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Libya

  |  1 Nov 2014

Unchanged

Military and political crisis continued despite repeated UN calls for ceasefire: anti-Islamist militia coalition led by Zintan-based groups, rebranded as “tribal army”, attacked western Jebel Nefusa towns allied to Islamist leaning coalition Libya Dawn, at least 21 reported killed. Fighting continued in Benghazi: groups allied to general Khalifa Haftar clashed with Islamist rivals, including 22 reported killed 15 Oct during Haftar’s seizure of Ansar al-Sharia base; at least 130 reported killed across city over following ten days. Tobruk-based internationally recognised parliament, House of Representatives (HoR), 19 Oct formally aligned with Haftar: HoR spokesman Farraj Hasshem described Haftar’s “Operation Dignity” against Islamists as Libyan army operation despite reports most Haftar fighters young tribesmen with no military background, allegations of abuses including summary executions of captive Islamists and their families. UNSG Ban 11 Oct visited Tripoli, urged peace talks; condemned both Haftar and Ansar al-Sharia. Prime minister of Islamist-supported parallel govt in Tripoli, Omar al-Hasi, 21 Oct held first public diplomatic meeting with Turkish envoy. Egyptian airstrikes reportedly struck Islamist forces in Benghazi 15 Oct, Egypt denied involvement; HoR member Tareq al-Garrouchi alleged planes were Egyptian, pilots Libyan.

Libya

  |  1 Oct 2014

Unchanged

Military and political standoffs continued as Islamist-leaning militia coalition continued to clash with anti-Islamist groups, country’s 2 rival legislatures refused to recognise each other’s legitimacy; state institutions in increasing disarray as neither Council of Representatives (CoR) based in Tobruk nor General National Congress (GNC) in Tripoli exert control. More than 100 killed in clashes between supporters of Islamist-leaning Operation Libya Dawn and rivals on outskirts of Tripoli; dozens killed in Benghazi including 9 in clashes between Islamist groups and Khalifa Haftar’s troops 9 Sept; several assassinations by suspected Islamists targeting activists and journalists, including 14 killed 18-20 Sept. Up to 12 reported killed in clashes between militias and police near El Shahara oil field 17 Sept. CoR 4 Sept reportedly signed military agreement with Egypt following alleged Egyptian airstrikes on Islamist positions in Tripoli in Aug; more airstrikes reported mid- to late Sept. CoR 22 Sept approved PM al-Thinni’s new cabinet. Head of GNC-backed administration Omar al-Hassi 15 Sept called for international recognition; GNC mid-month sent emissaries to Chad and Sudan. Rival parliamentary factions 29 Sept held talks under UN auspices in Western town of Ghadames, reportedly agreed to call for ceasefire; Libyan Dawn rejected call, demanded disarmament of rivals; earlier unsuccessful mediation attempts in early-Sept and 17 Sept international conference in Madrid produced no clear plan of action, only agreement not to recognise Tripoli-based govt."

Libya

  |  1 Sep 2014

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Fighting between Islamist leaning Misrata-led militia coalition and anti-Islamist Zintan-led coalition continued in Tripoli, UN attempt to broker ceasefire failed mid-month; Misrata-led forces 23 Aug captured Tripoli’s international airport and Zintanis withdrew from the capital, but armed confrontations likely to continue. Fighting fuelled by instalment of new parliament, Council of Representatives (CoR), in eastern city Tobruk: 158 of 188 newly elected MPs 4 Aug convened for swearing-in ceremony; pro-Misrata factions disputed relocation from Tripoli, claimed transfer of authority to new parliament unconstitutional, CoR biased against Islamist factions; appealed to Supreme Constitutional Court. Former parliament General National Congress (GNC) 25 Aug reconvened in Tripoli, elected Islamist backed Omar al-Hasi PM in challenge to CoR’s authority. Acting PM al-Thinni 28 Aug announced resignation to allow CoR to form new govt. Multiple unidentified air strikes through month targeting Islamist positions; U.S. officials late month said Egypt and UAE responsible, Egypt denied involvement. Fighting between former General Hiftar’s forces and Islamist militants continued in Benghazi. UNSC 27 Aug imposed sanctions on individuals fuelling the fighting, ordered all arms transfers to be approved by UN sanctions committee.

Libya

  |  1 Aug 2014

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Insecurity deepened as clashes between security units, militias left scores dead; fragmentation of newly elected parliament enhanced concerns over govt’s inability to tackle security challenges; first parliamentary session scheduled to take place in Benghazi early Aug, reportedly moved to Tobruk over security concerns. At least 94 reported killed 13-27 July in fighting between Zintan militia and security units affiliated with Islamist-leaning Libya Revolutionaries’ Operation Room (LROR) over control of Tripoli airport. Govt 28 July called for international help to fight oil tanker fires in Tripoli harbour set ablaze by fighting, rival militias 30 July agreed on temporary ceasefire to allow firefighters to try to control blaze. At least 75 reported killed mid- to late July in Benghazi during clashes between different govt forces and militias; Islamists seized control of Special Forces base 28 July in battle killing over 50. Former General Hiftar 31 July denied Islamist claims of complete control over Benghazi; Ansar al-Sharia 30 July declared city an “Islamic emirate”. UN staff 14 July pulled out of country due to increasing violence; U.S., several other embassies evacuated throughout month; UK embassy convoy attacked 26 July on road to Tunisia, no casualties; several countries announced plans to evacuate nationals. Acting PM al-Thinni reportedly prevented from flying to Tobruk by militia controlling Mitiga airport 24 July. FM Abdel Aziz 18 July appealed to UNSC for help in tackling security problem; UNSC statement 23 July stressed need for political solution.

Libya

  |  1 Jul 2014

Unchanged

Supreme Court 9 June ruled PM Ahmed Maiteeq’s appointment illegal; Maiteeq resigned same day; power restored to interim PM al-Thinni despite parts of General National Congress (GNC) opposing him over previous involvement with controversial militia leaders. Ousted PM Zeidan mid-June returned to country after having fled in March, announced plan to challenge dismissal in court. UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) cancelled political dialogue initiative scheduled 18-19 June due to opposition by liberal factions. Parliamentary elections held 25 June: 13 of 200 seats expected to remain unfilled following security challenges and boycotts, low turnout reported. At least 5 killed in election-day clashes between govt forces and militants in Benghazi; gunmen same day killed prominent political activist Salwa Bughaghis in Benghazi. Car bomb detonated in front of Constituent Assembly in Bayda 26 June, 2 injured. Clashes between Ansar al-Sharia and former General Khalifa Hiftar’s forces continued in and around Benghazi: 19 killed, 82 injured 1-2 June; at least 8 killed 15 June; Hiftar injured, 3 killed in assassination attempt 4 June; missiles fired on Benghazi airport, Tobruk military HQ mid-June. Influential cleric Sheikh Sadeq al-Ghariyani 9 June called on Libyans to fight Hiftar and his allies. Senior Ansar al-Sharia member Ahmed Abu Khattala, suspected of involvement in Sept 2012 U.S. embassy attack, captured 15 June by U.S. Special Forces in Benghazi.

