You must enable JavaScript to view this site.
This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Review our legal notice and privacy policy for more details.
Close
Homepage > Publication Type > CrisisWatch > CrisisWatch Database

CrisisWatch Database

Region / country

period from    to 

135 results found
Items 1 - 50 of 135 First   Previous   Next   Last

Egypt

  |  1 Nov 2014

Unchanged

Scores killed in clashes between army and militants in Sinai, including 31 soldiers 24 Oct: govt declared three-month state of emergency in north and central Sinai, closed border with Gaza and evacuated 1,100 residents along border to create buffer zone; 26 Oct postponed indirect talks between Israel, Palestinian factions, scheduled to begin in Cairo late month, in reaction to attacks. Gaza reconstruction conference 12–13 Oct, co-hosted in Cairo by Egypt and Norway, trumpeted as sign of Egypt’s return to world stage in local media following similar reporting around President Sisi’s late Sept attendance of UNGA and meeting with U.S. President Obama. Renewed protests on university campuses across country beginning 11 Oct: several clashes between students and police including 149 students arrested over first three days of protests; student died following clashes at Alexandria University, eleven injured in bomb blast outside Cairo University 22 Oct. Twelve reported injured in bomb blast near Cairo courthouse 14 Oct; several bombings in northern city Tanta during Sufi religious festival 16 Oct, no casualties.

Egypt

  |  1 Oct 2014

Unchanged

Muslim Brotherhood (MB) appeared to be losing support as protest turnout declined. Salafi al-Watan party 17 Sept withdrew from MB-led Alliance to Support Legitimacy (ASL) after earlier withdrawal of moderate al-Wasat party; both said planning to act as opposition groups, indicating participation in coming elections. Non-Islamist criticism of regime continued: at least 105 detainees, mostly secular activists, on hunger strike to protest unjust detentions under 2013 Protest Law; many in pre-trial detention. High-profile activist Alaa Abdelfattah, 2 others released from pre-trial detention 15 Sept; 116 students, arrested during demonstrations, released 17 Sept. MB leader Mohamed Badie handed another life sentence 15 Sept; prominent MB politician Mohamed Beltagy sentenced to 20 years imprisonment early month. Attacks by jihadi group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis (ABM) continued in Sinai including 11 soldiers killed 2 Sept, 6 police killed 16 Sept; 4 ABM militants reported killed 23 Sept. ABM continued beheadings of local Sinai residents accused of cooperating with Israeli intelligence: corpse discovered 19 Sept marking eleventh such execution since mid-Aug. Three police killed in bombing outside foreign ministry in Cairo 21 Sept, claimed by militant group Ajnad Misr.

Egypt

  |  1 Sep 2014

Unchanged

Several killed during protests marking first anniversary of deadly raids on Cairo protest camps, including Rabaa Square mass killings, following ouster of former President Morsi: 9 protesters, 1 police reported killed 14-15 Aug; protester reported killed 8 Aug. Human Rights Watch 12 Aug urged investigation into 2013 killings, said protest raids may amount to crimes against humanity. MB Freedom and Justice Party dissolved by court 9 Aug; Grand Mufti Shawqi Allam 7 Aug rejected death sentence for Muslim Brotherhood leader Mohamed Badie, late month commuted sentence to life imprisonment. Violence continued in Sinai including reported army killing of 11 militants 3 Aug; jihadi group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis mid-month executed 4 over alleged links to security army, Israel. 5 police, 4 alleged smugglers reported killed west of Alexandria 5 Aug; unknown gunmen 18 Aug shot dead policeman north of Cairo.

Egypt

  |  1 Aug 2014

Unchanged

Govt early July implemented deep fuel subsidy cuts as part of wider aggressive campaign to reduce budget deficit, also including electricity subsidy cuts and taxes on consumer goods: resulting fuel price hikes led to few scattered protests; full impact yet to be felt by consumers, fears move could increase social tensions; measures expected to fulfil one requirement for Egypt to secure IMF assistance package. Several deadly incidents along border with Israel including: soldier killed in roadside bombing in Rafah 9 July; 2 tribal elders reported killed by suspected Islamist militants in same town 21 July; 8 reported killed, including soldier, in explosions targeting security installations 14 July; over 20 militants, 4 children reported killed in shoot-outs, mortar fire 26-27 July. At least 21 guards killed in Western Desert oasis 19 July, Sinai-based jihadi group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis blamed. Crackdown on Muslim Brotherhood (MB) continued, extended to other parties from Alliance for Support of Legitimacy (ASL) opposing 2013 military coup; senior leaders of Construction and Development, Wasat party arrested early July. ASL 3-4 July arranged demonstrations on anniversary of coup, at least 6 reported killed in clashes, bomb blast in Cairo outside presidential palace. Former PM Kandil freed from jail mid-July, first release of senior official from administration of ousted President Morsi.

Egypt

  |  1 Jul 2014

Unchanged

President Sisi inaugurated 8 June after announcement of election result: Sisi won 96.9%, official turnout at 47.5%, opposition alleged fraud. Sisi 17 June swore in new cabinet retaining Ibrahim Mehleb as PM, appointed 13 new ministers without change in key ministries including defence, interior. Crackdown on dissidents and Muslim Brotherhood (MB) continued: MB Supreme Guide Mohamed Badie and 182 others, including 13 other senior members, sentenced to death 19 June; 2 protesters killed in clashes with govt forces next day in Cairo during demonstrations against sentencing. 1 police shot dead 13 June during dispersal of pro-MB protest in Cairo; another killed 16 June during shoot-out with alleged MB supporters; 2 police killed in bomb blast near presidential palace 30 June, claimed by militant group Ajnad Misr. 3 Al Jazeera journalists sentenced to 7 year imprisonment 23 June for helping “terrorist organisation”. Alaa Abdelfattah, prominent revolutionary youth activist known for participation in 2011 Tahrir Square occupation, sentenced 11 June to 15 years imprisonment for participating in unauthorised protest.

