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CrisisWatch Database

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Sudan

  |  1 Oct 2014

Unchanged Resolution Opportunity

Armed opposition Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF), political opposition National Umma Party (NUP), National Dialogue 7+7 Committee 4 Sept signed statement of principles on inclusive national dialogue under auspices of African Union High Level Implementation Panel (AUHIP), breaking months of deadlock. President Bashir, ruling National Congress Party (NCP) welcomed agreement; authorities 3 Sept released Sudanese Congress Party (SCP) Sec Gen Samia Kiir, arrested 11 July; 15 Sept released SCP head Ibrahim El Sheikh, detained since 8 June. National Consensus Forces (NCF) continued to boycott national dialogue; representative Mohamed Hassan Babiker detained in Khartoum 12 Sept. AU Peace and Security Council (AUPSC) 15 Sept praised positive developments, endorsed AUHIP-led meeting of parties and sequenced cessation of hostilities in South Kordofan, Blue Nile and Darfur; urged international community to consider sanctions lift, debt relief, economic support. AUHIP head Mbeki to lead meetings with govt, rebel groups in Oct; but Bashir 27 Sept said NUP leader al-Mahdi to return to Sudan only after rescinding Aug Paris Declaration, 30 Sept rejected SRF participation in talks, ruled out comprehensive solution to conflicts. UNAMID and joint chief mediator for Darfur Mohamed Ibn Chambas to step down, welcomed Mbeki’s leadership in mediation.

Sudan

  |  1 Sep 2014

Unchanged

Political opposition National Umma Party (NUP) and armed opposition Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) 8 Aug signed “Paris Declaration”, pledging to unilateral SRF 2-month ceasefire, efforts to end war, genuine dialogue towards transitional govt and democracy; opposition parties welcomed declaration. Ruling National Congress Party (NCP) 18 Aug rejected declaration; 6 Aug maintained commitment to April 2015 elections. National Dialogue Committee 9 Aug announced framework agreement, 31 Aug announced 6 subcommittees, possible release of political prisoners; talks to convene early Sept; opposition SRF, National consensus Forces (NCF), NUP still boycotting. Govt forces 5-7 Aug raided South Darfur IDP camps; Sudan Liberation Army-Abdelwahid faction (SLA-AW) 13 Aug attacked Jebel Marra govt bases; Rezeigat and Ma’aliya tribes late Aug clashed over land, cattle in East Darfur, UN reported over 300 killed. UNAMID 11 Aug announced launch of investigations into allegations UNAMID covered-up crimes by govt-backed militias in Darfur.

Sudan

  |  1 Aug 2014

Unchanged

National dialogue committee, comprised of govt and opposition parties, 24 July agreed on roadmap for process: talks to start early Aug, to last 1 to 3 months; dialogue still boycotted by National Umma Party (NUP) and Sudanese Congress Party (SCP). Popular Congress Party (PCP) leader al-Turabi 28 July asked for April 2015 elections to be delayed. Media repression increased; armed men 19 July raided offices of Al-Tayar Daily; State Minister for Information Yasir Youssef 17 July said press censorship necessary for political stability. EU 9 July expressed concerns over detention of opposition party members, youth activists, human rights defenders and journalists. Opposition unified as regime toughened: SPLM-N 10 July signed MoA with Sudanese Revolutionary Awakening Council (SRAC), led by Darfur Arab militia chief Musa Hilal; Hamar and Ma’aliya Arab tribes 10 July signed agreement to end fighting in East Darfur and West Kordofan, after clashes over land and oil areas; SRF and opposition delegation 16 July urged EU to support demands for comprehensive political solution and return to democracy. Despite progress, splits in rebel Abdel-Wahid Mohammed al-Nur’s Sudan Liberation Army (SLA-AW); 150 killed and 100 injured in Misseriya Arab intra-tribal clashes in West Kordofan early July. UN 3 July started investigations into allegations of UNAMID mismanagement, misreporting of facts, failure to protect civilians in Darfur; 16 July reported 7mn in need of aid amid nationwide violence and increasing refugee inflows from S Sudan.

Sudan

  |  1 Jul 2014

Unchanged

Sudanese Congress Party (SCP) leader Ibrahim El Sheikh arrested 8 June for accusing govt-affiliated Rapid Support Forces (RSF) of abuses against civilians; opposition National Umma Party (NUP) leader Sadiq al-Mahdi arrested 17 May for similar criticisms, released 15 June. Arrests, coupled with govt crackdown on civil liberties and lack of govt consultation with opposition over electoral law amendment, threaten National Dialogue; Reform Now Party (RNP) 4 June suspended participation; NUP 21 June demanded revisions to process. Fighting continued in S Kordofan, Blue Nile, Darfur: 110 SPLM-N fighters reportedly killed 9 June around Al-Atmur area; RSF 10 June promised continued attacks despite rainy season. U.S. 13 June accused govt of targeting civilians in S Kordofan and Blue Nile; Doctors Without Borders 16 June accused Sudanese Air Force of bombing hospital in Farandalla, S Kordofan. UN OCHA 1 June reported 300,000 new IDPs in Darfur and 85,000 S Sudanese refugees in Sudan since early 2014. Libya early month accused Sudan of supplying weapons to Islamist militias, govt 8 June denied accusations.

Sudan

  |  1 Jun 2014

Unchanged

Opposition National Umma Party (NUP) leader Sadiq al-Mahdi arrested 17 May following accusations newly-formed paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) commited human rights abuses in Darfur and S Kordofan; NUP 17 May suspended participation in National Dialogue. Fighting between govt forces, govt-backed militias and SPLM-N continued in S Kordofan: Sudanese Air Force 1-2 May reportedly bombed catholic hospital in Nuba Mountains, govt 8 May denied accusation; UN OCHA 19 May reported 116,000 displaced in April-May. Clashes continued in Darfur, including around Galab 19 May, El Fasher 20 May; 1 UNAMID peacekeeper killed 24 May, North Darfur. Defence Minister Abdurrahim Mohamed Hussein 23 May said army to launch second wave of “hot summer” operations. Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) late April and SPLM-N SG Arman 18 May urged complete cessation of hostilities.

Sudan

  |  1 May 2014

Unchanged

Opposition divided over Khartoum’s proposed “national dialogue”: Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) and National Consensus Forces (NCF) 8 April demanded genuine national dialogue monitored by independent mechanism; Reform Now Party (RNP), Turabi-led Popular Congress Party (PCP), National Umma Party (NUP), Justice Party and others have agreed to talks. SRF 13 April accused govt of escalating military operations against civilians and armed opposition; NCF 19 April criticised govt decree banning political parties from holding meetings without authorities’ permission, called for transitional govt. Govt talks with SPLM-N resumed 22 April, SPLM-N 28 April agreed to negotiate framework agreement; govt accused them of “wasting time”. Ongoing fighting in S Kordofan: govt 7 April bombed JEM positions in region and in S Sudan’s Unity State. Wave of attacks in Darfur by Rapid Support Forces continued: JEM 1 April accused Khartoum of hiring Arab militias. Foreign Policy investigative report on UNAMID early April highlighted dependency on Khartoum, lack of neutrality, inefficiency; JEM 11 April blamed UN for turning blind eye and “legalizing genocide”; UNSC 3 April demanded better peacekeeping forces with more preventive and pre-emptive posture. Head of UN Population Fund expelled 9 April, accused of interference in internal affairs. Economy continued to deteriorate as EU, Saudi and Egyptian banks withdrew; Qatar 2 April announced $1bn grant as part of previously agreed aid package, 28 April announced $88mn for Darfur.