Libya

  |  1 Jun 2014

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Libya brought to brink of country-wide military showdown over persistent insecurity and General National Congress (GNC) decision to back Ahmed Maiteeq, widely perceived as backed by Misrata-based Islamist groups, as new PM despite fierce controversy over legality of his 4 May appointment; Maiteeq 25 May obtained disputed GNC vote of confidence. Retired army general Khalifa Hiftar, army units and tribal-backed forces from east 16 May launched military assault including airstrikes against militant Islamist groups in Benghazi; at least 70 killed in fighting; several army units including Benghazi-based Special Forces, Tobruk-based airforce units and Ibrahim Jedran’s Petroleum Guards Force declared support for Hiftar’s operation; Jedran and Hiftar 26 May said did not recognise Maiteeq’s govt; interim PM al-Thinni’s govt also questioned legality of Maiteeq’s appointment. Militia allies 18 May attacked GNC in Tripoli, ordered its suspension; at least 4 killed, dozens injured. Radical Islamist Ansar al-Sharia Benghazi leader al-Zahawi 27 May vowed to battle Hiftar, accused U.S. of supporting him, threatened to bring foreign fighters to Libya. U.S. 28 May issued travel warning, recommended U.S. citizens leave immediately.

Libya

  |  1 May 2014

Unchanged

General National Congress (GNC) remained polarised despite March ouster of PM Zeidan. Interim PM Abdullah al-Thinni 12 April announced resignation after gunmen attacked his home and family. Gunmen 29 April stormed GNC, disrupted selection of new PM; several injured. Constitutional Drafting Assembly (CDA) convened 21 April, but 13 of 60 seats remain unfilled; president, VP and rapporteur for CDA appointed. Govt early April began direct negotiations with federalist movement leader Ibrahim Jedran on oil terminal crisis; Jedran reportedly agreed to lifting closure of 4 oil terminals in 2 stages in exchange for establishment of investigation into oil sector irregularities, disbursement of salaries to militiamen and dropping of criminal charges against them. Hariga and Zeutina ports reopened; reopening of Ras Lanuf and Es Sider terminals conditional on govt implementation of deal. Agreement opposed by some factions within GNC and govt as well as allied armed groups. Abductions continued including Jordan’s ambassador 15 April, Tunisian embassy adviser 17 April. At least 2 killed in suicide bomb targeting army camp in Benghazi 27 April. U.S. Deputy Sec State visited 24 April, promised help to tackle “rising violent extremism”.

Libya

  |  1 Apr 2014

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Crisis over blockade of oil export terminals continued, risking expansion into wider fight between Islamists and non-Islamists, and respective militia allies. Tensions between Tripoli and gunmen loyal to eastern pro-autonomy leader Ibrahim Jedran escalated after Jedran forces loaded crude oil on North Korean-flagged tanker in Sidra terminal 8-10 March in defiance of state authority; U.S. naval forces 16 March took control of tanker near Cyprus, returned it to Libyan govt authority. General National Congress (GNC) president ordered use of force to liberate terminals; clashes ensued in Sirte and Zillah oil field; GNC president 12 March suspended military action and gave 2-week deadline to vacate terminals peacefully or face force; pro-Jedran forces mid-March gathered at Wadi Ahmar in anticipation of further clashes. GNC 11 March passed no-confidence motion ousting PM Zeidan, ending long standoff over Zeidan’s failure to address oil crisis; defence minister Abdallah al-Thinni sworn in as interim PM. At international conference on Libya in Rome 6 March, NATO reaffirmed commitment to help with transition. UNSC 13 March renewed UNSMIL mandate, 19 March mandated international community to seize ships transporting Libyan oil acquired illegally. Bomb exploded at Tripoli airport 22 March.

Libya

  |  1 Mar 2014

Deteriorated

Armed violence and unrest increased across country; UNSMIL 25 Feb expressed “deep concern” over ongoing assassinations, bombings and other attacks. Peaceful protests across country early Feb calling for General National Congress (GNC), whose mandate some argue ended 7 Feb, to disband; at least 8 congressmen resigned in protest at Jan extension of GNC’s mandate. Several armed groups threatened to disband GNC by force: Zintan military council 12 Feb accused GNC of being “new dictatorship”, announced intention to use force if necessary; brigades affiliated with pro-autonomy group in east 18 Feb supported calls to suspend GNC. Retired army commander Khalifa Hiftar, claiming to speak for national army, 18 Feb demanded GNC transfer power to interim presidential body entrusted with emergency legislative powers. Mostly Islamist rival armed groups across country publicly supported GNC. GNC early Feb accepted 8 possible candidates to replace PM Zeidan. 20 Feb polls to elect assembly to draft constitution marred by low turnout, minor violence that halted voting in Derna, Murzuk and Awbari. Assassinations continued across country including air force colonel killed 3 Feb and first post-Qadhafi prosecutor-general killed 8 Feb in Derna; residents of Benghazi protested assassinations, deteriorating security following 26 Feb killing of 2 policemen. Bodies of 7 Egyptian Christians found on beach near Benghazi late Feb; all killed execution-style.

“Libya’s turmoil: little to celebrate”, Economist, 22 Feb. 2014.

Libya

  |  1 Feb 2014

Deteriorated

Political tensions remained high with General National Congress (GNC) still deadlocked over new transition roadmap and motion of no-confidence in PM Zeidan; majority of GNC members favour Zeidan’s removal, but key group refuses to hold no-confidence vote until successor agreed upon. Islamist Justice and Construction party 22 Jan quit Zeidan govt after failing to win support for no-confidence vote. Gunmen 14 Jan opened fire on GNC, demanded Zeidan’s resignation, threatened use of force against cabinet. Popular calls to dismiss GNC by 7 Feb. GNC 30 Jan set 20 Feb as date for election of constitution-drafting panel. Main oil export terminals in east remained closed. Following govt fire on Maltese tanker accused of heading to federalist-controlled al-Sidra port 4 Jan, federalist movement leader Ibrahim Jedran’s self-appointed Barqa (Cyrenaica) Council 6 Jan announced it would ensure safety of any tanker entering “Cyrenaican waters”. Religious authorities 15 Jan issued fatwa to free ports “by all possible means”. Over 86 killed after clashes erupted 9 Jan between Tebu and Awlad Sulayman tribesmen in Sebha and Murzuq, south. Govt 18 Jan ordered deployment of security forces following alleged show of force by Qadhafi loyalists in Sebha. At least 30 killed 13-18 Jan in clashes in Tripoli western suburbs and Aijelat between state security forces and criminal gangs accused of being pro-Qadhafi. Targeted violence continued, extending throughout Libya: UK and New Zealand nationals murdered 2 Jan in Sabratha; gunmen 11 Jan killed deputy industry minister in Sirt; gunmen 15 Jan killed political activist Amr Habil in Derna; deputy PM Sadiq Abdul-Karim survived assassination attempt in Tripoli 29 Jan. 2 Italians kidnapped 18 Jan in Derna; South Korean trade envoy kidnapped in Tripoli 20 Jan, released 23 Jan. Egypt evacuated embassy and Benghazi consulate following 25 Jan kidnap of 5 diplomats and embassy employee; hostages released 26 Jan in exchange for Egyptian release of Sabaann Hadia, prominent Islamist rebel commander, arrested 24 Jan in Alexandria.