Egypt

  |  1 Jun 2014

Unchanged

Presidential election held 26-28 May amid heavy security presence; Hamdeen Sabbahi, sole challenger to Former Defence Minister Field Marshal Abdelfattah el-Sisi, alleged number of violations; reports of detentions and arrests of campaign members, voter intimidation, pro-Sisi campaigning inside polling stations, Sabbahi’s representatives denied access. PM Mehleb declared second day of voting public holiday, Election Commission extended voting to third day; both Sabbahi and Sisi filed complaints against extension. Early unofficial results suggested Sisi won around 93% of vote. Reported turnout numbers varied, judicial sources said around 44%. Sabbahi conceded defeat, questioned turnout numbers. Muslim Brotherhood-led National Alliance to Support Legitimacy claimed only around 10% voted, staged several protests; 4 supporters reported killed 30 May during clashes with police in Cairo. Tamarrod group said 1 member and 1 Sisi campaign coordinator shot dead in Giza province same day. In run-up to election, Sisi restricted public appearances to select TV interviews after claiming 2 assassination plots against him uncovered early month: campaign message included warnings 2 years of tough reforms needed; media should temper criticism of govt in interim; protests and strikes should cease; democracy not feasible in short term. Sisi showed no inclination towards reconciling with anti-coup forces. Violent unrest, acts of terrorism and state crackdown continued. Twin suicide bombings killed 3 in Sinai 2 May, claimed by insurgent group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis; same day 2 soldiers killed in Cairo bombings and 2 killed in Alexandria, reportedly during clashes between Morsi supporters and residents. 3 police killed 20 May in drive-by shooting outside Cairo’s al-Azhar university. Court 21 May sentenced former president Mubarak to 3 years imprisonment for stealing public funds.

Egypt

  |  1 May 2014

Unchanged

Former Defence Minister Abdelfattah el-Sisi and Nasserist Hamdeen Sabbahi only 2 candidates to register for 26-27 May presidential election by 20 April nomination deadline. Court 15 April banned Muslim Brotherhood (MB) members from running in any elections. Sabbahi campaign warned against use of state resources and media in favour of Sisi, complained of assaults on campaigners and arrests on false grounds. EU foreign policy chief Ashton visited Cairo 10 April, formally announced EU election monitoring mission, reportedly called Sisi’s decision to run “courageous”; no meeting with MB representatives, who criticised visit. Attacks on security forces continued with militant group Ajnad Misr claiming several bomb attacks: 2 killed outside Cairo University 2 April, including police brigadier-general; 1 police killed in Cairo 18 April; 2 police shot dead 20 April between Cairo and Suez. Several killed by govt forces, including in separate incidents 11 April: pro-MB demonstrator shot dead in Alexandria, 2 MB members reported killed in Nile Delta shoot-out, prominent Ansar Beit al-Maqdis militant killed in Sinai according to military officials. At least 25 killed early April in clashes between rival clans in Aswan. Court 28 April sentenced 683 defendants to death, including MB leader Mohamed Badie; another court banned April 6 Movement. Govt announced price increase for subsidised fuel, electricity, water, imposed ban on high-power air-conditioning units ahead of expected summer energy crisis.

Egypt

  |  1 Apr 2014

Unchanged

Field Marshal Abdelfattah el-Sisi resigned as defence minister 26 March in order to run in May presidential election; candidate registration open 30 March-20 April. Interim President Mansour 8 March decreed controversial new election law protecting decisions of election commission from legal challenges, refused to amend it after some parties protested on grounds that doing so could lengthen electoral process. Previously announced contender Sami Anan withdrew from presidential race; second runner-up in 2012 presidential election General Ahmed Shafik in leaked recording said election bound to be rigged in favour of Sisi, in subsequent public statement backed Sisi; another former candidate, human rights lawyer Khaled Ali, announced he would not run, called election “farce”. New govt formed 1 March by PM Ibrahim Mehleb, member of pre-2011 ruling party; departure of outgoing PM Biblawi and Deputy PM Ziad Bahaa Eddin, who represented liberals in anti-Muslim Brotherhood (MB) alliance, seen by observers as further reducing prospect of reconciliation with MB. Court 24 March sentenced 529 Muslim Brotherhood (MB) members to death for murder and other offences, sparking domestic and international condemnation; sentence to be appealed. Several police and army officers killed during month, including 6 officers by gunmen at checkpoint near Cairo 15 March; army blamed MB, MB denied. 2 senior army officers, 6 militants killed 19 March in Nile Delta region during army raid on jihadi group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis. Clashes continued between MB supporters and police across country, several casualties: MB-led National Alliance to Support Legitimacy called for 11 days of protests starting on 19 March anniversary of 2011 constitutional referendum, 2 killed in clashes same day; 5 killed in Cairo 29 March during protests against Sisi presidential bid.

Egypt

  |  1 Mar 2014

Unchanged

Following late-Jan escalation of conflict in Sinai army struck several targets, jihadi group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis (ABM) continued attacks. Army raids and airstrikes killed dozens throughout month, officials claimed senior ABM members among dead. ABM bombing 16 Feb killed 3 S Korean tourists, 1 bus driver near Israeli border. Attacks in and around Cairo continued including 7 Feb bombing near Giza police station injuring 6, claimed by new militant group Ajnad Misr. Several killed in drive-by shootings targeting police. Military-backed govt 24 Feb announced resignation in move expected to pave way for Field Marshal Abdelfattah el-Sisi to announce presidential run; candidacy requires Sisi to step down as defence minister, exiting Housing Minister Ibrahim Melheb tasked with forming new govt. 2 presidential contenders announced: former armed forces chief of staff Sami Enan, neo-Nasserist and 3rd runner-up in 2012 presidential election Hamdeen Sabahi. 4th runner-up in 2012 election Abdel-Moneim Abul-Fotouh 9 Feb announced boycott; described polls as “mockery”. Sisi’s expected candidacy received endorsements from former President Mubarak, Russian President Putin. Sisi, FM Fahmy visited Russia 12 Feb, reportedly to discuss arms deal. Prosecutor general 4 Feb referred nearly 200 to trial including Muslim Brotherhood spiritual leader Mohammed Badie, other senior members: more than 500 Morsi supporters referred to trial 24 Feb, 220 sentenced to up to 7 years’ jail next day.