Sudan

  |  1 Apr 2014

Unchanged

President Bashir 14 March met with Islamist opposition Popular Congress Party (PCP) leader Hassan al-Turabi, agreed to accelerate preparations for national dialogue; National Umma Party (NUP) leader Sadiq al-Mahdi also accepted dialogue. Ruling National Congress Party (NCP) 30 March announced 58 parties agreed to dialogue. National Consensus Forces (NCF) coalition, of which PCP and NUP both part, 15 March issued “Shambat Declaration” rejecting dialogue unless, among other demands, political detainees released, wars in peripheries ended, laws restricting freedoms lifted. AUHIP-mediated talks with SPLM-N remained stalled. Renewed violence in Darfur; UN estimates some 100,000 civilians displaced since early 2014, 26 March said Khartoum had suspended refugee aid program in E Sudan. Following 7 March meeting with head of AU Commission, Darfur rebel groups claimed to have secured AU support for national dialogue to resolve armed conflicts; AU has not confirmed. Economic restrictions imposed 28 Feb by Saudi Arabia, UAE and Bahrain began to take effect.

Sudan

  |  1 Mar 2014

Unchanged

Talks between govt and SPLM-N began 13 Feb under AUHIP auspices but quickly reached stalemate with both parties accusing other of inflexibility; AUHIP head Thabo Mbeki 18 Feb suspended talks for 10 days; govt 25 Feb agreed to draft framework agreement put forward by Mbeki. Some 5,000-6,000 Arab militiamen from S Darfur returned from deployment against SPLM-N in S Kordofan; militia accused of abuses against civilians in neighbouring N Kordofan prompting demonstrations in N Kordofan capital al-Obeid. Govt negotiations with JEM-Bashar on implementation of April 2013 power-sharing deal resumed 26 Feb. National Assembly 13 Feb urged govt to revoke Humanitarian Aid Commission’s (HAC) 1 Feb decision to suspend work of ICRC. UNSC 13 Feb extended sanctions monitoring panel for Sudan for 13 months.

Sudan

  |  1 Feb 2014

Unchanged

Ongoing sporadic protests against fuel and bread shortages; finance minister admitted Central Bank facing shortage of hard currency. President Bashir’s long-awaited speech on political reform 27 Jan failed to set out specific reform plan despite reports that ruling National Congress Party (NCP) had begun discussions with opposition on postponing 2015 elections for 2 years, amending elections law, changing composition of electoral commission. Conflict in Darfur, S Kordofan and Blue Nile continued. Bashir 6 Jan visited Juba, discussed deploying joint force to protect oilfields in S Sudan. S Sudan opposition forces accused Justice and Equality Movement of fighting alongside S Sudan govt in Unity state (see S Sudan).

Sudan

  |  2 Jan 2014

Unchanged

Reshuffled cabinet unveiled 8 Dec; new appointees primarily from army and security services, as well as President Bashir’s Ja’ali tribe; VP Ali Osman Mohammed Taha replaced by Major General Bakri Hassan Saleh from president’s old guard. AU-UN joint chief mediator and UNAMID head Mohammed Ibn Chambas held consultations in Addis Ababa 9-11 Dec; rebels reiterated need for joint approach on Darfur, Blue Nile and S Kordofan. Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) rebels 1 Dec claimed over 100 Sudanese security personnel killed in attack on 3 military convoys in Jebel Abu Domou, near border between N and S Kordofan. Army 21 Dec said 17 areas in S Kordofan retaken from rebels. 2 UNAMID peacekeepers killed 29 Dec in S Darfur. Govt expressed concern over S Sudan violence including impact of oil flow disruption on Sudan economy, welcomed S Sudan President Kiir’s acceptance of IGAD mediation.

Sudan

  |  1 Dec 2013

Unchanged

Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) 7 Nov began tour of Europe, met with French, German and UK representatives to discuss humanitarian situation in rebel-held areas and other issues; EU did not meet with SRF, citing SRF refusal to resume talks based on Doha Document for Peace in Darfur. Govt 19 Nov announced readiness to resume talks with SPLM-N. Govt 12 Nov announced new offensive against SRF in S Kordofan, Darfur and Blue Nile where clashes continue; UNOCHA 24 Nov said some 1,300 displaced since 12 Nov. JEM military leader Fidel Mohammed Rahoma reportedly killed in offensive against army facilities in Abu Zabad 17 Nov. Fighting between Salamat, Misseriya and Ta’aisha tribes along Sudan-Chad-CAR border resumed, over 100 reportedly killed. 2 health workers killed 29 Nov in W Darfur.

Sudan

  |  1 Nov 2013

Unchanged

Protests against govt continued early-month despite use of tear gas to disperse demonstrators; 7 university professors arrested late-Oct in crackdown. Ghazi al-Attabani, former adviser to ruling National Congress Party (NCP) and ex-majority leader in parliament, 26 Oct announced defection from NCP, intention to form new party. President Bashir 28 Oct referred to “reform and change” at opening of new parliamentary session. Bashir 22 Oct met with S Sudan President Kiir in Juba to discuss bilateral issues including Abyei dispute; some concessions but no overall breakthrough. AU High-Level Implementation Panel (AUHIP) mandate extended to Dec 2014 and to whole Horn of Africa. AUHIP-proposed referendum on Abyei slated for Oct unilaterally undertaken by local Ngok Dinka community despite warnings from AU. AU 27 Oct condemned Sudan govt for preventing planned AU visit to Abyei. Govt 31 Oct condemned renewed U.S. sanctions.

Sudan

  |  1 Oct 2013

Deteriorated

Thousands protested throughout country late-Sept against govt decision to remove fuel subsidies, called for fall of regime. Protests turned deadly, with over 200 reportedly killed and some 700 arrested; ruling National Congress Party’s (NCP) HQ in Omduran set on fire 24 Sept. NCP accused opposition parties and Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) of inciting protests. Opposition National Consensus Forces formed umbrella group with professional unions, civil society and youth organisations to oppose crackdown; reformists within ruling NCP, including former presidential adviser Ghazi Salahuddin and former army general Mohammed Ibrahim, also reportedly criticised violent govt action. Khartoum reiterated opposition to AU proposal for Oct Abyei referendum. Newly-appointed U.S. Special Envoy Donald Booth met with Sudanese co-chair of Abyei Oversight Committee, al-Khair al-Fahim; FM Ahmed Ali Karti said Booth not welcome to mediate Abyei dispute, Khartoum would only allow AU mediation. Power struggle between NCP-appointed North Darfur governor Oman Kibir and traditional leader of Mahamid Arab tribe and Janjaweed militia leader Musa Hilal intensified. Military operations against SRF in South Kordofan continued.

Sudan

  |  1 Sep 2013

Unchanged

Following 29 July joint security meeting between Sudan and S Sudan, govts agreed to end support for rebel groups, expressed willingness to solve oil dispute; President Bashir postponed threatened closure of oil pipelines. UNSC 23 Aug expressed concern over “volatile situation” in disputed Abyei region; govt said S Sudan’s threats to unilaterally hold election were breach of cooperation agreements; 25 Aug accused Juba of non-cooperation with AU border commission. Rumours of govt reshuffle continued; meeting between President Bashir and former intelligence chief Salah Gosh early-Aug led to speculation reshuffle will include opponents of ruling National Congress Party. Opposition National Consensus Forces early-Aug called for 3-year transition to resolve “Sudan crisis” through all-inclusive govt including civil and armed opposition, then free and fair elections. Military operations continued in S Kordofan and Blue Nile; army 25 Aug reported Ashambo region in Blue Nile retaken from SPLM-N rebels. UN 23 Aug reported over 190 killed in Aug in clashes between Maalia and Rizeigat tribes in East Darfur.