Libya

  |  2 Jan 2014

Unchanged

General National Congress (GNC) “roadmap” committee held consultations on length and modality of extension beyond Feb 2014; UNSMIL hosted several closed-door meetings; GNC 23 Dec voted to extend transition one year, set deadline for drafting constitution by Aug 2014. UNSC 19 Dec expressed concern over worsening security, political divisions, called on all parties to end violence and support democratic transition. GNC 4 Dec voted to make Sharia law foundation of national legislation. Militia blockading oil export terminals in east again called for autonomy of region, right to profit from oil exports, refused to end blockade; leader Ibrahim Jedran 15 Dec said he will begin selling oil outside govt channels and redistribute revenues to provinces according to pre-Qadhafi law; Libya Revolutionary Operations Room (LROR) 16 Dec said will liberate terminals by force. Assassination of security force members continued in east: at least 13 soldiers killed 21 Dec in car bomb explosion on checkpoint in Barsis, outside Benghazi. Benghazi military intelligence chief shot dead 21 Dec in Derna; army officer killed 26 Dec in Benghazi.

Libya

  |  1 Dec 2013

Unchanged

Misrata-affiliated armed groups 15 Nov opened fire against peaceful anti-militia demonstrators in Tripoli, killing over 40; public outrage and threat of further demonstrations pressured other armed militias to abandon capital and hand over bases. Army and civilians late Nov clashed with Ansar al-Sharia, armed Islamist group, in Benghazi; at least 9 killed. At least 10 killed in attack on weapons depot in Brak al-Shati 28 Nov. General National Congress (GNC) 12 Nov voted to place Libya Revolutionaries’ Operation Room (LROR), controversial security body accused of kidnapping PM Zeidan in Oct, under command of military Chief of Staff. Assassination of former security officials, especially in Benghazi and Derna, continued. Over 40 killed in explosion 29 Nov when locals tried to steal ammunition from weapons depot near Sabha in south.

Libya

  |  1 Nov 2013

Unchanged

Gunmen 10 Oct kidnapped PM Ali Zeidan for several hours, allegedly in retaliation for Zeidan’s tacit approval of U.S.-led capture of former al-Qaeda operative Abu Anas al-Libi early Oct. Zeidan blamed abduction on 2 congressmen Mohammed al-Kilani and Mustafa al-Triki and Libya Revolutionaries’ Operation Room (LROR), controversial security body with ties to Islamist groups that operates under authority of Libyan Congress (GNC) head. Abdelmonem Essid, member of other state-approved security group, subsequently took responsibility, said group seized Zeidan over drug and corruption allegations. 94 congressmen 27 Oct boycotted GNC to protest obstruction of investigation into Zeidan’s abduction, called for LROR’s dismissal. Russian embassy attacked 3 Oct, 2 killed and diplomatic staff evacuated; car bomb 11 Oct struck Swedish-Finish consulate in Benghazi. Attacks targeting security officials increased: gunmen 5 Oct killed 16 army officers at checkpoint near Tarhouna, SW of Tripoli; at least 10 security officials killed in separate attacks in Benghazi. Muslim cleric Abdulsalam al-Hassi of Benghazi killed 12 Oct. Oil shutdowns in west reduced crude exports to below 10% of capacity late Oct. ICC 12 Oct gave Libya green light to try Qadhafi-era security chief Abdullah Senussi.

Libya

  |  1 Oct 2013

Unchanged

Oil sector disruptions continued: General National Congress’ (GNC) Crisis Committee 16 Sept announced deal to end port blockade reached, but protesters who shut down oil terminals denied any negotiation with state officials. Key pipeline reopened mid-Sept after GNC-led negotiations. Protesters 29 Sept shut down major Wafa gas field along Algeria border; Berber protesters 30 Sept shut off gas pipeline citing marginalisation in new constitution. Political tensions increased with mounting calls for PM Zeidan’s departure; GNC Security Committee member Abdulomonen Alyaser late Sept said IMF raised “red flag” over economy and govt’s direction. SW region Fezzan 26 Sept reportedly declared itself autonomous federal province. Security remained fragile with continued targeted assassinations including 3 security officers killed 29 Sept in Benghazi, and explosions including bombing of Benghazi branch of Foreign Ministry 11 Sept.

Libya

  |  1 Sep 2013

Deteriorated

Oil exports dropped 70% after protests by armed groups protecting ports shut down oil terminals late July; groups involved in the ports’ closure 17 Aug declared Barqa (Cyrenaica) autonomous federal province, attempted black market sale of Libyan oil; govt threatened use of force against group and any oil companies’ vessels trading with them. Insecurity and targeted assassinations continued in Benghazi including killing of reporter Izzedin Qassad 9 Aug and anti-explosive officer Mustafa al-Maghribi 23 Aug. Attack on police station in Sebha, SW, 26 Aug reportedly killed 11. At least 4 killed, several injured 25 Aug in clashes between Wersheffana tribe and residents of Zawiya town near Tripoli; govt late month said “Shield” forces intervened to end clashes following mediation. Ethnic Berbers 13 Aug stormed National Congress calling for greater recognition, PM Zeidan 25 Aug announced launch of national dialogue initiative. Deputy PM Awad Baraasi resigned 3 Aug over “dysfunctional govt”; Interior Minister Mohammed Khalifa al-Sheikh resigned 18 Aug after 3 months in post citing lack of support from PM Zeidan, interference by National Congress members. Prosecutor 27 Aug said Saif Gadhafi trial to begin in Tripoli 19 Sept.

Libya

  |  1 Aug 2013

Unchanged

Tensions between armed groups over lucrative rights to protect petroleum facilities continued to rise in Tripoli following late June clashes. Brigade early July occupied interior ministry, prompting National Forces Alliance coalition to boycott congress sessions. Congress approved electoral law 17 July; Congress deputy president resigned same day, followed by 4 congressmen from minority groups who said law did not include previously agreed “consensus clause”. Hundreds demonstrated in Tripoli 7 July to demand departure of militias, creation of national security services. Attacks in east continued: military chief of Cyrenaica Council Hamed al-Hassi injured in gunman attack in Benghazi 4 July; air force Colonel Fathi al-Omami killed in Derna 15 July; retired air force colonel and senior policeman killed in separate attacks in Benghazi 27 July; bomb attack on Benghazi police station 24 July; activist Abdelsalam al-Mismari assassinated 27 July; over 1,000 inmates fled Benghazi prison after riot 28 July. UAE embassy targeted in rocket attack 25 July. ICC denied govt request to suspend surrender of Saif Qadhafi to The Hague.

Libya

  |  1 Jul 2013

Deteriorated

Violence increased throughout month sparking fears in some quarters of renewed civil conflict. Over 30 killed 8 June during infighting in Benghazi between army and govt-allied Libya Shield unit; army chief of Staff Youssef al-Mangoush resigned following incident. Gunmen 14 June attacked at least 6 security buildings in Benghazi, killed 9 soldiers in Benghazi and Mizda; gunmen 19 June bombed empty National Security Directorate building in Benghazi, opened fire on Border Guard Authority. UK and Italy offered training for 7,000 National Guard members following call from PM Zeidan for increased international support for rebuilding army. Disputes over oil continued: protesters repeatedly halted production, armed groups continue to compete over rights to secure oil terminals; drop in oil production increasing risks of destabilisation. Pro-revolution militia infighting 24-26 June in Tripoli, which began over guarding of an oil facility, left 10 dead and over 100 wounded; Defence Minister Mohammed al-Bargathi resigned. Car bombings in Sebha 25 June killed 2, injured 17.