Egypt

  |  1 Feb 2014

Deteriorated

Official results of 14-15 Jan referendum on amended constitution indicate over 98% in favour, turnout almost 39%. Outlawed Muslim Brotherhood (MB), Islamist Alliance for Support of Legitimacy (ASL) campaigned for boycott; Strong Egypt Party campaigned for “no”, some members arrested. Monitoring NGOs reported violations during two-day voting period, influencing voters and voting registration errors. Interim President Adli Mansour 26 Jan announced presidential elections to take place within 3 months, before parliamentary elections. Supreme Council of the Armed Forces 27 Jan approved defence minister Abdelfattah el-Sisi to run for presidency, after President Mansour promoted him from colonel-general to field marshal. Clashes between supporters of ousted President Morsi and security forces increased ahead of and during referendum; 17 killed and 60 injured 3 Jan, 3 killed 10 Jan, 11 killed 14 Jan. Deadly clashes between protesters and security forces continued after referendum, with at least 49 killed in worst incident 25 Jan, anniversary of 2011 uprising. Several bomb attacks in Cairo including 3 attacks 24 Jan killing at least 5, injuring 60. Gunmen shot dead senior interior ministry official in Cairo 28 Jan. Multiple attacks continued in Sinai Peninsula, including first-ever use of surface-to-air missile by militants 27 Jan to bring down military helicopter, killing 4; Ansar Beit al-Maqdis group claimed responsibility. Arrests of MB supporters continued, including 444 arrested 15 Jan on charges of rioting and weapons possession, 63 jailed 9 Jan. U.S. Sec State Kerry 18 Jan expressed concern about limits of freedom of assembly and expression. MB lawyers 6 Jan petitioned ICC to investigate alleged crimes against humanity by military govt since July 2013. Amnesty International 23 Jan reported human rights violations and state violence on “unprecedented scale” since July 2013.

Egypt

  |  2 Jan 2014

Deteriorated

Govt 25 Dec formally declared Muslim Brotherhood (MB) a terrorist group, made MB membership and participation in anti-coup protests a crime; move effectively rules out possibility of reconciliation with MB, further complicating political scene. Declaration followed bomb explosion at govt building in Mansura 24 Dec in which at least 12 killed, scores injured; govt blamed MB despite lack of evidence of its involvement. Political transition roadmap moved ahead as constitutional committee 1 Dec finalised controversial draft constitution. Committee president 15 Dec said draft gives unprecedented rights to women and removes religious clauses included in Dec 2012 constitution. MB 2 Dec and Islamist Alliance for the Support of Legitimacy (ASL) rejected draft. April 6 Movement criticised draft over powers granted to military and defence minister, inclusion of military trials for civilians; Coptic church, Salafi Nour Party and Tamarrod movement voiced support for draft. Interim President Mansour 14 Dec said referendum on draft constitution scheduled 14-15 Jan; April 6 movement and ASL announced boycott. Secret talks between authorities and ASL faltered. Govt 18 Dec charged ousted President Morsi with treason, espionage, sponsoring terrorism, collaborating with Iran, Hizbollah and Hamas. Sweeping arrests against Islamists continued; govt crackdown on dissidents expanding to include rights groups, secular political activists. Anti-govt protests ongoing on near-daily basis, several killed in clashes with police late-month. Police 8 Dec staged rare protest demanding higher wages, defying new protest law. Militant attacks continued: in Ismailia suspected Islamists shot dead policeman 17 Dec, car bombs exploded 12 Dec killing 1 policeman; car bomb in Cairo 17 Dec; suspected al-Qaeda-affiliated militants shot dead soldier during clashes in Sinai Peninsula 20 Dec. 5 injured in Cairo bomb attack 26 Dec. Army 17 Dec shot dead alleged Islamist militant Abou Khaled wanted for Aug 2012 terror attack in Sinai Peninsula.

Egypt

  |  1 Dec 2013

Unchanged

Court 4 Nov postponed trial of deposed President Mohammed Morsi and 14 co-defendants until 8 Jan; appeals court 11 Nov extended Morsi’s detention for 30 days. Appeals court 6 Nov rejected legal challenge by MB against Sept ruling that banned group’s activities and seized its funds; MB 7 Nov said it will survive despite ban and media “campaign of slander”. “Alliance for the Support of Legitimacy” (ASL) coalition of Islamists 16 Nov called for dialogue to end crisis on condition that govt halt security crackdown, did not call for Morsi reinstatement; govt did not officially respond but made clear acceptance of roadmap a precondition. FM Fahmy 8 Nov said Egypt will hold parliamentary elections “between Feb and March” 2014, followed by presidential vote. Constitutional committee 30 Nov passed first 138 articles of draft constitution; PM Beblawy 25 Nov suggested referendum on new constitution would take place “second half of Jan 2014”. Govt 23 Nov withdrew ambassador from Turkey, expelled Turkish ambassador after Turkish PM Erdoğan reiterated condemnation of 3 July coup. Mass protests and arrests continued on near-daily basis: large demonstrations 19 Nov commemorated 2011 clashes with security forces in Cairo; 2 killed by police in subsequent clashes. Govt 11 Nov ended 3-month state of emergency, 23 Nov introduced “protest law” requiring advance govt approval of all demonstrations; Human Rights Watch says law will “ban protests” in Egypt, UNSG Ban 27 Nov expressed concern over law, violent dispersal of protests. Army 20 Nov vowed to continue war on “terrorism” after series of attacks: unclaimed suicide car bomb 20 Nov targeted bus transporting soldiers in N Sinai killed 11 soldiers and injured dozens; Sinai-based Islamist militants 17 Nov assassinated officer, 21 Nov killed officer during firefight in Qalubiya; unidentified gunmen 3 Nov killed 2 policemen at checkpoint on Cairo-Ismailia road.