Sudan

  |  1 Aug 2013

Unchanged

Divisions within ruling National Congress Party (NCP) increased, sparking reports President Bashir planning to tighten grip on power through cabinet reshuffle. Opposition National Consensus Forces (NCF) and armed Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) mid-July announced closer ties; National Umma Party (NUP) leader al-Mahdi early July launched campaign to topple Bashir by peaceful opposition, distancing NUP from NCF-SRF alliance. Bashir mid-July ordered release of former National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS) chief Salah Gosh, imprisoned Nov 2012 on charges of plotting coup. Violence increased in Darfur including attacks on UNAMID peacekeepers 2, 13 July that killed 7. JEM rebels 24 July attacked military convoy and army base near Jebel al-Dayer, N Kordofan, 27 July attacked Delang, S Kordofan. UNSC 30 July renewed UNAMID mandate to Aug 2014, called on rebel groups to end violence, hold peace talks with govt. Clashes between Central Reserve Police and NISS erupted in Nyala 7 July; militia leader and ICC-indictee Ali “Kosheib” wounded. Over 100 reportedly killed 29 July in fighting between Misseriya and Salamat tribes in Un Dukhun, S Darfur. President Bashir 18 July repeated threat to close oil pipeline from S Sudan unless Juba ends support for Sudanese rebels; AU 22 July announced investigation into accusations exchanged by Sudan and S Sudan over fomenting unrest in each other’s territory; govt said would delay oil pipeline shutdown to allow time for investigation.

Sudan

  |  1 Jul 2013

Unchanged

Following his 27 May threat to suspend implementation of Sept 2012 cooperation agreements with S Sudan and shut oil pipeline if Juba continues to support Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) rebels, President Bashir 9 June ordered shutdown of pipeline within 60 days, despite criticism from his National Congress Party (NCP) ranks. S Sudan VP Machar 30 June visited Khartoum, met with Bashir to discuss dispute. Khartoum and Juba continued to accuse each other of failing to withdraw troops from Demilitarised Border Zone; AUHIP requested AU dispatch team to investigate accusations. Officials accused JEM of sabotaging Abyei pipeline on 12 June; JEM denied responsibility. 1 UN peacekeeper killed 14 June when logistics base in Kadugli shelled by rebels. Over 40 killed 26 June in clash between Bani Hussein and Rizeigat tribes in El Sireaf, Darfur. Opposition National Consensus Forces (NCF) 10 June launched 100-day campaign to unseat Bashir and NCP; govt crackdown on media, students followed.

Sudan

  |  1 Jun 2013

Unchanged

UN humanitarian chief Amos 22 May said some 300,000 people fled homes in Darfur since beginning of year due to upsurge in fighting. Rebel JEM-Bashar splinter group leaders Mohammed Bashar and Arku Tugod Dahiya killed 12 May in clash with JEM in Bahay area of Chad/Sudan border, reportedly on Chadian side; Chadian troops reportedly pursued JEM attackers into Darfur. Over 60 killed in renewed tribal clashes in S Darfur. UNOCHA report 19 May expressed concern over ongoing civilian displacement in S Kordofan, lack of aid access. Fighting erupted 27 May between govt forces and Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) rebels near regional capital Kadugli; SRF 31 May said rebel attack on Abu Karshola, S Kordofan, killed 30 govt soldiers and shot down govt jet; govt said plane crashed due to technical fault. President Bashir 27 May threatened to close oil pipeline from S Sudan to Port Sudan if Juba continues to support Sudan rebels.

Sudan

  |  1 May 2013

Unchanged

Talks with South Sudan 23-25 April resulted in agreement to open or reopen 10 border corridors (see S Sudan). Govt talks with SPLM-N rebels began 24 April, broke down 26 April as parties unable to agree “declaration of common intent” presented by AU. Rebels 27 April took town of Umm Ruwaba, N Kordofan; govt swiftly retook town, 29 April called on SPLM-N to stop attacks, return to talks. Increased insecurity in Darfur: govt signed peace deal with JEM splinter faction led by Mohammed Bashar 6 April; fighting erupted between JEM and Bashar’s splinter faction 20 April killing JEM-Bashar commander Saleh Mohammed Jerbo, indicted by ICC for war crimes. Central Reserve Police paramilitaries in West Darfur reportedly mutinied 21 April. Govt forces clashed with SLA-Minni Minawi (SLA-MM) in east Darfur early April; 7 soldiers captured by SLA-MM released 21 April. UNAMID peacekeeper killed 17 April in southern Darfur by suspected pro-govt militiaman, govt denied link. President Bashir 1 April agreed to free political prisoners; Human Rights Watch 23 April said though 24 released, over 100 remain detained. Court 25 April sentenced 6 intelligence officers up to 8 years’ prison for role in 2012 coup attempt.

Sudan

  |  1 Apr 2013

Unchanged

Opposition figures and rebel groups early March welcomed security agreement between Sudan and S Sudan (see S Sudan). Defence Minister Hussein 20 March offered to hold direct talks with SPLM-N; SPLM-N reiterated need for negotiations to be based on UNSC resolution 2046, accused govt of aiming to isolate S Kordofan and Blue Nile states but did not refuse direct negotiations. VP Taha 26 March invited rebels to help draft new constitution. Following rumours of talks on national dialogue, Communist Party of Sudan (CPS) said would not negotiate with NCP so long as “oppressive policies, narrowing of political space and adoption of military solutions to problems facing Sudan” continue. President Bashir 20 March said he will not run for presidency in 2015 elections. Popular discontent continued: dozens protested 5 March in Khartoum over closure of hospitals; Darfur student association 15 March issued statement condemning targeting by security forces following early-March attack by NCP students. Thousands protested 19 March against “rigged” state governor elections; security forces forcibly dispersed protestors, injuring dozens.

Sudan

  |  1 Mar 2013

Unchanged

Some 60 killed, 83 wounded in renewed tribal clashes over control of gold mines in north Darfur. SLM-Juba Unity rebels 25 Feb claimed 17 soldiers killed in clashes in North Darfur. Thousands mid-month fled clashes between Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and Sudan Revolutionary Front rebels in S Darfur. SPLM-N clashes with armed forces in Blue Nile continued: SAF 18 Feb claimed Mufu area seized, 66 rebels killed; SPLM-N disputed claims, said rebels still held area and 86 SAF killed; fighting in Kurmuk city ongoing. SAF 3 and 10 Feb bombed SPLA positions in Bebnis, unofficially contested area. Oil Minister Awad al-Jaz 24 Feb visited Tehran to discuss Iranian investment. Armed forces denied SRF rebel claims army harbouring Malian militants. Govt 10 Feb signed another ceasefire agreement with JEM splinter faction.

Sudan

  |  1 Feb 2013

Unchanged

Opposition alliance National Consensus Forces (NCF) and rebel Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) 5 Jan signed “New Dawn” charter stating aim to topple govt; Umma National Party (UNP) leader Sadiq Al-Mahdi 26 Jan said agreement “full of mistakes”, called for regime reform. Army 12 Jan reported over 50 rebels killed in clashes, S Kordofan. Amnesty International 30 Jan accused security forces of involvement in early-Jan fighting near Darfur goldmine that killed approx 200 and displaced some 100,000. Talks with S Sudan continued throughout month (see S Sudan). President Bashir 25 Jan announced Sudan had dropped demand for financial compensation over oil confiscated by S Sudan, said govt will not invite international arbitration in dispute. UK late Jan reportedly agreed to drop Sudan’s debts on condition govt address internal conflicts. Foreign ministry 31 Jan confirmed loss of UN voting rights for failure to pay fees.