“Deathtoll from Libyan clashes rises to five, 97 wounded”, Reuters, 27 June 2013.

Libya

  |  1 Jun 2013

Unchanged

General National Congress (GNC) 5 May passed controversial and sweeping “political isolation” law following severe pressure from militias, sparking protests in major cities; law prohibits high-ranking Qadhafi-era officials from political office for decade. Implementation of law expected to result in major cabinet reshuffle, replacement of some 30 GNC members; GNC president and former Qadhafi-era diplomat Mohammed Magharief resigned 28 May. New interior minister Mohammed al-Sheikh took office 30 May following resignation of Ashour Shwayel. 4 killed, 20 injured 13 May in explosion at Benghazi hospital; govt said explosion accident but residents blamed govt for failing to protect city and take action against militias. Govt forces 22 May reportedly arrested armed group in Benghazi, seized 22 anti-tank mines. Militia 26 May reportedly attacked gas complex near Zwara in West. Interior Affairs Minister Omar al-Khadraoui 27 May announced new security plan for foreign embassies following increased threats. ICC 31 May rejected Libya’s admissibility challenge in Saif al-Islam Qadhafi case, said Libya not ready to conduct trial.

Libya

  |  1 May 2013

Unchanged

Car bomb exploded outside French embassy in Tripoli 22 April, injuring 5 and sparking fears of further attacks in capital. Confrontations between govt and armed groups continued: gunmen 1 April stormed Tripoli’s main Jadaida Prison, day after over 100 brigade members stormed Justice Ministry following order to transfer all detention centres staffed by brigades to govt control. Principal advisor to PM Zeidan, abducted 31 March by armed men, released 9 April; National Congress 9 April passed law ciminalising abductions and torture in effort to hold armed groups accountable. Gunmen late April surrounded foreign and justice ministries, attempt to storm interior ministry failed; said will lift blockade when govt adopts Political Isolation Bill banning Qadhafi-era officials from holding govt positions. PM Zeidan 17 April announced plans to create separate “National Guard” manned exclusively by members of revolutionary brigades as part of efforts to integrate armed groups into state security forces. Authorities 13 April said 20 arrested following attack on police compound in Sabha, south. Police convoy ambushed by gunmen in Tripoli suburb 18 April, 1 killed. National Congress 10 April voted to hold national elections for Constituent Assembly.

Libya

  |  1 Apr 2013

Unchanged

Series of violent interventions related to proposed “political exclusion” law barring Qadhafi-era officials from service caused political paralysis, bringing work of General National Congress (GNC) to a temporary standstill. Members of govt-affiliated brigade, purportedly defending war-wounded protestors, 3 March ransacked main GNC hall; armed men supporting political isolation law next day stormed GNC members in makeshift hall, and ordered them to approve bill; lawmakers allowed to leave building after 12-hour siege, but GNC president Magharief’s car shot at. Lawmakers suspended GNC mid-March due to threats. Chair of Human Rights and Civil Society Committee Hassan al-Amin 4 March announced resignation citing death threats. Govt-affiliated militia late Feb rounded up some 50 Egyptian Copts, accused them of proselytizing; further attacks on Copts reported. UNSC 14 March decided to not fully lift arms embargo, expressed concern over arms flowing from Libya into neighboring countries and over thousands of detainees held by militias. Unidentified armed men 30 March reportedly attacked military air base near Sabha, killing 3 soldiers.

Libya

  |  1 Mar 2013

Unchanged

Thousands took to streets 17 Feb to mark 2nd anniversary of revolution. Civil society organisations in Benghazi, supported by some armed groups, 15 Feb protested against govt over perceived failure to fulfil goals of revolution. Leaders of groups seeking autonomy for east cancelled planned 15 Feb protest rally citing feared violence. Congress 6 Feb approved direct election to constitution-drafting committee; committee 14 Feb unveiled draft “political isolation law”, which proposes to bar up to 36 categories of civil servants from senior govt, administrative positions for next 10 years. 4 Christian missionaries arrested in Benghazi for proselytising. FM Abdelaziz called for Western and Arab allies to help secure borders to prevent Islamist rebels influx from Mali. PM Zeidan denied reports Qadhafi-era PM Mahmudi tortured in jail.

Libya

  |  1 Feb 2013

Unchanged

Continued attacks, killings, communal clashes. Italian consul Guido De Sanctis unhurt following 12 Jan gun attack on car. 2 police killed in separate attacks in Benghazi. Islamist leader Ahmed Abu Khattala and National Assembly President Magarief both survived separate assassination attempts. Head of Benghazi criminal investigation unit Abdel-Salam al-Mahdawi kidnapped 2 Jan. 4 killed 8 Jan in clashes between Tebu tribesmen and army in Kufra. Several EU states 24 Jan urged nationals to leave Benghazi due to security threat. Following attack on Algerian gas field, Libya 23 Jan strengthened security at oilfields near Algerian border. PM Zeidan 12 Jan met with Algerian and Tunisian counterparts, agreed to enhance security along common borders. Zueitina oil terminal re-opened mid-Jan following over-2 week closure due to armed protesters. UK PM Cameron visited Tripoli 31 Jan to discuss bilateral relations, pledge help training Libya’s security forces.

Libya

  |  30 Dec 2012

Unchanged

General National Congress (GNC) 16 Dec announced southern provinces under state of emergency and ordered temporary closure of land borders with Chad, Niger, Sudan, Algeria. Ashour Shuail appointed Interior Minister after court 4 Dec cleared him of ties to Qadhafi regime; Mohamed Bargati appointed Defence Minister. 4 killed 16 Dec in one of several attacks on Benghazi police compounds and stations, 4 more killed in 20 Dec attack. 3 killed 15 Dec when security forces clashed with armed men in Bani Walid. Military tribunal 19 Dec suspended inquiry into death of rebel general Abdel Fattah Younes following protests in Tripoli over tribunal’s questioning of former National Transitional Council leader Jalil.

Libya

  |  1 Dec 2012

Unchanged

Newly appointed PM Zeidan and two thirds of cabinet sworn in 14 Nov under heavy security; 5 ministers still missing including interior, defence, religious affairs and foreign relations. 4 killed 4 Nov in inter-militia fighting in Tripoli; 2 killed 10 Nov in Jebel Nafusa in clashes between rival armed groups from Tiji and Kabau. Security official killed in attacks in Benghazi on 4 and 7 Nov. Benghazi security chief Farj Dreisi killed by gunmen 21 Nov. Trial of Qadhafi-era PM al Baghdadi al-Mahoudi, charged with corruption and ordering mass rape, began 12 Nov.

