bodies of at least 3 Ethiopian soldiers through city streets 8 November. Local rights group put 1-17 November death toll in capital at 314. Ethiopian-backed Somali forces launched offensive after Ethiopian bases attacked 27 November; over 10 killed 30 November. Ethiopian PM Zenawi said 27 November forces unable to withdraw given divisions in Somali government and lack of peacekeepers. Hundreds protested Ethiopian presence 7 November after arrival of reinforcements reported. UNHCR announced 20 November 200,000 fled Mogadishu in previous fortnight: 1 million now displaced countrywide. President Yusuf’s nomination for new PM, Nur Hassan Hussein (Nur Adde), sworn in 24 November, announced willingness to talk with insurgents. Opposition dismissed, stressing Ethiopian presence main issue. Insurgents attacked Ugandan AU peacekeepers 17 November after call by prominent Shabaab commander Aden Hashi ‘Ayro for such attacks. UNSG Ban Ki-moon ruled out UN peacekeeping force 8 November. UNSC called for planning anyway. UNSRSG met President and PM in Baidoa 30 November. Media crackdown continued: Shabelle Radio shut down 12 November; 2 others next day. Mogadishu Mayor Dheere ordered all independent stations off air 20 November: his 26 November decree increased restrictions on journalists.

Somalia

  |  1 Nov 2007

Deteriorated

Violence flared again in Mogadishu at month end with clashes between Ethiopian/Somali troops and Islamist rebels. At least 20 killed, over 30,000 reportedly fled city. PM Ali Geedi resigned 29 October after continued rift with President Abdullahi Yusuf and speculation of imminent vote of no confidence. Yusuf appointed interim successor - Salim Aliyow Ibrow - from Digil-Mirifle clan. Ugandan peacekeepers attacked with mortars while guarding Mogadishu port 24 October, same day 8 died when bus hit landmine; gun battles erupted 16 October. Aid temporarily halted after UN’s WFP head in Mogadishu arrested, then released 23 October. Attacks on journalists increased including assassination of acting head of Radio Shabelle 19 October.

Somalia

  |  1 Oct 2007

Unchanged

Violence continued in Mogadishu as Islamist-dominated opposition held conference in Asmara 6-13 September. Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) formed, with Islamic Courts Union leader, Sheikh Sharif Ahmed, elected chair; though divisions between Islamists and ex-MPs exist. Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki pledged support 14 September. Alliance gave 2-week ultimatum for Ethiopian troops to withdraw and said would target any on Somali soil. In symbol of Arab support, Saudi King Abdullah oversaw 16 September Jeddah signing of accord agreed at August National Reconciliation Conference in Mogadishu between several Somali factions and Transitional Federal Government (TFG) PM Geedi and President Yusuf called for Arab-African UN-monitored force to replace foreign troops supporting TFG. Regular clashes in Mogadishu in month: 7 killed first night of Ramadan, when curfew lifted for first time since June. Government security forces raided independent Radio Shabelle compound 15 September. Unknown assailants killed local employee of UN World Health Organization 11 September in Galgadud, central Somalia. New UN SRSG, Ahmedou Ould Abdallah, appointed 12 September; in first trip to Mogadishu 22 September, called humanitarian and human rights situation “worst on the continent”.

Somalia

  |  1 Sep 2007

Deteriorated

Violence surged, particularly in Mogadishu, despite ongoing National Reconciliation Congress. Talks ended 30 August with 1 delegate, top clan leader, shot dead 18 August. Asmara conference of opposition groups due 1 September postponed. Leader of Islamic Courts Union, Sheikh Aweys, vowed to step up insurgency against Ethiopian troops and Transitional Federal Government (TFG). Deadly attacks in capital near daily: local rights group reported 13 August over 31 killed in 24 hours; police officers and stations repeatedly targeted; at least 3 journalists killed. UN warned 13 August over 600,000 suffering severe malnutrition. UNSC approved 6-month extension of AMISOM mandate 20 August: Uganda promised further 250 troops; reconnaissance mission end month for long-awaited Burundian deployment. AU Chair Konare and French FM Kouchner called for speedy transition to UN force; assessment mission to be sent within 30 days. Inter-clan clashes killed over 30, displaced up to 12,000 in central regions Hiiraan and Galgadud. Rift deepened between Puntland Administration and TFG over oil bill.

Somalia

  |  1 Aug 2007

Unchanged

National Reconciliation Congress began 15 July in Mogadishu. Security worsened there after congress started - UN reported 10,000 fled city. Chairman of Reconciliation Committee invited opposition based in Asmara, but chairman of ICU Sheikh Sharif rejected clan-based process. AU Peace and Security Council extended AMISOM mandate for 6 months; still to be approved by UN. UNSC unanimously adopted resolution 1766 23 July extending mandate of group of experts monitoring flow of arms by 6 months. Group issued report stating Eritrea had sent weapons to the Shabaab insurgents during monitoring period; denied by Eritrea.