Sudan

  |  30 Dec 2012

Unchanged

Govt 18 Dec announced breakthrough in security talks with S Sudan despite top S Sudan negotiator saying talks “deadlocked”. AU mediator Thabo Mbeki said leaders agreed to take immediate steps on border security but implementation remains unclear; next round of talks scheduled for Jan 2013. AU 14 Dec did not refer situation in Abyei to UNSC despite Oct threat to do so. Amnesty International called for end to violent govt repression of student protests following death of 4 Darfuri students arrested with 49 others during student sit-in at Al-Gazira University in Madani town, south of Khartoum. Police violently dispersed protests following deaths, scores arrested. Opposition National Consensus Forces (NCF) coalition leader Farouq Abu Issa detained 13-15 Dec following participation in forum protesting killing of students. Sudanese Armed Forces 11 Dec launched unsuccessful assault on SPLM-N in Deldoko and Rusires, S Kordofan. SPLM-N rebels 20 Dec said they shot down combat jet near El-Obeid, capital of North Kordofan state; Khartoum claimed it was a crash due to technical failure. Darfur SRF troops led by Abdel Wahid 28 Dec claimed capture of 2 garrison towns in West Jebel Marra.

Sudan

  |  1 Dec 2012

Unchanged

National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS) 22 Nov announced it had foiled “sabotage plot” by former chief Salah Abdallah Gosh and other senior security and army officers as well as civilians, said 13 arrested. Islamist groups said detained number higher, called for release. 3 newspapers prevented from reporting “plot”. Sudanese Islamic Movement (SIM) 15-17 Nov held 8th conference in Khartoum, adopted new constitution establishing High Command under President Bashir’s leadership, new Shura Council; several Islamist factions expressed dissatisfaction with perceived Bashir takeover. SPLM-N, National Umma Party (NUP) and Popular Congress Party (PCP) 14 Nov signed agreement on coordinated opposition, transition from Bashir rule. Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) stepped up military operations in Darfur, attacking SAF military convoy 9 Nov. SLA-MM 17 Nov said it bombarded al-Fashir, capital of North Darfur. Talks on S Kordofan, Blue Nile remain stalled. Around 100 Misseriya demonstrated in Khartoum 28 Nov against AU Abyei referendum proposal; govt 30 Nov called for AU involvement in referendum.

Sudan

  |  1 Nov 2012

Unchanged

Military factory in Khartoum reportedly bombed by Israeli aircraft 24 Oct, 2 killed; govt blamed Israel, threatened referral to UNSC, said reserved “right to react”; Iranian warships reportedly docked at Port Sudan 29 Oct. UN human rights chief Pillay called for investigation into 17 Oct attack on convoy that killed UN peacekeeper, 2 Oct killing of 4 UN peacekeepers in W Darfur. Renewed rebel clashes with govt troops in Darfur left several dead in Abu Dalig mid-month; govt and splinter JEM rebels 22 Oct agreed to immediate ceasefire, peace negotiations following series of meetings 17-22 Oct; JEM, Sudan Liberation Army rebels 27 Oct reportedly attacked El Fasher, North Darfur state capital and govt stronghold. Govt 24 Oct expressed concern over security arrangements, timeframe of Tripartite Initiative to deliver humanitarian air to S Kordofan, Blue Nile states. SPLM-N reported bombing of S Kordofan villages by Sudan Armed Forces 30 Oct. U.S. 31 Oct accused SPLM-N rebels of recruiting child soldiers from S Sudan refugee camps. Fighting continued in S Kordofan, including SPLM-N attacks on Kadugli garrison and town. Govt 10 Oct expelled Norwegian diplomat following 9 Oct expulsion from Oslo of Sudanese diplomat who reportedly spied on Sudanese refugees.

Sudan

  |  1 Oct 2012

Unchanged

Govt 27 Sept signed deal on oil, demilitarised zone with S Sudan (see S Sudan). UNSC President Peter Wittig 6 Sept expressed concern over humanitarian crisis in S Kordofan, Blue Nile; S Kordofan governor 11 Sept accused UN, AU, Arab League of obstructing implementation of 4 Aug tripartite agreement on humanitarian aid; U.S. Ambassador to UN Rice 7 Sept sharply criticised govt reaction to humanitarian crisis, rejection of AU High Implementation Panel Nov 2011 roadmap, threatened sanctions for non-compliance. U.S. mid-Sept evacuated non-essential staff following govt refusal to allow deployment of U.S. special forces to secure Khartoum embassy in face of violent protests over anti-Islam film; at least 2 killed when protesters clashed with police, attacked German, U.S. embassies. Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) continued to clash with SPLM-N rebels in S Kordofan, JEM rebels in Darfur, scores reported killed.

Sudan

  |  1 Sep 2012

Unchanged

Govt early Aug agreed to oil transportation fee deal (see S Sudan). SPLM-N 4 Aug agreed AU, Arab League, UN humanitarian access to civilians in Southern Kordofan, Blue Nile; access dependent on Khartoum’s consent. Security forces 1 Aug violently dispersed gathering of opposition Democratic Alliance lawyers in Khartoum, several arrested; National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS) 16 Aug said all detainees released, opposition Popular Congress Party figure said only some 20 of 70 released, other opposition parties said some members still detained by NISS. Violence rose in Darfur: govt aerial assaults continued throughout month; UNAMID soldier killed 12 Aug South Darfur; armed group 13 Aug attacked Transitional Darfur Regional Authority HQ in al-Fasher, temporarily took regional minister, other officials hostage; armed men 14 Aug attacked govt forces in Nyala. Clashes between SRF and SAF continued in North and Southern Kordofan, Blue Nile, centred around Al-Mouraib, SE Southern Kordofan.

Sudan

  |  1 Aug 2012

Unchanged

Anti-govt protests that began in June over continuing financial crisis, govt abuses significantly reduced this month following govt crackdown on opposition. Opposition groups 4 July signed pact calling for overthrow of President Bashir’s NCP regime; police 6 July tear-gassed worshippers leaving mosque to protest, 8 July tear-gassed protesters in Khartoum; over 100 journalists 18 July protested media censorship, intimidation in Khartoum. Court 25 July charged 2 protesters with membership of organisation that incites violence against regime following 4 July arrests in Khartoum. Negotiations with S Sudan failed: President al-Bashir refused to meet with his counterpart, Salva Kiir, in Addis Abeba, following invitation from AUHIP to bridge gap over outstanding issues before 2 Aug deadline. UN 31 July extended UNAMID mandate to July 2013. At least 8 reportedly killed, over 50 injured when anti-govt protesters clashed with police 31 July in Nyala, Darfur. Darfur Regional Authority late month called for improved security measures to protect IDPs following surge in violence; army 24 July said wounded Darfur rebels receiving medical treatment in S Sudan following clash with JEM. 6 killed 28 July in tribal clashes, S Darfur. AU 28 July suspended govt-SPLM-N talks over humanitarian access to Blue Nile, S Kordofan; govt said SPLM obstructing negotiations. SPLM-N 30 July said 3 civilians killed, 21 wounded in aerial bombing, Blue Nile.