Libya

  |  1 Nov 2012

Unchanged

Govt-affiliated brigade 17-18 Oct launched full-scale attack against former pro-Qadhafi stronghold Bani Walid, including shelling of civilian areas; at least 20 killed, hundreds wounded, thousands displaced; shelling earlier in month killed 3 Bani Walid residents, triggered tensions between Misratans and members of Warfalla tribe in Sebha and Sirte. Town declared “liberated” 24 Oct but militias preventing civilians’ return. Govt security forces continue to come under attack in east: 4 police killed 3 Oct at Souza checkpoint; Benghazi police chief survived assassination attempt 13 Oct. Govt mid-month said Islamist militant leader Abu Khattala suspected of role in Sept attack on U.S. consulate. Political crisis as General National Congress 7 Oct dismissed PM Abu Shaghour for failing to form cabinet; appointed independent Congress member Ali Zeidan new PM 14 Oct; new cabinet approved 31 Oct. Dozens of protesters stormed National Assembly 30 Oct, forced cancellation of vote on coalition govt proposed same day by PM Zeidan. Libya defended right to hold domestic trial of Saif al-Islam Qadhafi at ICC public hearing 9 Oct.

Libya

  |  1 Oct 2012

Unchanged

U.S. ambassador Stevens, 3 others killed in 11 Sept attack on U.S. consulate in Benghazi; some 50 subsequently arrested over attacks; govt 17 Sept fired Benghazi security chiefs, Benghazi police mutinied in protest. Ansar al-Sharia 18 Sept denied responsibility, warned Libya would become “inferno for U.S. troops” if U.S. military retaliated. U.S. 20 Sept said “self-evident” that attack was “terrorist attack” with possibility of al-Qaeda involvement, announced investigation into possible collusion between militants, Libyan personnel guarding facility. Thousands marched in Benghazi 21 Sept in support of democracy, called on govt to disband militias, stormed HQs of Ansar al-Sharia, Rafallah Sehati brigades in Benghazi, resulting in 11 deaths, dozens injured; next day Abu Slim and Ansar al-Sharia of Derna militias withdrew from Derna. Army 23 Sept ordered unauthorised armed groups in and around Tripoli to leave state, vacate seized military premises or be forcefully ejected. Govt 24 Sept placed February 17 brigade and Rafallah al-Sahati militias under army command. Hundreds relinquished weapons in Tripoli, Benghazi 29 Sept following rallies calling for disarmament, disbanding of militias. Heavy anti-aircraft fire by Islamists 14 Sept targeting drones forced govt to temporarily close airspace over Benghazi airport. General National Congress 12 Sept selected Mustafa Abu Shagour as PM; issued 26 Sept ultimatum to Shagour to name new cabinet by 8 Oct. Mauritania extradited to Libya former Qadhafi govt spy chief Abdullah al-Senussi to face charges of crimes against humanity; Niger denied reports it agreed to allow Saadi Qadhafi to leave country; South Africa rejected reports it offered him safe haven. Omran Shaban, rebel who helped in former dictator Qadhafi’s capture and abducted in July, died 24 Sept after alleged torture. Former rebels demanding more recognition from Libya’s new rulers exchanged fire 25 Sept outside General National Congress.

Libya

  |  1 Sep 2012

Unchanged

National Transitional Council (NTC) 8 Aug handed power to newly elected National Assembly; following day Mohammed Magarief chosen as President; National Assembly 29 Aug suspended 3 members for links with former Qadhafi govt. Hardline Islamists bombed, bulldozed Sufi shrines, set fire to mosque library 24-25 Aug; Interior Minister Fawzi Abdel A’al 28 Aug withdrew 26 Aug resignation that followed criticism of security forces, said would not risk armed confrontation with hardline Muslims behind shrine attacks. Month saw series of attacks against security facilities, officers: Benghazi military intelligence offices bombed 1 Aug; car bomb exploded 4 Aug near Tripoli military police offices; 3 car bombs exploded 19 Aug near Interior Ministry, security buildings in Tripoli, killing at least 2; police arrested 32 in connection with bombings; security forces 5 Aug killed 3 bombing suspects. Gunmen 10 Aug killed army general Hadiya Al-Feitouri in Benghazi. ICRC announced suspension of activities in Benghazi, Misrata following 5 Aug grenade, rocket attack on Misrata compound. Egyptian diplomat Abdelhamid Rifai’s car bombed 20 Aug. At least 3 killed in 23 Aug clashes between al-Haly, al-Fawatra tribes near Zlitan.

Libya

  |  1 Aug 2012

Unchanged

National Transitional Council (NTC) 30 July announced 8 August power transfer to newly elected General National Congress. Elections for 200-seat General National Congress took place 7 July; National Forces Alliance led by ex-interim PM Jibril won 39 out of 80 seats reserved for political parties, Muslim Brotherhood gained 17. Month saw pre-election violence by groups seeking more autonomy for East: election material in Benghazi destroyed 1 July; election material storage centre in Ajdabiya attacked 5 July; helicopter carrying election material 6 July struck by anti-aircraft fire near Benghazi killing 1; local militia 5-8 July shut down major oil exporting terminals in El-Sider, Ras Lanuf, Brega. Govt 2 July freed 4-member ICC defence delegation; ICC defence lawyer Melinda Taylor said fair trial for Saif Qadhafi impossible in Libya; Saif 31 July appealed for ICC trial, claimed execution following Libya trial would be murder. Former intelligence chief Buzeid Dorda, currently on trial, 10 July claimed underwent improper interrogation, right to meet privately with lawyer denied. President of Libya Olympic Committee freed 22 July after 1-week detention by gunmen in Tripoli. 7 Iranian Red Crescent staff abducted 31 July by unknown armed group in Benghazi. Khamis Qadhafi reportedly seen 25 July in northern Mali purchasing weapons, recruiting.

Libya

  |  1 Jul 2012

Unchanged

Authorities in Zintan 8 June detained 4-member ICC defence delegation, alleged ICC-appointed defence lawyer transmitted letter harming “national security” during meeting with defendant Saif Qadhafi; ICC president Sang-Hyun Song demanded immediate release, cited diplomatic immunity; Deputy FM Abdel Aziz 6 June requested ICC cooperation, ICC 22 June promised to investigate allegations of wrongdoing upon release after visit by high-level Libyan delegation. ICC Pre-Trial Chamber 1 June postponed request for Saif Qadhafi’s surrender to ICC until decision reached over trial location. At least 105 killed, 500 injured in week-long clashes around Mizdah and Sghegha between Zintani militia, al-Mashasha tribe supportive of Qadhafi; govt 16 June called for immediate ceasefire, sent troops to end fighting. Tarhouna fighters 4 June occupied Tripoli airport demanding release of al-Awfea brigade leader believed detained by NTC; NTC forces retook airport after few hours, up to 40 arrested. Clashes in Kufra after army sent to quell fighting between rival Tebu, Zway tribes, over 60 killed. Convoy carrying UK Ambassador attacked 11 June. Bomb exploded 6 June outside U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi. Red Cross office in Misrata attacked 12 June, 1 wounded. Bomb exploded 26 June outside Tunisian consulate in Tripoli following 24 June extradition of former PM al-Mahmoudi from Tunisia; defence lawyer claimed al-Mahmoudi tortured upon arrival. First trial of senior Qadhafi-era official, former intelligence chief Buzeid Dorda, began 5 June. Supreme Court 14 June annulled recent law criminalising Qadhafi glorification, said law unconstitutional. Election commission head 10 June announced National Assembly elections delayed until 7 July to provide more time for campaigning, printing ballots.