Somalia

  |  1 Jul 2007

Deteriorated

Violence escalated across country. Blasts in Mogadishu, Baidoa and widespread attacks targeting Transitional Federal Government (TFG) officials or troops also killed numerous civilians. Government imposed curfew in Mogadishu mid-June in response to escalating violence. 5 killed in Baidoa cinema explosion 15 June. Police opened fire on crowd waiting for food aid in Mogadishu 26 June killing 5. Clan clashes in Kismayo led TFG to threaten military intervention. Burundi promised deployment of peacekeepers in July; pledges by other countries still unfulfilled. UN Security Council stressed need to plan possible UN takeover from AU. Somali National Reconciliation Congress postponed to 15 July. Chairman of Reconciliation Committee contacted remnants of Islamic Courts in Doha and Asmara; positive step in terms of inclusion at Congress. Delay seen as stalling by TFG to avoid loss of power while Islamists refused to participate until Ethiopian troops leave.

Somalia

  |  1 Jun 2007

Unchanged

UN’s chief humanitarian officer, John Holmes, called Somali humanitarian and refugee crisis worst in world. Up to 400,000 displaced by fighting between ousted Islamists and clan militias against Ethiopian troops and Transitional Federal Government forces. Some displaced reportedly returning to Mogadishu. UN food aid temporarily halted after ship attacked by pirates 19 May. PM Ali Mohammed Ghedi escaped unhurt after his convoy targeted by bomb in Mogadishu 17 May. U.S. and AU urged Ethiopia to keep forces in Somalia until full deployment of AU peacekeepers: Ethiopia and Uganda called for full deployment of AMISOM as pledged troops from Burundi, Ghana and Nigeria yet to arrive. 4 Ugandan peacekeepers killed by roadside bomb 16 May marking first targeted attack of peacekeepers. Ethiopian troops killed 5 civilians in aftermath of roadside bomb attack on army convoy in western town of Belet Weyne 30 May. National Reconciliation Congress to begin in Mogadishu 14 June amid concern over independence of organising committee and participant selection.

Somalia

  |  1 May 2007

Deteriorated

Fighting raged in Mogadishu after tentative ceasefire early month. Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopian troops stepped up offensive against Islamist insurgents and Hawiye clan militia 18 April. Violence appeared to level off and PM Ali Mohamed Ghedi claimed victory 26 April, but situation fragile. Some 400 killed in 9 days, up to 400,000 displaced since February. Heavy clashes in southern port town Kismayo 23 April between army troops that splintered into clan militias left up to 25 dead. Deputy PM Hussein Aideed of Hawiye clan in Eritrea with other MPs 19 April: announced alliance opposed to Ethiopia’s presence in Mogadishu, accused troops of genocide. Somali parliament voted 17 April to expel MPs in Asmara. Peace talks between Hawiye clan elders and Ethiopian commanders still pending. National reconciliation congress set 16 April postponed. Still only 1200 Ugandans of 8000 planned AU peacekeepers deployed. Ugandan killed 31 March after mortars hit AU base.

Somalia

  |  1 Apr 2007

Deteriorated

Mogadishu in turmoil as fighting escalated. Over 30 killed in 2 days mid-March and bodies of Ethiopian soldiers dragged through streets. After attempt at truce, fighting erupted again 29 March in what ICRC said was heaviest in Mogadishu in 15 years. Former leader of Council of Somali Islamic Courts Aweys said he considers AU peacekeepers enemies. Ugandan deployment as part of AU AMISOM mission began 6 March - approx. 1500 Ugandan troops now in Mogadishu. Kampala called for deployment of other peacekeeping troops: Nigeria pledged to deploy 850 by mid-April; Ghana, Burundi and Malawi yet to give timeframe. President Yusuf continued to consolidate power of Darod clan, further polarizing Hawiye, particularly Habr Gedir Ayr sub-clan, leading to increased Hawiye support for ongoing insurgency in Mogadishu. Transitional Federal Government (TFG) announced intention 11 March to pacify the city in 30 days through forced disarmament. Yusuf announced broad National Reconciliation Conference to begin 16 April, but doubts persist over whether TFG will include Islamists as necessary to promote lasting unity and reconciliation.