Sudan

  |  1 Jul 2012

Unchanged

Anti-govt protests sparked by austerity measures erupted 16 June, continuing in Khartoum, other main cities; police forcibly dispersed demonstrators, President Bashir said violence attributable to “a few agitators”. Opposition parties 26 June failed to agree on common political platform, constitutional framework. Clashes between Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and SPLM-N rebels in South Kordofan, Blue Nile states continued throughout month, thousands displaced; govt 27 June agreed to UN humanitarian assistance to civilians in SPLM-N held areas. Opposition Popular Congress Party senior member Ibrahim al-Sonosi released from prison 11 June after 5-month detention. SAF 2 June said 45 JEM rebels killed in east Darfur; JEM said army compound seized. Khartoum 2 June said police forces pulled out from Abyei, removing obstacle to S Sudan talks; talks 4, 21 June failed after negotiators disagreed on delimitation of Safe Demilitarised Border Zone.

Sudan

  |  1 Jun 2012

Unchanged

Govt 27 May filed complaint at UNSC accusing S Sudan of cross-border incursions. S Sudan 22 May accused Khartoum of conducting air strikes against S Sudan 21-22 May in contravention of UNSC resolution, ceasefire. UNSG Ban 30 May welcomed late May withdrawal from Abyei, called for withdrawal of remaining armed police forces. President Bashir 15 May said S Sudan oil exports through Sudan will not be allowed unless disputes over border security resolved. 4 UN de-miners detained late April in Helgig region by SAF released 20 May. 1 killed 22 May in explosion, Port Sudan.

Sudan

  |  1 May 2012

Deteriorated

Tensions with S Sudan continued: in blow to economy, SPLA 10 April took over Helgig oil fields, 12 April shut down production, 20 April ordered pull-out; late April denied damaging Helgig oil infrastructure. Govt agencies ordered to cut petrol use, civil servants to donate 2 days pay to support army. Khartoum 30 April declared state of emergency in border regions. AU 24 April gave Sudan, S Sudan 3 months to reach deal, end fighting, or face “appropriate measures”; UNSC called for halt to airstrikes. Khartoum 2 April reopened negotiations with Juba in Addis Ababa, 3 April failed to sign security deal despite reaching understandings on cessation of hostilities and campaigns. Military operations in South Kordofan and Blue Nile escalated throughout month, prompting Khartoum to again accuse Juba of providing support to rebels; Small Arms Survey report published 17 April suggested close ties between Juba and SPLM-N. 4 UN peacekeepers injured in ambush 21 April, Darfur. SAF 22 April reported over 50 SPLM-N killed, 17 arrested in Blue Nile, refuted SPLM-N claims 79 SAF soldiers killed.

Sudan

  |  1 Apr 2012

Deteriorated

Fears of war with S Sudan increased as President Bashir 26 March suspended planned 3 April talks with S Sudan following clashes along border (see S Sudan); security officials 30 March met with AU mediator Mbeki to discuss crisis; govt 13 March had reached agreement with Juba on nationality, border demarcation process (see S Sudan). Former UN official Mukesh Kapila early-March warned of Khartoum’s “scorched earth policy”, humanitarian disaster in Nuba Mountains, said govt committing crimes against humanity, war crimes, called for humanitarian access. 5 reportedly killed by police, 21 injured during popular unrest 27-30 March in Kabkabiya, Darfur. President Bashir 16 March defended crackdown on press freedom, said closed newspapers had insulted army, endangered national security.

Sudan

  |  1 Mar 2012

Unchanged

President Bashir 3 Feb said tensions with S Sudan over oil could lead to war; mid-Feb AU mediated talks collapsed, further talks scheduled for 24 Feb delayed to 6 March. UN, Arab League (AL) and AU early Feb submitted joint proposal for humanitarian access in S Kordofan and Blue Nile states to Khartoum; UNSC 14 Feb called upon govt to allow immediate humanitarian access, urged renewed talks between SPLM-N and govt. SPLM-N 26 Feb announced capture of disputed state of Jau from Sudan Armed Forces (SAF), 150 SAF soldiers killed; Khartoum alleged SPLA involvement, threatened retaliation. SPLM-N rebels 7 Feb released 29 Chinese workers kidnapped Jan in S Kordofan. Rebel alliance Sudanese Revolutionary Front 20 Feb elected SPLM-N leader Malik Agar as alliance president. UNSC 17 Feb extended mandate of Panel of Experts tasked with monitoring sanctions for another year citing continued violence, individuals impeding Darfur peace process; 1 peacekeeper killed, 3 injured 29 Feb in ambush by gunmen, Darfur. President Bashir 8 Feb formally launched Darfur Regional Authority. Police 17 Feb raided University of Khartoum dormitories, arrested hundreds of students, reportedly charged with inciting unrest.

Sudan

  |  1 Feb 2012

Deteriorated

Govt 15 Jan said S Sudan oil confiscated to meet unpaid transit fees, 29 Jan said impounded oil released (see S Sudan). AU panel 24 Jan put forward new proposal including financial compensations to solve ongoing oil dispute; direct talks with S Sudan on sidelines of AU summit and talks at IGAD extraordinary session failed to secure progress. 20 JEM rebel leaders 11 Jan defected, announced intention to join Doha peace agreement. President Bashir 10 Jan appointed governors to 5 Darfur states, including 2 new states, in accordance with peace agreement. UNAMID 11 Jan accused Khartoum of restricting Darfur peacekeeper movement; 1 peacekeeper killed, 2 wounded 21 Jan in ambush, south Darfur. U.S. 6 Jan decision to lift restrictions on defence sales to S Sudan perceived as threat by Khartoum. Senior ruling National Congress Party official 22 Jan criticised security forces for 14 Jan closure of Al-Wan newspaper after it published positive article on Khalil Ibrahim, former JEM leader. SPLM-N said strategic govt post taken in South Kordofan in 15 Jan clash; 28 Jan kidnapped 29 Chinese workers.

Sudan

  |  2 Jan 2012

Deteriorated

Rebel JEM escalated military operations in N Kordofan; stalled by 23 Dec killing of leader Khalil Ibrahim in pinpoint airstrike, raising suspicion of foreign involvement. Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) 3 Dec claimed strategic victory against rebels in S Kordofan, said supply route and SPLA camps near lake Jau captured after clashes near Jau town. AU mediators 20 Dec announced 2 states will resume oil talks Jan. Govt 17 Dec criticised UNSG Ban call for withdrawal of SAF from Abyei, said region belongs to north; UNSC 23 Dec extended UNISFA mandate in Abyei for 5 months. Govt 29 Dec said 350 JEM combatants 28 Dec crossed into S Sudan in armed vehicles, carrying stolen goods, cash, abducted civilians; Khartoum plans to file complaint with UNSC, AU. UNDP 8 Dec said tensions in east renewed, fighters from Beja ethnic group gathered on Eritrean side of border. New inclusive govt announced 7 Dec after 4 months of consultation with opposition. Security services 19 Dec arrested leading opposition Popular Congress Party (PCP) member Ibrahim al-Sanousi after PCP called for popular revolt.

Sudan

  |  1 Dec 2011

Deteriorated

Increased tension with S Sudan after SAF airstrikes in Upper Nile State and on Yida refugee camp, Unity State (see South Sudan); govt denies. Defence Minister Hussein 13 Nov claimed SAF seized heavy armoury belonging to S Sudan during clashes with SPLM-N in Blue Nile, S Kordofan; accused S Sudan of attempting to destabilise country. Govt 5 Nov lodged complaint with UNSC detailing alleged S Sudan support for rebels in S Kordofan, Blue Nile. Rebel JEM 23 Nov denied reports that S Sudan aiding leader Khalil Ibrahim. Talks between Khartoum and Juba reconvened 25 Nov; failed to reach agreement on critical issues of oil and financial arrangements. Petroleum Minister Ali Ahmed Osman 28 Nov announced S Sudan oil exports blocked until transit fee agreed; Foreign Ministry 29 Nov denied decision, following criticism by China. Clashes between SAF and rebels continued in S Kordofan, Blue Nile; SAF 3 Nov captured rebel stronghold Kurmuk, 22 Nov announced capture of Deim Mansour, Blue Nile.  Amnesty International 12 Nov accused govt of arresting over 100 opposition activists, torturing many. Attack on Darfur peacekeepers near Nyala 8 Nov killed 1, wounded 2. Khartoum expelled Kenyan ambassador 29 Nov amid diplomatic row (see Kenya). Request to join EAC rejected 30 Nov due to objections over lack of democracy, women’s rights.