Libya

  |  1 Jun 2012

Unchanged

NTC 2 May passed series of laws prohibiting glorification of former dictator Qadhafi, absolving rebels of crimes committed during rebellion, increasing concerns govt hampering freedom of expression, promoting culture of impunity. Voting registration began 1 May, extended to 21 May;19 June elections postponed, no new date set. Gunmen 8 May occupied office of interim PM al-Keib over pay dispute, killing at least 1. Local forces, rebel militias clashed 10 May in Bani Walid. 16 May clashes between local militias, Tuareg fighters in Ghadames killed at least 7. Mauritanian authorities 21 May announced former Qadhafi intelligence chief al-Senussi to face charges in Mauritania. Tunisian justice ministry announced intention to extradite former PM al-Mahmoudi to Libya.

Libya

  |  1 May 2012

Unchanged

Communal clashes continued in South: PM el-Keib 1 April attempted to resolve protracted fighting in Sebha that has killed at least 150. 6 April fighting between pro-Qadhafi Tuaregs, Zintani militiamen on Algerian border left around 12 dead. Clashes early-month between rival Zuwara, Ragdalein militias following detention by Ragdalein militia of 24 Zuwara militiamen accused of abusing residents. Mid-month clashes between soldiers, tribesmen after army sent to quell fighting in Kufra. Bomb 10 April targeted convoy of UN head of mission Ian Martin in Benghazi. Govt 20 April took over Tripoli international airport from militia. Cabinet 7 April stopped cash payout program to former rebels over corruption. ICC 4 April requested authorities hand over Saif al-Islam Qadhafi; Justice Minister Ashour declined; ICC Prosecutor Moreno-Ocampo 12 April requested judges reject Libyan appeal for additional time, report Libya to UNSC over non-compliance; Moreno-Ocampo 18 April arrived in Tripoli as part of investigation. NTC 25 April issued new law banning parties based on religious principles. Body of former oil minister Shukri Ghanem 30 April found in Danube.

Libya

  |  1 Apr 2012

Unchanged

Emerging eastern federalist movement 6 March announced formation of Congress of the People of Cyrenaica in Benghazi to establish autonomous Eastern province; interim President Jalil proposed decentralised-system of administration, said federalist movement infiltrated by Qadhafi loyalists and foreign powers, threatened to use force against movement if necessary. Anti-federalism protests 9 March drew thousands in Tripoli, Benghazi; pro-federalist rally 17 March attacked by armed men in Benghazi, 1 killed. Fighting between Zuwara militiamen, military police 2 March closed Ras Jdeir border crossing with Tunisia. Fighting between rival militias continued early-month in Kufra reportedly over smuggling tariffs; tribal militias late-month clashed in Sabha, 147 killed. UNHCHR-appointed commission of inquiry report submitted 12 March documented war crimes, crimes against humanity by Qadhafi, opposition forces. Former Qadhafi intelligence chief Abdullah Senussi, wanted by ICC for crimes against humanity, detained in Mauritania; deputy PM Abushagur called for Libyan trial. Muslim Brotherhood 3 March declared formation of new Justice and Development Party.

Libya

  |  1 Mar 2012

Unchanged

Deadly clashes continued throughout Feb between rival tribes in al-Kufra leaving scores killed. In Tripoli: rival militias 1 Feb fought gun battle at barracks; gunmen 6 Feb allegedly killed 5 refugees in camp. Representatives of about 100 militias from western Libya 13 Feb announced formation of federation to prevent infighting, press new govt for further reform. Amnesty International report 16 Feb accused militiamen of broad human rights abuses against suspected Qadhafi loyalists; interim President Abdul Jalil 21 Feb acknowledged transitional govt powerless to control militias. 2 UK journalists detained 22 Feb by militiamen. Head of committee to register former fighters Mustafa al-Saqizly 14 Feb stated more than 100,000 rebels registered; PM El-Keib 18 Feb said govt to give over $1,500 to each family, pay unemployed former rebels. Publishing of electoral law 8 Feb set 40-seat quota for women, 80 seats for previously barred political parties in 200-seat national congress. Misrata 20 Feb became first major town to elect local council. President Abdul Jalil 12 Feb said Saif Al-Islam Qadhafi to be moved to Tripoli prison within 2 months to face trial. Court 22 Feb ruled defendants accused of Qadhafi era crimes should be freed, tried in civilian court. President Abdul Jalil 15 Feb announced plan to let Syria’s opposition National Council open Tripoli office.

Libya

  |  1 Feb 2012

Unchanged

Public discontent with NTC increased further, often due to continued presence of Qadhafi-era officials. NTC Behghazi office stormed 21 Jan by armed protesters, interim President Abdul Jalil attacked. Former Qadhafi insider and current NTC deputy head Abdulhafid Ghogha resigned following attack 19 Jan at university in Benghazi. Turf wars continued throughout month: 4 killed 3 Jan in clash between rival armed groups in Tripoli; at least 2 killed, 36 wounded 14-16 Jan in battle between militias from northwestern Gharyan and al-Asabia towns. NTC supporters 23 Jan forced out of Bani Walid by local uprising. NTC 2 Jan published draft electoral law without regulations for political parties, effectively forcing candidates to run as independents; rejected 14 Jan by 12 moderate Islamist parties. President Abdul Jalil 7 Jan met with Sudanese counterpart, discussed militia disarmament.

Libya

  |  2 Jan 2012

Unchanged

Increasing violent flare-ups between armed militias, amid major anti-govt protests, particularly in East, factional mistrust between regions, and deteriorating economy. Zintani militiamen controlling Tripoli airport 11 Dec attacked convoy led by senior Libyan commander; other isolated and sporadic gun battles across country. Defence minister Juwali 19 Dec said many weeks needed to resolve militia issue, months for proper army; 25 Dec announced scheme to integrate some 50,000 ex-rebels into army, police, security forces. Govt vowed to disarm Tripoli by 31 Dec; deadline for militias to leave city came and went 20 Dec. Following 26 Dec conference of “Union of Thwar in Libya”, purported to represent over 70% of ex-rebels, thwar demanded former rebels comprise 40% of NTC. Increased political turbulence, with lawyers’ protest in Tripoli 7 Dec calling for militias to leave, around 30,000 protesting in Benghazi mid Dec for greater govt transparency, representation of East in NTC, and purge of Qadhafi-era officials. ICC Chief Prosecutor Moreno-Ocampo 15 Dec said Oct killing of Muammar Qadhafi may have been war crime. NTC chair Abd-al-Jalil said Qadhafi son Saadi, granted asylum in Niger, had infiltrated agents into govt. Human Rights Watch reported Saif Al-Islam Qadhafi denied access to lawyer. UNSC lifted sanctions on Central Bank. U.S. Sec Defence Panetta visited mid Dec.