Somalia

  |  1 Mar 2007

Deteriorated

Security situation deteriorated with daily clashes between Transitional Federal Government (TFG)/Ethiopian forces and insurgents. AU agreed 2 February to send peacekeeping troops; UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1744 20 February authorising 6-month AU peacekeeping mission (AMISOM) and calling on UNSG to investigate possible UN mission to follow. Uganda, Nigeria and Burundi pledged to deploy peacekeeping troops March/April: EU, U.S. and UK pledged financial support. Despite promises of withdrawal Ethiopian troops reportedly reinforced positions in much of south-central Somalia. PM Geedi reshuffled cabinet 7 February ahead of National Reconciliation conference to be held in March. Geedi refused to negotiate with leaders of Council of Somali Islamic Courts, 4 of whom, including Sheikh Sharrif Ahmed, have taken refuge in Yemen, though President Yusuf said he would talk to moderate elements.

Somalia

  |  1 Feb 2007

Unchanged

Situation remained unstable after Council of Somali Islamic Courts’ (CSIC) end-December defeat by Ethiopian and Transitional Federal Government (TFG) troops. TFG now faced with task of reconstituting cabinet as genuine government of national unity, including credible leaders from communities that backed CSIC. Ethiopia said its forces began phased withdrawal, but discussions ongoing over proposed 8,000-strong AU peacekeeping force to maintain security with Burundi, Uganda, Ghana, Nigeria and Malawi only pledging half. U.S. launched airstrikes in south 8 and 23 January, targeting “senior al-Qaeda operatives”. Daily violence continued with attacks on Ethiopian and TFG positions in Mogadishu, including presidential palace and airport. PM Ali Mohamed Geedi imposed martial law in areas under TFG control from 30 January, beginning with curfew in southern town of Baidoa. TFG requested Kenya hand over CSIC leader, Sheikh Sharrif Ahmed, who surrendered to Kenyan authorities 21 January. Key warlords signed agreement with TFG to hand in weapons and integrate fighters into army. Parliament voted out Speaker prominent in past efforts to engage CSIC in dialogue.

Somalia

  |  1 Jan 2007

Deteriorated

Full-scale conflict erupted between Council of Somali Islamic Courts’ (CSIC) and Ethiopian-backed Transitional Federal Government (TFG) after CSIC gave Ethiopia 7-day ultimatum 12 December to withdraw troops. Heavy fighting initially reported around southern Daynuunay region 19 December. Islamist advances against TFG/Ethiopian positions around Baidoa met by Ethiopian ground and air offensive. Ethiopia admitted launching “self-defensive measures” against CSIC 24 December. Ethiopian and TFG forces, with heavy artillery and air support, made rapid advance through CSIC-held territory to force Islamist retreat from Mogadishu 28 December after 6 months in control of capital. Order quickly collapsed as rival militias rushed to rearm ahead of TFG return and faction leaders returned to take control of their fiefdoms. CSIC grouped in southern stronghold of Kismaayo before retreating 31 December towards Kenyan border after further clashes with TFG/Ethiopian troops and reportedly after local clan elders withdrew support. CSIC leaders threatened to wage “long war” against Ethiopian presence. Fighting along 400km front left death toll estimated in hundreds; UN estimates 30,000 displaced.

Somalia

  |  1 Dec 2006

Risk Alert Deteriorated

U.S. submitted draft UNSC resolution recommending IGAD peacekeeping force to support Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and monitor compliance with agreements reached in Khartoum, but any deployment without prior agreement by Council of Somali Islamic Courts (CSIC) widely seen as likely to generate full-scale war. CSIC fighters clashed with Ethiopian troops backing TFG in Adale and Qasah-Omane near Baidoa 19/20 November; 6 Ethiopians reported killed. CSIC claimed 30 November ambush killed 20 Ethiopian soldiers. Talks between CSIC and TFG in Khartoum collapsed 1 November, postponed to 16 December. Report by UN Monitoring Group stated 10 countries, including members of IGAD, continued to violate UN arms embargo on Somalia: UNSC unanimously voted for continuation of monitoring group 29 November.

Somalia

  |  1 Nov 2006

Risk Alert Deteriorated

Situation continued to deteriorate as talks between Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) and Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in Khartoum appeared close to collapsing, and fighting between both sides continued in Somalia. UIC delegation said would not negotiate with TFG until Ethiopian troops withdrawn from Somalia; also opposed Kenya’s proposed chairmanship of talks. Risk of full-scale regional conflict involving Ethiopia and Eritrea increased: UN report cited estimates of 6,000-8,000 Ethiopian troops already in Somalia supporting TFG, and 2,000 Eritrean soldiers supporting UIC. UIC reportedly recruited 3,000 Somalis for jihad against Ethiopia and continued to make territorial gains over TFG. Ethiopia denied its troops entered key town of Dinsor end September, but Meles Zenawi admitted “a few hundred” armed military trainers in Somalia and stated countries “technically” at war due to UIC jihad declaration.