Sudan

  |  1 Nov 2011

Unchanged

Govt 6 Oct pledged to withdraw troops from contested Abyei region following full deployment of UN peacekeepers; 31 Oct rejected 30 Oct offer by S Sudan proposing discounted oil, cash in exchange for control of Abyei. Malik Agar, chairman of SPLM-N, 10 Oct said aerial bombardment by govt forces had killed 74 civilians, wounded over 100 in Blue Nile state since clashes began 2 Sept. Govt 21 Oct announced Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) had captured Sali, strategic town in Blue Nile state; SPLM-N denied. Govt 27 Oct claimed SAF closing in on SPLM-N stronghold of al-Kurmuk in Blue Nile. President Bashir 12 Oct said Sudan will continue with plans to adopt Islamic constitution, strengthen Islamic law; 26 Oct said Sudan had armed Libyan rebels. Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) 17 Oct threatened new offensive if demand for renegotiation of Doha agreement rejected; Democratic Unionist Party-Mainstream 18 Oct declared support for agreement. Amin Hassan Omer, tasked with implementation of Doha agreement, 21 Oct said non-signatory rebels could join if demands to renegotiate abandoned.

Sudan

  |  1 Oct 2011

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Fears of intensification of fighting in Blue Nile, Southern Kordofan between Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLMN) following massive SAF troop, heavy weaponry deployment in area. Reports that militarised elements from Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) joined insurgency in Blue Nile. President Bashir 2 Sept declared state of emergency, sacked elected SPLM-N Governor Malik Agar; UN 14 Sept estimated 100,000 displaced by unrest, said govt denying aid agencies access. In S Kordofan, SAF continued aerial bombardments of Nuba Mountains. In Abyei, AU 9 Sept brokered Sudan-South Sudan deal to ease border tensions, redeploy troops. Authorities 5 Sept banned SPLM-N, detained local leaders; SPLM-N 8 Sept officially split from ruling party in S Sudan SPLM, formed new leadership under Agar, vowed to continue war against Khartoum. Darfur rebel groups SLM-Abdel Wahid (SLM-AW), Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) 4 Sept urged international community to impose no-fly zone, establish humanitarian corridors in Darfur, S Kordofan, Blue Nile. SLM-AW 9 Sept reported it had killed 33 SAF soldiers in Jebel Marra; denied govt claim it abducted foreign aid worker. Amidst clashes with SAF on Chad border, JEM 12 Sept announced return of leader Khalil Ibrahim from exile in Libya, accused Chad of organising joint military operation with SAF. UN-AU SR Ibrahim Gambari 14 Sept announced 70% decrease in number of attacks in Darfur, said international community “frustrated” over lack of participation by SLM-AW in peace process; rebel group denounced statement, said Gambari no longer neutral. Bashir same day appointed Liberation and Equality Movement (LJM) leader Tijani el-Sissi head of Darfur Regional Authority.

Sudan

  |  1 Sep 2011

Unchanged

Fighting slowed in S Kordofan despite reports of continued aerial attacks by SAF, with apparent military stalemate between Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and SPLM-North. UN report 15 Aug called for inquiry into possible war crimes committed by SAF in S Kordofan. Govt 19 Aug agreed to allow UN supervised access to assess humanitarian needs. President Bashir 23 Aug announced unilateral ceasefire in region; SPLM-N alleged attempt to deflect attention from abuses and imminent military offensive, 7 Aug announced alliance with Darfur rebel groups SLM-AW and SLM-MM to topple govt. Govt 29 Aug sent letter to UNSC accusing S Sudan of supporting SPLM-N forces in S Kordofan. Security agreement signed with S Sudan 1 Aug including establishment of Joint Political and Security Mechanism for border; unclear if and when it will be implemented. In Abyei, 4 Ethiopian peacekeepers killed by landmine 2 Aug; UN accused authorities of delaying medical evacuation. In Darfur, 1 UNAMID peacekeeper killed in 5 Aug ambush in south. Court 27 Aug sentenced Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) leader al-Tom Tutu to death for fomenting war. FM Ali Karti 9 Aug accused UNSC of manipulating extension of UNAMID mandate, threatened to expel peacekeepers if no amendment, rejected AU-monitored tribunals to adjudicate criminal cases in region. Ruling NCP Chairman Ali Nafie 19 Aug rejected U.S. attempts to broker peace deal between govt and JEM, accused Washington of reneging on promise to remove Sudan from state sponsors of terrorism list. Cease Fire Commission for Darfur 22 Aug held inaugural meeting to monitor implementation of July peace deal between Darfur Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM) and govt.

Sudan

  |  1 Aug 2011

Unchanged

Heavy bombardment of S Kordofan capital Kadugli by Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF), continued fighting with SPLA-North forces, despite 28 June framework agreement between govt and SPLM-North. UN 12 July reported further 2,000 displaced from Delami town; leaked UNMIS report accuses SAF of possible war crimes and systematic targeting of Nubans, calls for independent investigation by ICC prosecutor; UN independent expert 25 July said “strong evidence” SAF committed atrocities. President Bashir 7 July rejected 28 June agreement with SPLM-North, ordered SAF to “purge” region. FM Ali Karti 19 July raised possibility of foreign peacekeepers in S Kordofan, subject to agreement with “local leaders”, but then denied statement. Parliament 13 July amended nationality law, stripping citizenship of 1mn southerners residing in North, 20 July approved amendments to popular consultation law for S Kordofan and Blue Nile States; SPLM-North MPs boycotted session, said law violates Comprehensive Peace Agreement. In Abyei, Ethiopian troops deployed for peacekeeping operation UNISFA. Govt and Darfur Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM) 14 July signed peace agreement in Doha; Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) refused to sign. AU-UN mediator Ibrahim Gambari called on govt to lift state of emergency, engage with Sudan Liberation Movement factions. In Darfur, unidentified gunmen 30 June killed 2 Ethiopian UNAMID peacekeepers in El Geneina. UNAMID 28 July reported SAF bombing near Abu Hamara, 1 civilian killed. UN 29 July renewed UNAMID mandate by 1 year. Police 20-22 July broke up demonstrations over lack of water in Wad Madani, Khartoum.