Egypt

  |  1 Nov 2013

Unchanged

Political transition roadmap moved forward as constitutional committee 22 Oct began final negotiations, amid continued exclusion of most Islamist political forces from process, heavy casualties at almost daily pro-Muslim Brotherhood (MB) rallies. Security forces 6 Oct killed dozens, arrested over 400 MB supporters in clashes across Egypt; 53 people killed, 271 wounded. Leaked audio files from interview with defence minister General al-Sisi 16 Oct revealed he may run for president. Former president Morsi to stand trial 4 Nov on charges of espionage for Hamas and prison escape during 2011 revolution; MB 2 Oct said will not backtrack on its demand for Morsi reinstatement as president. Political violence continued to escalate with army operations in restless Sinai Peninsula as unclaimed attacks on govt targets increased, fuelling fears of Islamist insurgency. Unidentified gunmen 4 Oct killed 2 soldiers in attack on army convoy east of Cairo, 7 Oct killed 6 soldiers in Ismailia and fired grenades at satellite station in Cairo, 28 Oct killed 3 policemen at university in Mansoura. U.S. 10 Oct suspended delivery of military hardware to Egyptian army in response to crackdown on MB, said “credible progress” needed towards fair elections; continued economic assistance, support for counter-terrorism operations and Egyptian-Israeli border security.

Egypt

  |  1 Oct 2013

Unchanged

Govt continued crackdown on Muslim Brotherhood (MB) members and pro-Morsi Islamists with several arrests, closure of more media outlets and 23 Sept court decision banning all MB activities. Security forces 16, 19 Sept stormed towns of Delga and Kerdasa, retaking Islamist strongholds. EU envoy continuing international efforts to mediate between govt and MB. Experts committee, headed by former presidential candidate Amr Moussa and including only 2 Islamists out of its 50 members, 7 Sept started reviewing constitution draft prepared by technical committee of legal scholars. Constitution to be put to referendum by end-Nov, followed by parliamentary and presidential elections. Amid calls for defence minister and regime strongman General al-Sisi to run for president, army spokesman 22 Sept reaffirmed military does not intend to nominate candidate. Uptick in anti-state violence, most notably in Sinai where suicide bomb 11 Sept killed over 100 soldiers, levelled military intelligence HQ near Rafah. Interior Minister Mohammed Ibrahim survived car bomb attack on his convoy in Cairo 5 Sept, 4 bystanders killed; previously-unknown Sinai-based jihadi group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis claimed responsibility for this and other attacks during month. Increasing use of IEDs reported, ship crossing Suez Canal targeted by RPGs. Military launched large-scale offensive in E Sinai 7 Sept, reported it killed 30 militants in assault on 12 villages; publicly blamed Hamas for allowing Egyptian and Palestinian extremists to use tunnels under Gaza border. Gunmen 30 Sept reportedly killed 3 policemen, one soldier in N Sinai.

Egypt

  |  1 Sep 2013

Deteriorated

Violence by security forces against supporters of former president Morsi continued; daily pro-Morsi protests and sit-ins culminated in 14 Aug army crackdown on Morsi supporters in Nahda and Rabaa al-Adawiya squares in Cairo, some 500 reportedly killed and many injured; army declared curfew and state of emergency. Morsi supporters staged further protests 30 Aug; at least 6 reported killed in clashes with police. Cycle of violence that began 14 Aug believed to have claimed over 1,000 lives. Army continued arrests of Muslim Brotherhood (MB) leaders, including MB supreme guide Mohammed Badie on charges of inciting violence; govt 17 Aug announced it is engaged in “war on terror”, considered dissolving MB, however Interim PM Beblawi 27 Aug said would instead monitor group. Interim govt continued transition plan with drafting of several constitutional amendments behind closed doors. Govt mid-Aug closed Islamist TV channels, arrested journalists critical of new govt. Judiciary 12 Aug extended Morsi’s detention. Prominent opposition figure Mohammed ElBaradei 14 Aug resigned post in new govt as VP for International Affairs in protest at army crackdown. Retribution killings against army and police officers increased in major cities including Giza, Ismailia and Alexandria; pro-Morsi militants 14, 16 Aug reportedly attacked several churches, prompting Coptic Church to declare support for army, police. Ousted President Mubarak released from prison 21 Aug, put under house arrest. Egypt increasingly isolated internationally as army repression widely condemned; EU 21 Aug restricted arms sales to Egypt, will review aid. Violence in Sinai continued, militants 19 Aug killed at least 25 Egyptian soldiers in the border city of Rafah.

Egypt

  |  1 Aug 2013

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Political tensions reached new heights after military leadership 3 July removed President Morsi following mass protests late June/early July, suspended constitution and 4 July replaced him with head of Supreme Constitutional Court Adly Mansour as interim president. Mansour mid-July issued constitutional decree dissolving parliament, also appointed new interim cabinet with no Islamists included; also appointed committee to review amendments to constitution. MB refused to concede presidency, 16 July said new cabinet “illegitimate”. Violence intensified as pro-Morsi protesters clashed with security forces and MB opponents; 8 July clash between Republican Guards and Morsi supporters left over 80 supporters and 1 army officer dead. Rival rallies late month saw over 70 pro-Morsi protesters killed. Military detained and arrested hundreds of MB leaders and members as well as Islamist politicians who refuse to recognise legitimacy of 3 July military intervention. Interim govt 31 July said it will take measures to disperse pro-MB sit-ins, considered to constitute a “threat to national security”; protesters defied announcement. Morsi put under house arrest and accused 26 July of murder, kidnapping and ties with Hamas; EU FM Ashton 29 July met Morsi, said appeared healthy. Militant attacks on security forces in Sinai continued, with sporadic sectarian attacks against Christians in Upper Egypt. UAE, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait early July committed aid/loans totalling $12bn.

Egypt

  |  1 Jul 2013

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Egypt Tensions between Muslim Brotherhood supporters and opponents continued to intensify, exacerbated by continued deterioration in socio-economic conditions, increasingly frequent power cuts and gasoline shortages. Amid increasingly aggressive rhetoric on both sides, opposition rejected President Morsi’s 2 June call for national dialogue. Thousands gathered for pro-Morsi rally in Cairo 21 June. Morsi 26 June proposed setting up committee for national reconciliation and another for proposing constitutional amendments, but opposition rejected initiative. At least 10 killed in unrest late month and during large-scale opposition rallies in Cairo and other cities 30 June, which saw tens of thousands protesting calling for Morsi’s resignation and early presidential elections; Morsi supporters also rallied. Anti-Morsi “Tammarud” (“Rebel”) campaign claimed to have gathered 22mn signatures in petition to oust President, while pro-Morsi “Taggarud” campaign claimed to have gathered 25mn signatures in support of President. Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) 2 June ruled parliament’s upper house illegal but allowed to keep legislative power until new elections held; Shura Council 23 June approved SCC’s May amendments to draft electoral law. Controversial governor reshuffle by Morsi that saw Gamaa’ al-Islamiyya-founded Building and Development Party member Adel Assad Mohamed al-Khayat appointed as Luxor governor 17 June sparked protests, resignation of tourism minister; al-Khayat resigned 23 June, tourism minister withdrew resignation. Morsi 15 June announced Egypt has cut all ties with Syria, called for no-fly zone and Hizbollah withdrawal from Syria; Syrian govt condemned decision. Relations with Ethiopia still tense over Nile dam project (see Ethiopia).