Libya

  |  1 Dec 2011

Unchanged

Muammar Qadhafi son Saif al-Islam captured 19 Nov near Niger border; followed by 20 Nov capture of Qadhafi intelligence chief Abdallah Senoussi. Uncertainty over where his trial for war crimes to take place resolved after ICC prosecutor Moreno-Ocampo 24 Nov announced it would be in Libya. PM Abdurrahim El-Keib 23 Nov announced new govt. UN report 24 Nov stated Libya’s former rebels are holding 7,000 detainees, highlighted reports of war crimes committed by rebels and former govt forces in Sirte; Interior Minister Fawzy Abdul-Ali acknowledged abuses occurred, said new govt trying to eliminate them. Concerns over activities of local militias outside capital; 7 dead in 12-13 Nov clashes between rival factions near Zawiya town. 7 dead in 23 Nov clashes in Bani Walid between govt troops and Qadhafi loyalists.

Libya

  |  1 Nov 2011

Improved

National Transitional Council (NTC) leader Mustafa Abdel Jalil 23 Oct declared liberation of Libya. Former dictator Qadhafi captured by rebel forces 20 Oct, died in custody. Prior to his death, remaining resistance concentrated in parts of central and southern Libya, principally Beni Walid, captured by NTC forces 17 Oct, and Sirte, captured 20 Oct. UNSC 27 Oct unanimously adopted Resolution 2016, ending authorisation of international military action. NATO 31 Oct ended operation, despite 26 Oct call by Jalil for it to stay until year-end. Remaining security concerns over need to demobilise brigades, remaining pro-Qadhafi forces, need for greater coordination among rebel forces. Some positive signs of groundwork for emergence of new National Army with battlefield union of eastern and Misratan brigades, and late Sept agreement between Tripoli Military Council and Misratan Brigades over policing of Tripoli. Political process remained stalled; Jalil 23 Oct said Shariah law would be "basic source" of legislation, laws contradicting Islam would be nullified. NTC 31 Oct announced academic Abdurrahim al-Keib new PM. Following international pressure NTC 24 Oct ordered investigation into death of Qadhafi. Amnesty International 13 Oct reported widespread abuse, torture by NTC forces of captured Qadhafi loyalists; Human Rights Watch reported apparent execution of 53 Qadhafi supporters.

Libya

  |  1 Oct 2011

Unchanged

Month saw heavy fighting between Transitional National Council (TNC) forces and pro-Qaddafi fighters in Bani Walid and Sirte following breakdown in negotiations; TNC 21 Sept seized Qaddafi stronghold of Sabha. ICRC 14 Sept said 13 mass graves discovered containing executed rebels. Convoy carrying heavily-armed pro-Qaddafi forces 2 Sept crossed into Niger, followed by former security chief Mansour Dao 6 Sept; TNC called on Niger to stop giving refuge to fleeing officials. Former PM Baghdadi al-Mahmoudi arrested in Tunisia 21 Sept; TNC requested extradition. TNC PM Mahmoud Jibril 10 Sept arrived in Tripoli for first time since fall of Qaddafi, appealed for unity and forgiveness; TNC head Mustafa Abdul Jalil 13 Sept called on Libyans to reject retribution, said TNC would not accept extremist ideologies. French President Sarkozy 1 Sept announced collective unfreezing of $15bn of Libyan assets during Paris conference; Jalil promised new constitution, elections within 18 months. British PM Cameron and Sarkozy 15 Sept visited Tripoli, met TNC leaders. UNGA 16 Sept accepted TNC credentials, partially lifted sanctions; UNSC 17 Sept adopted Resolution 2009 authorizing deployment of UN support mission to Libya for 3 months. NATO 21 Sept extended Libyan mandate for 90 days. International Organization for Migration 8 Sept said up to 300 black Africans crossing into Niger every day due to systematic targeting by TNC forces on suspicion of fighting for Qaddafi.

Libya

  |  1 Sep 2011

Improved

Month saw breakthrough with rebels gaining control of most of Western Libya, seizing key towns including Zlitan and Zawiya before taking most of Tripoli 21 Aug; 23 Aug stormed Qaddafi Bab al-Azizia compound. Transitional National Council (TNC) 24 Aug reported 400 people killed during battle for capital, amidst reports of mass executions by pro-regime forces. Rebels late-month launched offensive towards remaining regime stronghold of Sirte, Qaddafi’s birthplace. Negotiations between rebels and local loyalist forces ongoing. Amid intense efforts to transfer frozen Libyan assets to TNC, UNSC agreed to unfreeze $1.5bn. UNSG Ban 26 Aug declared UNSC support for rapid deployment of UN mission to Libya. Leaked UN report 29 Aug revealed plans for 200 military observers, 190 UN police; TNC 31 Aug rejected international peacekeepers. TNC 25 Aug began relocating to Tripoli; at least 57 countries including Egypt, Tunisia now recognising TNC. TNC split regarding possible ICC trial of Qaddafi. Qaddafi 24 Aug announced intention to fight until "martyrdom or victory", amid confused claims over fate of his sons. Several members of Qaddafi family granted refuge by Algeria. Qaddafi’s Interior Minister Nassr al-Mabrouk Abdullah 15 Aug fled to Egypt, PM Ali al-Mahmoudi 22 Aug reportedly in Tunisia, amid steady stream of senior defections. Relatives of slain rebel general Abdel Fattah Younes 2 Aug warned they would seek justice if TNC fails to conduct full investigation; TNC 8 Aug announced reshuffle citing procedural errors in handling case.



Libya

  |  1 Aug 2011

Unchanged

Military, diplomatic stalemate continued with minor progress on diplomatic front. Clashes between rebels, pro-Qaddafi forces continued around key towns including Brega, Misrata but little progress made by either side. Rebel forces control 200 km extending from Tunisian border inland; 6 July captured Gualish, 50 km from Tripoli; 28 July launched major western offensive, captured Ghazaya near Tunisian border. Transitional National Council (TNC) 28 July announced rebel military leader Maj. Gen. Adbel Fattah Younes and 2 aides assassinated by pro-Qaddafi forces after being summoned for questioning by TNC; TNC minister Ali Tarhouni 30 July claimed Islamist rebel Obaida Ibn Jarrah Brigade responsible. Rebels 20 July announced capture of pro-Qaddafi General Abdul Nabih Zayid near Zlitan; 31 July clashed with pro-Qaddafi loyalists in Benghazi. Regime shelling of Nalut and NATO airstrikes against Qaddafi forces, installations continued, despite increased pressure for negotiated settlement. TNC Chairman 24 July said Qaddafi may be permitted to remain in Libya as part of any political settlement, later recanted offer; ICC 26 July dismissed suggestion, said Libya obliged to arrest Qaddafi. 32-nation Contact Group on Libya, including U.S., UK 15 July officially recognised TNC as govt, major boost to rebel credibility. Qaddafi FM 21 July said negotiations only possible if rebels surrender, reaffirmed Qaddafi will not step down, but 22 July said talks previous weekend with U.S. in Tunisia “productive”, claimed regime had met with senior rebel leaders 6 times. Following latest round of negotiations UN special envoy Abdul al-Khatib 26 July said sides far from agreement.