Sudan

  |  1 Jul 2011

Deteriorated

Fighting escalated 5 June in Nuba Mountains, S Kordofan as Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) moved into S Kordofan capital Kadugli, triggering large-scale fighting with Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) units from the region. UN reported heavy bombardment of villages by SAF; SPLM called for immediate ceasefire, accused Khartoum of moving troops towards Blue Nile state. Aid workers accused north of ethnic cleansing. UN said at least 73,000 people fled S Kordofan since 5 June, many civilian casualties, accused govt of blocking aid deliveries, intimidating peacekeepers and aid workers, impersonating Red Cross. Govt and SPLM-North 28 June signed agreement on political, security arrangements in Blue Nile, Kordofan States. Renewed clashes 15-17 June in Abyei between SAF and South Sudanese Army, despite 20 June deal in Addis Ababa on demilitarisation, deployment of Ethiopian peacekeepers, creation of joint administration; UN 24 June approved creation of Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA), reported nearly 100 civilians killed, 96,000 displaced since beginning of Abyei crisis in May. In Darfur, SAF deployed extra troops to region ahead of S Sudan independence 9 July. Localised fighting continued; SAF 2-3 June ambushed Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) convoy in W Darfur, clashed with Arab-led United Revolutionary Force Front (URFF) in Kebkabiya region. Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) 15-18 June repelled SAF attacks in Western Jebel Marra. Doha peace process between rebels and govt of Sudan ended 2 June, with progress reported on key issues. Further political process to be continued in Darfur. ICC prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo 9 June said President Bashir continuing campaign of genocide in Darfur despite ICC arrest warrant.

Sudan

  |  1 Jun 2011

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Following build-up of tensions, month saw clashes between N and S Sudan security forces in Abyei precipitate invasion by Sudanese Armed Forces, undermining confidence between North and South and threatening renewed conflict; and increased tensions regarding military control in Blue Nile and South Kordofan and presence of armed forces. Early month clashes between sides left 14 dead; N and S Sudan 5 May agreed on joint military withdrawal, both sides to refrain from claiming Abyei in draft constitutions. President Bashir later reiterated Abyei belonged to North. SAF being escorted out of Abyei by UN attacked 19 May; Khartoum blamed South, next day invaded Abyei in breach of existing agreements, prompting tens of thousands of residents to flee south. S Sudan 22 May declared seizure “act of war”, but S Sudan President Kiir 26 May assured that S Sudan would not retaliate .Bashir rejected UN calls for immediate withdrawal. At late-month talks in Addis Ababa officials from N and S Sudan agreed to preliminary border security agreement. Reported SAF request for SPLA forces from Blue Nile and S Kordofan to redeploy south also fuelled tensions. In S Kordofan elections early month, National Congress Party (NCP) candidate and ICC-indictee Ahmed Haroun announced winner of gubernatorial poll; NCP won 33 assembly seats vs. 21 for the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM). SPLM refused to accept results, alleged fraud. In Darfur, SAF airstrikes on villages 17-18 May killed at least 10. At Doha talks, Liberation and Justice Movement and govt close to agreement on draft peace deal presented late Apr, but stuck on VP position, referendum on future status. In Khartoum, opposition forces, including Islamist leader Hassan Turabi, manoeuvring in anticipation of worsening political, economic situation.

Sudan

  |  1 May 2011

Deteriorated

Month saw military build-up in Abyei, mounting tensions ahead of South Kordofan elections in May, continued fighting in Darfur, internal NCP tensions. UNMIS commander early Apr said North and South militarising Abyei; U.S. special envoy Princeton Lyman said build-up “could lead to war”. Both sides 13 Apr agreed to withdraw unauthorised forces from Abyei, create Joint Technical Committee to monitor redeployment. President Bashir 27 Apr declared Abyei would remain part of North after South secession in July; meanwhile early draft of South Sudan transitional constitution claims Abyei as territory. In South Kordofan, militia 13 Apr killed at least 17, burned over 350 houses in el-Faid town ahead of delayed gubernatorial and state assembly elections scheduled 2 May; Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) claim National Congress Party (NCP) candidate and ICC indictee Ahmed Haroun mobilising militia to attack its supporters; NCP equally accuse SPLM of mobilising forces to intimidate NCP . In Darfur, Rebel Justice and Equality Movement, Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) rebels led by Minni Minnawi, SLM Unity 10 Apr clashed with SAF in Sago Talag, N Darfur, inflicting “substantial” SAF casualties. Election commission 24 Apr announced Darfur referendum to determine status to take place 1 July. Darfur peace mediators 27 Apr submitted final draft peace agreement to govt, rebel groups; parties to respond 7 May. NCP 19 Apr rejected calls to extend post-referendum interim period required under Comprehensive Peace Agreement. UN 27 Apr renewed UNMIS mandate until 9 July 2011. Amid ongoing internal NCP divisions, Bashir 26 Apr removed Salah Gosh from national security committee for talking with opposition parties.

Sudan

  |  1 Apr 2011

Unchanged

Ruling National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement met 1-6 March in Addis Ababa to discuss post-referendum arrangements; AU High Implementation Panel (AUHIP) said parties focused on maintenance of 2 economically viable states including shared oil and petroleum infrastructure; negotiations to continue 5 April. Renewed fighting 2 March in Abyei prompted some 20,000 to flee; UNMIS 4 March convened meeting of North and South representatives, agreed on establishing standing committees to address security situation. Presidency called for follow-up meeting, 10 March adopted working plan for resolution of border demarcation dispute.  Darfur developments centred on latest round of peace talks in Doha, where Liberation and Justice Movement and Justice and Equality Movement rebel groups 24 March opposed govt initiative to hold referendum before July on administrative status of Darfur; said widespread insecurity would prevent free, fair vote. Despite objections President Bashir 29 March issued decree paving way for referendum. Demonstrators in Khartoum suburb met with brutal police response 8 March as 40 of 60 women protesting violence against women were beaten, arrested by police. More than 500 riot police, security service agents forcibly dispersed dozens of opposition activists 9 March during anti-govt demonstration in central Khartoum. U.S. appointed new special envoy to Sudan Princeton Lyman.

Sudan

  |  1 Mar 2011

Unchanged

President Bashir 8 Feb officially accepted final results of Southern Sudan Referendum with 98.83% in favour of independent state in region. At least 10 killed 27 Feb in fighting between Misseriya Arab nomads from North and pro-Southern Dinka Ngok in Abyei area; clashes come as talks stepped up between North and South to address post-referendum issues, with commitment to find solution to Abyei status before end March. In West Darfur Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) 25 Feb targeted Sudan Liberation Movement rebel positions in Jebel Marra sparking 2 days’ clashes; 25 SLM, 2 SAF reported killed. UN-AU peacekeeping mission in Darfur (UNAMID) 16 Feb announced strategy of increased patrols, quick reaction force to improve civilian protection during heightened insecurity as rebels continue to clash with govt troops. Darfuri authorities 14 Feb expelled NGO Médecins du Monde accusing them of supporting rebel Sudan Liberation Movement. Meanwhile media 4 Feb reported claims that France, U.S. agreed during Jan AU summit to consider backing deferral of International Criminal Court indictment against Bashir. Security forces broke up series of demonstrations against rising prices and rights abuses in Khartoum. Senior ruling National Congress Party (NCP) official 21 Feb claimed Bashir will not stand at next election as part of reform package aimed at democratising country; opposition said NCP trying to pre-empt mass protests fearing contagion from uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt.

Sudan

  |  1 Mar 2011

Unchanged

South Sudan Referendum Commission 7 Feb announced official results of Jan referendum confirming 98.83% voted to secede from north. Over 200 people killed 9-10 Feb including civilians during clashes in Fangak county, Jonglei state between Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and militia loyal to renegade SPLA General George Athor. In upper Nile State at least 50 people killed during 3 days’ clashes after fighting broke out 3 Feb between Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) joint integrated units over ownership and relocation of weapons from south to north. As political talks focused on outstanding post-referendum arrangements Govt of South Sudan (GoSS) VP Reik Machar 10 Feb affirmed existing oil contracts will remain untouched; at same time Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) Sec Gen Pagan Amum 15 Feb said there will be no continuation of current oil-sharing arrangements under Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) when newly created South Sudan comes into effect in July. GoSS President Salva Kiir announced 3 days’ mourning to mark death of Minister for Cooperative and Rural Development Jimmy Lemi Milla, murdered 9 Feb; death not thought politically motivated.