“Egypt parliament ruled illegal, but to stay on”, Reuters, 2 June 2013.


Egypt

  |  1 Jun 2013

Unchanged

Political stalemate between President Morsi’s administration and opponents continued. Morsi 7 May reshuffled cabinet replacing 9 ministers, raising number of officials affiliated with his Freedom and Justice Party from 8 to 10; prompted criticism from opposition National Salvation Front, which had refused to participate in new cabinet unless PM Qandil is replaced. Anti-govt protests continue, though much reduced in number and frequency: young activist group launched “Rebellion” campaign aimed at gathering 15mn signatures in petition to oust Morsi. Tensions in Sinai ongoing; armed group 16 May abducted 7 security officers, called for release of jailed militants; army 22 May freed officers. Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) 25 May rejected draft elections law and demanded right to vote be given to army and police; some MPs threatened to sue SCC. No date yet set for parliamentary elections. Ethiopia’s diversion of Nile waters met with protests (see Ethiopia).

Egypt

  |  1 May 2013

Unchanged

Amid ongoing violent clashes between protesters and police, anti-govt protesters 12 April attempted assault on Muslim Brotherhood (MB) HQ in Alexandria and presidential palace in Cairo. Pro-MB and other Islamists 19 April staged protest demanding judicial purge to remove judges linked to Mubarak regime; Justice Minister Ahmed Mekki resigned 21 April pre-empting removal in forthcoming cabinet reshuffle, presidential legal adviser quit 23 April. President Morsi 10 April dropped charges against journalists for “insulting” him in March, including TV satirist Bassem Youssef. Sectarian violence between Copts and Muslims early April left 7 dead in Abbesaya and Al-Khasous north of Cairo. Reports of violence in Sinai mid-April prompted govt to increase security; Salafi militants in Sinai 17 April fired rockets on Eilat in Israel, no casualties. Security forces reported they dismantled Israeli spy network in northern Sinai. IMF loan negotiations ended 16 April without agreement; Libya, Qatar and Turkey offered financial assistance, Iraq, Libya and Qatar low-cost energy.

Egypt

  |  1 Apr 2013

Deteriorated

Amid ongoing stalemate between president and opposition, clashes between police and protestors continued; renewed violence outside Muslim Brotherhood (MB) Cairo HQ 22 March injured over 100; violent protests against MB 23-24 March. President Morsi 24 March warned he would take “necessary measures” to “protect the nation”; prosecutor general 25 March ordered arrest of several activists. Several killed, hundreds injured 3 March when clashes broke out in Port Said following transfer of detainees accused of involvement in 2012 Port Said soccer riot. Port Said court 9 March acquitted 28 defendants, sentenced 5 to life in prison and 21 to death for role in soccer riot deaths; only 2 police officers found guilty. Presidential spokesperson 14 March said families of those killed in recent Port Said violence would be compensated. Increasing demonstrations motivated by shortages, inflation, price increases. Month also saw unprecedented nationwide strikes by police and security forces; demands included dismissal of Interior Minister, separation of police from political conflicts. 6 March court ruling on electoral law technicality postponed parliamentary elections scheduled for 22 April. Sinai security forces late month reportedly arrested 25 Hamas and Al-Qaida militants attempting to cross to Nile Delta, found weapons cache in El-Arish.

Egypt

  |  1 Mar 2013

Unchanged

President Morsi 21 Feb announced 4-stage parliamentary election starting 27 April, later moved to 22 April to avoid clash with Easter; main opposition coalition National Salvation Front (NSF) 26 Feb announced boycott over transparency concerns. Morsi called for 26 Feb live-broadcast national dialogue session to discuss election fairness guarantees; NSF, Christian representatives did not attend. Govt approved elections monitoring by several NGOs and international organisations. Latest wave of unrest which began 24 Jan continued into Feb in cities and governorates across Egypt, fuelled by anger at police brutality in response to rioting. Protesters outside presidential palace clashed with police 1 Feb; 2 killed. Campaign of civil disobedience initiated 17 Feb in Port Said as protesters demanded official accountability for over 40 protester deaths in Jan violence; over a week of protests, strikes and blockades of govt buildings followed. In attempt to quell anger Morsi 19 Feb agreed to judicial investigation, allocated new funds to area. Civil disobedience campaigns spread to other governorates including Ismailia, Kafr al-Sheikh.

Egypt

  |  1 Feb 2013

Risk Alert Deteriorated

Eve of second anniversary of revolution 26 Jan marked beginning of days of severe unrest and violent clashes between protesters and security forces in major cities; dozens killed. Death sentences given 26 Jan to 21 Port Said soccer fans over Feb 2012  soccer riot sparked massive riots in Port Said, at least 30 killed, over 1,000 injured. President Morsi 27 Jan declared one-month state of emergency and curfew in Suez, Ismailia, Port Said, widely defied by tens of thousands protesting in following days. Morsi same day called for “national dialogue”, rejected by opposition who demanded unity govt and amendments to disputed constitution. Rival factions 30 Jan pledged to condemn violence, participate in talks. Egyptian army chief Gen Abdul Fattah al-Sisi 29 Jan warned political crisis “could lead to a collapse of the state”. As crisis continued Morsi 30 Jan approved law granting army officers judicial arrest power. Court 11 Jan ordered retrial of former president Mubarak, sentenced to life in prison Jan 2012 for involvement in killing of protestors in 2011 uprisings, as well as other regime officials. Supreme Constitutional Court 15 Jan deferred ruling on legality of Egypt’s Islamist-dominated Upper House and Constitutional Assembly. Instability in Sinai continued: policeman shot dead 5 Jan by unidentified gunmen; gunmen 11 Jan attacked patrol protecting cross-Sinai gas pipeline.