Libya

  |  1 Jul 2011

Unchanged

Rebels 26 June began renewed push toward Tripoli amid fierce resistance from Colonel Muammar Qaddafi’s forces: heavy fighting reported around Bir al-Ghanam, 50km SW of capital. Govt 26 June proposed national dialogue, referendum on Qaddafi’s continued leadership; reports 27 June suggested negotiations taking place in Tunisia. Several civilians, rebel fighters killed in NATO airstrikes during month; officials ascribed deaths to targeting errors, weapons malfunctions. Italy and Arab League 22 June called for ceasefire to allow delivery of humanitarian aid, negotiations; NATO same day rejected proposal. ICC 27 June issued arrest warrants for Qaddafi, his son and intelligence chief for killing civilians. French officials 29 June said France had supplied Berber tribesmen with weapons, ammunition in unilateral airdrops early month; AU, Russia strongly condemned actions. China took steps to improve relationship with rebel Transitional National Council (TNC), holding high-level meetings with rebel representatives; Chinese FM 22 June called TNC “important dialogue partner”.

Libya

  |  1 Jun 2011

Unchanged

Stalemate between govt forces and rebels continued despite some rebel gains, escalation of international military action. Rebels 11 May claimed total control of western city Misrata, including port, airport; govt shelling continued mid-late month. NATO airstrikes against govt infrastructure increased; reports said bombing 24-25 May, targeting Muammar Qaddafi’s Tripoli compound, heaviest yet. Russia initially claimed attacks on Tripoli “gross violation” of UNSC civilian protection mandate, later month joined calls for Qaddafi’s departure. Reports late month of several major protests in Tripoli, first since violent suppression of unrest in Feb. U.S., EU continued to develop ties with rebels: EU 22 May opened liaison office in rebel de facto capital Benghazi; U.S. 24 May announced rebel mission to be opened in Washington. South African President Zuma 30 May began mediation visit intended to secure ceasefire; reports suggest little progress by end month. ICC prosecutor 16 May requested arrest warrants for Qaddafi, Saif al-Islam, Abdullah al-Sanousi for crimes against humanity, war crimes; warrants subject to approval by Court’s judges.

Libya

  |  1 May 2011

Deteriorated

Fighting continued between govt forces and rebels, with neither able to strike decisive blow despite continuing international military action against Muammar Qaddafi’s forces. Ground action largely back-and-forth along central coast road, with exception of protracted siege of rebel-held city Misrata by govt troops, where rebels claim over 1,000 killed. UNHCHR 20 Apr said reported use of cluster munitions, targeting of medical facilities by govt forces could be war crimes. AU delegation 11 Apr proposed peace plan, including immediate ceasefire, negotiated transition. Qaddafi reportedly accepted; rebel Transitional National Council refused, ruling out any role for Qaddafi or sons in future govt. UK, France, Italy 19-20 Apr announced military advisory teams would be dispatched to bolster rebels. U.S. 20 Apr said it would provide $25m in “non-lethal” assistance, 21 Apr announced start of Predator drone strikes. U.S. 22 Apr claimed 30-40% of Libyan ground forces destroyed, but confirmed war “moving towards stalemate”. Qaddafi 30 Apr offered ceasefire, negotiations but refused to leave country; rebels, NATO immediately rejected call as disingenuous ploy. Qaddafi’s youngest son, 3 grandchildren reported killed 1 May in NATO airstrike on Tripoli; govt accused NATO of assassination attempt, NATO denied targeting Qaddafi or family.

Libya

  |  1 Apr 2011

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Clashes between rebel movement and security forces escalated into civil war, prompting international military action. Early month counter-offensive by pro-Qaddafi  forces reversed previous rebel gains; govt forces 10-14 March recaptured several key towns, including Ras Lanuf, Zawiya, Brega. Qaddafi’s son Saif al-Islam 10 March pledged to crush rebellion. Following 12 March call for intervention by Arab League, UNSC 17 March approved no-fly zone, authorised use of “all necessary measures” to protect civilians, whilst prohibiting foreign occupation. International coalition led by UK, U.S., France 19 March began missile, air strikes against military installations, aircraft; also targeted govt forces attacking Benghazi and other rebel-held towns. NATO 27 March assumed control of all international military operations. Situation unclear late month with continued heavy fighting following rebel counter-offensive, despite govt ceasefire declaration 18 March. FM Moussa Koussa 30 March arrived in UK, claimed to be defecting from regime; reports suggested other senior figures planned to defect. Reports late month suggested Libyan envoy in UK for discussions with govt. France 10 March recognised Benghazi-based National Libyan Council as legitimate Libyan govt; Council 23 March appointed Abdul Mahmoud Jebril interim PM. UNHCR late month estimated 350,000 refugees had fled. ICC prosecutor 2 March announced probe into events in Libya following Feb UNSC referral.

Libya

  |  1 Mar 2011

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Hundreds feared killed, thousands injured during ongoing violent unrest after demonstrations against Muammar Qadaffi’s 41-year rule began 16 Feb in Benghazi. Tens of thousands protested throughout country over following days, despite govt 17 Feb announcing release of political prisoners, formation of committee to consider reforms. Tensions escalated starting 17 Feb as security forces and mercenaries reportedly attacked protesters; worst violence reported in Benghazi, Tripoli. Qadaffi’s son Saif al Islam 21 Feb warned of civil war as unrest spread to Tripoli; aerial attacks on protesters started same day. Several top officials, high-level diplomats, military officers 22 Feb onward defected. Qadaffi 22 Feb appeared on state television defying calls to quit. Leaders worldwide denounced violence; UNSC 23 Feb strongly condemned crackdown, 27 Feb voted unanimously to impose sanctions, refer Libya to ICC. Late-month reports of full-scale rebellion with large parts of country under opposition control. Self-appointed opposition leaders 26 Feb declared interim govt, National Libyan Council, to be headed by former justice minister Mustafa Abd el-Jalil. UNHCR 27 Feb estimated 100,000 refugees had fled Libya, most to Egypt or Tunisia.

Libya

  |  1 Dec 2008

Unchanged

At least 11 reportedly killed in violent clashes 3-7 Nov in Kufra, southeast, between security forces battling members of Tabu tribe protesting discrimination – regional leaders later disputed scale of violence.

Libya

  |  1 Dec 2007

Unchanged

Al-Qaeda’s second in command, Ayman al-Zawahiri, announced Fighting Islamic Group in Libya joining al-Qaeda; called for holy war against North African leaders and their allies 3 November.

Libya

  |  1 Mar 2006

Unchanged

At least 10 killed in riots outside Italian consulate in Benghazi 17 February after Italian reform minister Roberto Calderoli appeared on television wearing t-shirt depicting Danish newspaper cartoons of Prophet Mohammed. Libyan Interior Minister Nasr al-Mabrouk suspended as investigation launched into police conduct during riots.

Libya

  |  1 Nov 2004

Unchanged

European Union lifted sanctions and eased arms embargo 11 October as part of ongoing improvement in relations. Germany and Italy expressed keenness to set up immigration “holding” camps in Libya. Tripoli hosted summit meeting on Darfur rejecting “international intervention” in Sudan. Libya claimed to have arrested 17 al-Qaeda-linked individuals 11 October.

Libya

  |  1 Oct 2004

Improved

U.S. lifted remaining trade sanctions 20 September and released $1.3 billion frozen assets; EU agreed 22 September to end arms embargo. In first high-level meeting in 25 years U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell met Libyan foreign minister 23 September. Libya claimed deserved seat on UN Security Council.

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