Somalia

  |  1 Oct 2006

Unchanged Risk Alert

Progress early in month between Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) largely negated by assassination attempt on president, UIC capture of Kismayo and Ethiopian troop deployment to Baidoa. President Yusuf survived country’s first suicide bombing 18 September, but 12 others killed, including Yusuf’s brother. UIC extended control over southern Somalia by taking Kismayo port 25 September; angry protests against Courts’ burning of Somali flag there led to shooting and death of 3. In response TFG again called for international arms embargo to be lifted to enable it to train security forces to protect its citizens. Hundreds of Ethiopian troops sighted in Baidoa in late September; believed to be in reaction to UIC capture of Kismayo, and part of continued Ethiopian effort to support TFG. Earlier in month, TFG and UIC had pledged commitment to 22 June agreement on mutual recognition, agreed in principle to unify armed groups and not seek help from foreign powers, and committed to work towards power-sharing arrangement at 30 October talks. IGAD proposal to send peacekeepers, strongly opposed by UIC, endorsed by AU 13 September.

Somalia

  |  1 Sep 2006

Risk Alert Deteriorated

Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) further consolidated control over much of south and east, seized coastal towns north of Mogadishu and vowed to eliminate piracy. Transitional Federal Government (TFG), weakened after string of July cabinet resignations, dissolved cabinet in Ethiopian-brokered initiative 7 August and appointed smaller cabinet 2 weeks later. UIC and TFG due to meet in Khartoum for talks 1 September. U.S. and UN called on Ethiopia and Eritrea to end interference in Somalia, threatening sanctions in response to any violation of arms embargo. Ethiopian troop presence reported in Baidoa, Wajid and Galkayo but denied by Addis Ababa. UIC head Aweys rejected IGAD proposals for regional peacekeeping force.

Somalia

  |  1 Aug 2006

Risk Alert Unchanged

Country on brink of civil war, with fears conflict could spread to wider region. Ethiopian troops entered to support transitional federal government (TFG), with Eritrean support of Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) confirmed by Islamists’ leader Aweys and UN; denied by Eritrean President Afwerki. Intensified fighting in Mogadishu early in month killed 140 as UIC routed last of U.S.-backed anti-terrorism alliance. Prospects for power sharing between UIC and TFG deteriorated sharply with talks to bring sides together on hold: UIC refused to participate with Ethiopian troops in country, while TFG accused UIC of breaking June agreement against military expansion. TFG weakened as 19 of 275 MPs resigned 27 July, citing loss of faith in TFG’s commitment to peace negotiations. PM Geedi narrowly survived no-confidence vote 30 July. Pro-government demonstrators rioted 28 July in Baidoa after minister shot by unidentified gunman. UN monitors confirmed arms shipments from Ethiopia and Eritrea arriving in Somalia, after UN Security Council said willing to consider easing arms embargo to enable TFG to respond to security issues 13 July.

Somalia

  |  1 Jul 2006

Risk Alert Unchanged

Islamic Courts militia seized control over Mogadishu 8 June, driving out U.S.-backed Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism; later consolidated control over most of south. Talks in Khartoum between Courts and transitional government led to mutual recognition and de facto ceasefire 22 June. But choice of radical cleric Hassan Dahir Aweys to head new Consultative Council of Islamic Courts may prove explosive and derail further talks. U.S. ruled out direct relations with Aweys and highlighted fears country could become radical Islamist training ground. IGAD and AU pressed ahead with plans for peace support mission over strong objections of Courts militia, while Courts claimed Ethiopian military incursion as Ethiopia consolidated border presence.

Somalia

  |  1 Jun 2006

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Heavy fighting between Islamic Courts militia and U.S.-backed Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism spread throughout Mogadishu, after collapse of temporary ceasefire that ended 7-14 May clashes; over 200 killed in month. Alliance accused Courts of links to al-Qaeda, while Courts accused U.S. of funnelling cash to warlords. PM Geedi gave 3 cabinet ministers (also Alliance members in Mogadishu) until early June to come to Baidoa or face dismissal, while cabinet supported inviting Ugandan and Sudanese peacekeepers to improve security. UN Security Council monitoring group reported weapons inflow from increasing number of states, including Djibouti, Eritrea, Italy and Saudi Arabia; all denied violating embargo.

Items 51 - 100 of 134 First   Previous   Next   Last
 
This page in:
English

CrisisWatch N°135

crisiswatch

CrisisWatch Map

CrisisWatch

View CrisisWatch as an interactive map.