Egypt

  |  30 Dec 2012

Unchanged

President Morsi 25 Dec signed into law contentious constitution giving Islamist-dominated upper house of parliament full legislative powers until vote for new lower house is held in 2 months. Despite opposition “no” campaign, constitution passed by 63.8% in 2-stage constitutional referendum; turnout rate 32.9%. Opposition groups claimed violations in both rounds; leaders 23 Dec called new constitution “illegitimate”, said would use “all peaceful, democratic means” to challenge it. Run-up to referendum saw daily pro- and anti-constitution rallies, some drawing tens of thousands. After series of violent attacks against Muslim Brotherhood offices and figures, clashes between thousands of Morsi supporters and hundreds of opponents 5-6 Dec marked worst violence between political factions since fall of Mubarak, with several killed, hundreds injured; 3 senior presidential advisers resigned, blamed Morsi for violence; in 6 Dec speech Morsi blamed Mubarak cronies, conspiracy of foreign agents, political opposition. Morsi 8 Dec revoked controversial Nov decree awarding him sweeping powers until constitutional referendum, but dispute with judiciary continued: many judges refused to oversee referendum despite legal requirement for judicial oversight.

Egypt

  |  1 Dec 2012

Deteriorated
President Morsi 22 Nov issued controversial constitutional declaration temporarily granting himself more powers and immunity from judicial review until a new constitution comes into force; declaration also effectively sacked Mubarak-era chief prosecutor, ordered retrial of recently-acquitted Mubarak officials implicated in violence against protesters, protects Shura Council and Constituent Assembly (CA) from potential court-ordered dissolution, and extended CA deadline to draft new constitution by 2 months. Morsi justified action as necessary to prevent pro-Mubarak judges sabotaging transition proceedings; opposition called declaration a “coup”. Judges 24 Nov said declaration constitutes “unprecedented attack” on judiciary, initiated strike 25 Nov; Morsi 26 Nov made judiciary-proposed compromises to decree. Protests across country started 23 Nov, as well as pro-Morsi counter-protests; 3 killed, hundreds injured in clashes between sides and with security forces. Opposition 25 Nov initiated sit-in in Tahrir Square. CA saw further non-Islamist withdrawals and membership freezes during month, 30 Nov finished draft constitution. However process, quick completion and content of constitution criticised by some liberals, fuelling protests. Morsi said nationwide referendum on draft would be held “soon”; if public approves the constitution, all previous constitutional declarations, including President’s latest, would automatically become void. Morsi credited with negotiating 21 Nov Hamas-Israel ceasefire (see Israel/OPT). Violent clashes began 18 Nov between residents of Qorsaya island in Giza and army over land ownership claims; several killed, 25 arrested. 1 killed, hundreds injured and arrested during days of clashes between demonstrators and police on Mohamed Mahmoud Street in Cairo following 18 Nov demonstration commemorating deadly 2011 clash. 3 members of Egypt’s security forces shot dead, 1 wounded 3 Nov in attack by jihadi gunmen in N Sinai. Militants 26 Nov bombed security bases being built in Sinai, injuring 4. EU approved $6.4bn financial support package; Egypt and IMF reached preliminary deal for $4.8bn loan.

Egypt

  |  1 Nov 2012

Unchanged

Court 23 Oct referred case challenging constitutionality of Islamist-dominated Constituent Assembly (CA) to Supreme Constitutional Court. Draft constitution released 10 Oct criticised by judiciary, opposition, civil society for shortcomings in human rights, separation of powers. Clashes erupted 12 Oct in Tahrir Square between ruling Muslim Brotherhood and opposition supporters denouncing Islamist dominance of CA. President Morsi attempted to remove Mubarak-era Prosecutor-General following 11 Oct court acquittal of 24 Mubarak loyalists accused of involvement in deadly “Battle of the Camels” attack on anti-regime protesters during 2011 uprising. Prosecutor-General 22 Oct ordered investigation into allegations of fraud in presidential election following official complaint by Ahmed Shafiq, who narrowly lost contest; call came day after authorities froze Shafiq’s and family’s assets as part of investigation into his wealth. Libyan militant Karim Ahmed Essam el-Azizi, suspected of involvement in Sept attack on U.S. consulate in Libya, killed by security forces 24 Oct in Cairo. Morsi 8 Oct issued blanket pardon for crimes, except murder, committed in “support of the revolution”.

Egypt

  |  1 Oct 2012

Unchanged

Some 3,000 protesters demonstrated outside U.S. embassy in Cairo 11 Sept over anti-Islam film; some 200 injured, 1 killed in following days as protesters clashed with security forces. Prosecutor’s office 18 Sept issued arrest warrant for 7 Egyptian Coptic Christians, 1 U.S. pastor for alleged role in film’s production on charges of harming national unity, insulting Islam, spreading false information. Mubarak-era PM and presidential candidate Ahmed Shafiq and 10 aviation officials referred to trial on corruption charges; TV presenter Tawfiq Okasha, on trial for incitement to murder President Morsi, arrested 30 Sept for embezzlement. At 5 Sept Arab League summit, President Morsi endorsed change of govt in Syria; 17 Sept held contact group meeting with Iran, Turkey govts to address crisis; further talks held 27 Sept at UNGA meeting in New York. Govt 8 Sept revealed Egypt-Israel cooperation in Sinai security operation, said 32 “criminal elements” killed, 38 suspects arrested. Unidentified gunmen 14 Sept attacked international peacekeeping base in Gora; 1 soldier killed 16 Sept in armed attack on N Sinai security HQ in el-Arish. Court 8 Sept postponed hearing to 2 Oct of lawsuits challenging legality of Constitutional Assembly’s composition; Administrative Court 22 Sept affirmed Supreme Constitutional Court June ruling that caused dissolution of Parliament.