Sudan

  |  1 Feb 2011

Deteriorated

Darfur saw increased govt confrontation with rebel groups: Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) 20 Jan clashed with rebel Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) on Menawashi-Kidnir road in S Darfur following rebel ambush; 13 rebels, 8 SAF killed. JEM, SLA statement 25 Jan claimed rebels shot down helicopter gunship, many more killed during clashes with SAF near Al Fasher, N Darfur. UN peacekeeping mission UNAMID confirmed SAF 23 Jan arrested 37 during raid of El Fasher Zam Zam IDP camp; said raid violated terms of agreement requiring prior notification to UNAMID of govt action in camps. Former South African President Mbeki, chair of AU High Level Implementation Panel (AUHIP), 18 Jan called for all rebel groups to join political process on ground. Abyei self-determination referendum to join either North or South did not take place as scheduled 9 Jan due to disagreement over voter eligibility. Unresolved future status of Abyei, including border demarcation, resource-sharing, citizenship issues led to localised deadly clashes 7-9 Jan between rival ethnic Misseriya Arab nomads from North and pro-Southern Dinka Ngok. UN SRSG said although agreement reached 14 Jan succeeded in containing violence, absence of final Abyei settlement risks further trouble. Meanwhile violent suppression of anti-govt protests in Khartoum and elsewhere 29 Jan. Demonstrations in protest at crackdown on political, civic freedoms and rising living costs; commentators say unrest linked to Egypt protests.

Sudan

  |  3 Jan 2011

Unchanged

Extended voter registration period ended 8 Dec with authorities reporting over 3.2 million registered  for 9 Jan South Sudan self-determination referendum; UN, international observers 16 Dec commended process despite “a few weaknesses”. South Sudan Referendum Commission 20 Dec said notification from Constitutional Court regarding two legal challenges raising fears of delay. In speech broadcast live on state television, President Bashir 28 Dec pledged support to south’s secession if 9 Jan vote is free and fair. UN and others 9 Dec launched early warning atrocity prevention project through satellite imagery monitoring of referendum. Preparation for simultaneous Abyei self-determination vote irretrievably behind schedule as parties to Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and ruling National Congress Party (NCP), failed to break stalemate over terms of Abyei vote. AU High Level Implementation Panel 6, 8 and 18 Dec failed to facilitate NCP-SPLM breakthrough on post-referendum arrangements. Situation in Darfur deteriorated as Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) 10, 11 Dec attacked Khor Abeche village, S Darfur. Estimated 12,000 fled fighting 17 Dec in same location between SAF and rebel Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM); SAF 24 Dec killed 40 Justice and Equality Movement, SLM rebels. Meanwhile, joint ceasefire commission confirmed air attacks took place 6, 8, 9 Dec in Western Bahr al-Ghazal state bordering S Darfur. Bashir 29 Dec said will withdraw from Doha peace talks if no deal reached with Liberation and Justice Movement rebels by 30 Dec; UN-AU mediator to Darfur Djibril Bassole said ultimatum threatened whole process; mediators handed compromise proposals to govt 1 Jan.  

Sudan

  |  1 Dec 2010

Unchanged

Month saw progress on preparations for Jan S Sudan self-determination referendum but continued deadlock between North and South over key issues. Voter registration for referendum commenced 15 Nov at 2,700 centres in S Sudan, 165 in N Sudan and 8 diaspora countries. High turnout in South prompted 26 Nov official announcement extending registration process by one week; authorities said extension would not delay referendum. Low turnout in North led ruling National Congress Party (NCP) to accuse Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) of campaigning to dissuade pro-unity southerners resident in north from registering; NCP 21 Nov made formal complaint to Southern Sudan Referendum Commission, threatened to reject referendum results if trend continued. In AU-led 13 Nov talks and 23-24 Nov negotiation under Intergovernmental Authority on Development auspices, the two parties failed to reach agreement on key issues including resource-sharing, border demarcation, citizenship and Abyei status. SPLA said 10 killed, 6 injured during SAF helicopter gunship attacks 13, 24 Nov on SPLA positions in Northern Bahr al-Ghazal state bordering Darfur; claimed Khartoum strategy to disrupt referendum process. SAF denied intentional targeting of SPLA; claimed “error” during SAF operations against Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebels who had withdrawn from Darfur to S Sudan; SAF further alleged JEM receiving SPLA assistance. UNAMID SRSG Ibrahim Gambari warned of increased violence ahead of referendum as reports of major movement of SAF to Darfur region threatened further military offensives.

Abyei stalemate dominates Sudan negotiations”, VOA, 16 Nov. 2010.

Sudan

  |  1 Nov 2010

Unchanged

Month dominated by high level visits ahead of 9 Jan 2011 referenda on South Sudan and Abyei. Following 10-15 Oct visit, high-level UN panel expressed concern over lack of progress in preparation for vote and antagonism between National Congress Party (NCP), Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM). Both sides accuse each other of troop build-up in N-S border areas; South Sudan President Salva Kiir requested UN-administered buffer zone. Following collapse of 9-day talks between SPLM and NCP in Addis Ababa, northern leaders 14 Oct declared 9 Jan Abyei vote impossible; defence minister Abdel Rahim Hussein also warned of South referendum delays. SPLM reiterated delays unacceptable, violate Comprehensive Peace Agreement. 15-nation UNSC delegation visiting 8-15 Oct said timely referenda still possible but requires “genuine” political will; U.S. President Obama 30 Oct pressed former South African President Mbeki, leading NCP-SPLM compromise talks, for on-time referenda. Southern Sudan Referendum Commission (SSRC) released timetable for polls including 14-30 Nov voter registration, 9 Jan vote. President Bashir, VPs Salva Kiir and Ali Osman Taha  26 Oct agreed to develop common vision on future N-S relations regardless of referendum outcome. IGAD Summit to discuss referenda postponed to 6 Nov, moved from Nairobi to Addis Ababa (see Kenya). Rebel Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) spokesman Ahmed Hussein Adam 24 Oct said group ready to re-start discussions with international mediators in Doha following breakdown of Feb accord with Khartoum; 28 Oct said that 180 govt army soldiers have defected to join rebel group.



Sudan

  |  1 Oct 2010

Unchanged

Month dominated by increased U.S. diplomatic engagement ahead of Jan 2011 S Sudan self-determination referendum and continued fighting in Darfur. U.S. Sec State Clinton 8 Sept announced Washington to step up diplomatic efforts to prepare Sudan to peacefully accept “inevitable” secession following Jan vote; described situation as “ticking time-bomb”. UNSG Ban 21 Sept announced appointment of 3 panel members to monitor S Sudan and Abeyi Area referenda. Attacks by unidentified men early Sept at Hamidiya IDP camp, W Darfur and Tabarat village, N Darfur resulted in more than 50 killed. SLA claim govt war planes bombed villages in Jebel Marra area, S Darfur 22-23 Sept killing 18 people. UN-AU-Doha committee 21 Sept produced preliminary draft document aimed at ending Darfur conflict; document to form basis of 29 Sept Doha negotiations between govt and rebel Liberation and Justice Movement. 7 LRA attacks reported during first week of Sept; religious leaders from LRA-affected areas in DRC, CAR, S Sudan, Uganda met 8-10 Sept in Yambio to discuss LRA; signed joint statement criticising international community’s failure to develop plan to tackle regional threat, called on UN to provide peacekeepers with capacity to deploy quickly, insisted negotiated settlement preferred sustainable solution.



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