Egypt

  |  1 Sep 2012

Unchanged

Authorities launched largest military operation in Sinai since 1973 after militants 6 Aug attacked border post at Rafah killing 16 policemen, captured 2 armoured vehicles in attempt to penetrate Israel; state media said attackers “jihadists” from Gaza; militants 8 Aug reportedly attacked security checkpoints in al-Arish. Military launched airstrikes against suspected Islamists in response, killing 20, started to seal off smuggling tunnels to Gaza. Court 14 Aug sentenced to death 14 members of al-Tawhid wal-Jihad Islamist group over July 2011 attack on al-Arish. President Mursi 8 Aug announced resignation of 7 senior military officers, including Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) head Gen Tantawi, Chief of Staff Gen Anan, appointed Gen al-Sisi as new SCAF head. Mursi 13 Aug rescinded June Constitutional Declaration giving SCAF legislative powers, issued alternative declaration awarding himself powers while parliament dissolved; 2 Aug swore-in new cabinet under PM Qandil; 30 Aug attended Non-Aligned Movement meetings in Tehran, condemned “oppressive” Assad regime in Syria.

Egypt

  |  1 Aug 2012

Unchanged

Tensions continued between newly-elected President Mursi and military council (SCAF): Mursi 8 July ordered parliament to reconvene, reversing June decision by Supreme Court to dissolve parliament; Supreme Court 10 July overturned presidential decree; SCAF warned Mursi to respect laws, constitution; Parliamentary Speaker al-Katatni same day adjourned parliamentary session pending ruling by high appeals court on implementation of Supreme Court ruling; President Mursi 11 July emphasised commitment to judicial process and dialogue, 24 July appointed water minister Hisham Qandil, a non-partisan technocrat, as PM. U.S. Sec of State Clinton 14 July held first meeting with President Mursi, voiced support for full transition to civilian rule; SCAF warned no-one would prevent it fulfilling role as Egypt’s protector. Authorities 23 July began releasing prisoners detained by military during revolution. Public Prosecutor 16 July ordered former President Mubarak back to prison after improvements in health. Former spy chief and VP Suleiman died 19 July of heart attack in U.S.

Egypt

  |  1 Jul 2012

Unchanged

Month saw Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohammad Mursi inaugurated president after winning 16-17 June presidential run-off; 24 June announcement by electoral commission (PEC) followed mass protests in Tahrir Square, accusations military junta (SCAF) consolidating power. Justice Ministry 13 June granted military powers to arrest civilians; decree annulled 26 June by court. Supreme Court 14 June dissolved Parliament after finding law on parliamentary elections breached equality between independent and party candidates, same day ruled “political exclusion law” passed by parliament unconstitutional. SCAF 18 June issued declaration granting itself sweeping powers, control over budget, legislation, constitution-writing process. Deal reached 8 June over selection of 100-member Constituent Assembly following talks between heads of 22 political parties, SCAF. Court 2 June sentenced former president Mubarak to life in prison for complicity in killing of protesters; acquitted 4 interior ministry officials, 2 local security chiefs, sparking protests;  court 28 June jailed 12 including former oil minister Samih Fahmi over Israel gas deal.  

Egypt

  |  1 Jun 2012

Unchanged

Month saw peaceful voting in 23-24 May presidential elections; announcement of 16-17 June run-off between Muslim Brotherhood’s Morsi, former PM Shafiq sparked protests; Shafiq campaign HQ ransacked 28 May. Military council 31 May ended 31-year state of emergency. Unidentified assailants 2-4 May attacked protesters demonstrating outside defence ministry against military rule, some 11 killed. Bedouin tribesmen 7 May released 10 Fijian members of Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) mission in Sinai, reportedly after demands met.


Egypt

  |  1 May 2012

Deteriorated

Month saw increasing constitutional and electoral turmoil ahead of 23-24 May presidential elections, mass demonstrations against Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF). Former spy chief and VP Suleiman 6 April announced presidential candidacy, sparking mass demonstration primarily by Islamists; Muslim Brotherhood (MB) warned of second revolution should former regime sympathisers return to power. Higher Presidential Election Commission (HPEC) 15 April disqualified 10 of 23 candidates, including the MB’s al-Shatir, Suleiman, Salafist Abu Ismail; MB said Freedom and Justice Party Chairman Mursi to run instead; tens of thousands of protesters from wide range of groups 20-21 April returned to Tahrir Square demanding handover of power to civilian rule. Salafist al-Nour Party 23 April suffered high-profile resignations over party’s perceived failure to endorse Abu Ismail’s presidential bid. Abu Ismail supporters organised sit-in opposite Ministry of Defence, violently attacked by unidentified assailants. Administrative court 10 April suspended Constituent Assembly following mass boycott by secular, minority groups; Advisory Council called on SCAF to issue complementary constitutional declaration setting criteria for equal representation. MB 18 April warned of “fierce war” to keep Islamists out of executive branch, said democracy in danger. Mohamed ElBaradei 28 April launched new Constitution Party. Protests 17 April disrupted start of trial of suspects in Feb Port Said football violence. Interpol 23 April refused Egyptian request to issue international wanted persons alerts for 15 foreigners linked to U.S.-based NGOs. Egypt state-owned gas company EGAS 23 April announced cancellation of gas deal with Israel over unpaid fees. 

Egypt

  |  1 Apr 2012

Deteriorated

Month saw relations between Islamists and secular parties reach low-point over constitution writing process: 5 secular parties, Supreme Court, al-Azhar University late-month boycotted 100-member panel tasked with writing new constitution due to “under representation”; liberal parties accused Muslim Brotherhood (MB), Salafist al-Nour Party of dominating proceedings, announced parallel constituent assembly to write “representative” constitution. Tensions also escalated between MB and ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF): MB’s Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) 21 March threatened vote of no confidence against PM al-Ganzouri govt, renewed calls for FJP-led coalition govt; MB 24 March demanded SCAF hand over power, threatened second revolution if no improvements; SCAF 25 March warned MB to learn from “lessons of history”, MB 31 March announced would run in presidential elections, with Deputy Chairman Khairat al-Shatir as candidate. Chief prosecutor 15 March charged 75 people over February football riot, including police officers, former Port Said security chief; football fans 23 March clashed with security forces in Port Said following decision to ban team for 2 years over violence, 1 killed. Military court 11 March acquitted doctor accused of carrying out forced “virginity tests” on female protesters. Growing lawlessness in Sinai saw gas pipeline attacked 5 March near al-Arish; Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) base in al-Gorah 8 March besieged by Bedouin tribesmen demanding release of jailed member; 2 tourists abducted 18 March visiting St. Catherine's Monastery.

Egypt

  |  1 Mar 2012

Unchanged

Thugs reportedly associated with rival team 1 Feb killed 74 football fans in Port Said; authorities blamed for failure to prevent riot, prompting violent clashes between anti-military protesters and police at Cairo Interior Ministry; at least 12 killed. Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) 21 Feb criticised army-appointed govt, reiterated call for new national unity cabinet; FJP Ahmed Fahmi elected as speaker of parliament upper house, consolidating Islamist control over legislature. Elections Commission 29 Feb announced presidential elections 23-24 May. Egypt, U.S. engaged in intensive discussions to resolve dispute over foreign funding of NGOs: court 26 Feb adjourned trial of 43 NGO workers until 26 April; all 3 presiding judges resigned; travel ban on 7 U.S. employees lifted. Death sentences of 3 convicted in connection with 2004-2005 Sinai Peninsula bombings lifted 14 Feb.

Egypt

  |  1 Feb 2012

Unchanged

Islamist parties secured 73% of assembly seats following first post-Mubarak parliamentary elections held 21 Jan; president due to be elected by June. Freedom and Justice Party leader Mohammed Saad al-Katatni elected 23 Jan as speaker of People’s Assembly. Military 24 Jan partially lifted decades-old emergency law, released roughly 3,000 prisoners ahead of 25 Jan 1st anniversary of start of revolt that toppled President Hosni Mubarak’s regime. Tensions with U.S. after travel ban on 10 Americans, Europeans as part of criminal investigation into foreign-funded democracy groups. Clashes between authorities and Bedouin continued throughout month; Bedouin 11 Jan clashed with army near Suez in attempt to reclaim land, 24 Jan stormed Sinai tourist resort demanding 4m Egyptian pounds to leave. Radioactive material reportedly stolen 19 Jan when Dabaa residents broke into unfinished nuclear plant, blowing up buildings, including what is believed is the reactor.

Egypt

  |  2 Jan 2012

Unchanged

At least 17 people killed 16-22 Dec in clashes between protesters and security forces in Cairo; violence erupted after military forces attempted to disperse 3-week-old sit-in of Tahrir Square demanding swifter transfer to civilian rule. Several thousand women marched in Cairo 20 Dec over abuse of female protesters by security forces. Security forces 29 Dec raided NGO offices across country in investigation into foreign funding; U.S. urged govt to “halt” harassment. In first round of 6-week parliamentary election Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) won around 37% of votes but almost half available seats; ultra-conservative Salafi al-Nour Party won some 24% of votes; liberal Egypt Bloc and Wafd won 13% and 7%. In 2nd round unofficial results show FJP with some 36%, al-Nour 29%, Wafd 10%; 3rd round scheduled 3-4 Jan, with run-offs 10-11 Jan.

Egypt

  |  1 Dec 2011

Unchanged

First parliamentary elections since ouster of President Mubarak began 28 Nov. High turnout for first round despite clashes 19-23 Nov between protesters demanding end of army rule and police in Cairo and other cities. At least 41 killed, over 2,000 injured; truce agreed 24 Nov negotiated by Muslim clerics. Cabinet resigned 21 Nov over violent crackdown on protests; Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) 24 Nov named Kamal al-Ganzouri as new PM. Head of SCAF Field Marshal Tantawi 22 Nov promised civilian president will be elected June 2012, 6 months sooner than planned. Supreme administrative court 18 Nov ruled former members of Mubarak’s NDP party may run in parliamentary elections. 29 injured in 17 Nov clashes with residents during Coptic Christian march in Cairo commemorating 9 Oct clashes with security forces.

Egypt

  |  1 Nov 2011

Unchanged

In worst outbreak of violence since ouster of President Mubarak 26 people killed, over 200 injured 9 Oct in army crackdown on Christian protest in Cairo; Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) denied troops used live ammunition. Thousands of police in nationwide strike 24 Oct to demand better salaries and purge of Mubarak regime officials from security posts. Political parties 2 Oct retracted threat to boycott Nov parliamentary elections after concessions by SCAF on rules allowing members of Mubarak’s former ruling party to run. Head of SCAF Field Marshal Tantawi 5 Oct vowed military will step down but only after it had “fulfilled its commitments”. Egypt and Israel 27 Oct swapped 25 Egyptians in Israeli custody for U.S.-Israeli citizen (see Israel/OPT).

Egypt

  |  1 Oct 2011

Unchanged

Demonstration 9 Sept in Cairo’s Tahrir Square to speed up political reforms and end emergency law turned violent as thousands attacked Israeli embassy; 3 protesters killed, over 1,000 injured in clashes with police. Ruling Military Council reactivated emergency law after attack on embassy, 21 Sept said law will remain in place until 30 June 2012; activists and politicians condemned decision. PM Sharaf 15 Sept said peace deal with Israel not “sacred”; Israeli PM Netanyahu said treaty is anchor of regional stability. Military Council 27 Sept set 28 Nov as date for start of parliamentary elections for lower house, 22 Jan for upper house; registration to start 12 Oct. Almost 60 political parties from across political spectrum 28 Sept threatened to boycott polls unless military council amend election law by 2 Oct. Former Trade Minister Rachid and former Information Minister el-Fikky sentenced to 15, 7 years jail for graft. Gas pipeline to Israel and Jordan attacked 27 Sept in N Sinai; 6th attack on pipeline since Mubarak’s ouster.

Egypt

  |  1 Sep 2011

Unchanged

Trial of ousted President Mubarak began 3 Aug in Cairo court, accused of complicity in killing of protesters and graft; judge ended live TV broadcast 15 Aug to “protect public interest”. Armed forces 1 Aug forcefully dispersed several dozen protesters from Cairo’s Tahrir Square after most groups 31 July suspended 3-week sit-in for Ramadan. 1 Coptic Christian killed, 4 Muslims wounded 7 Aug in sectarian clashes in southern Minya province. Muslim Brotherhood, country’s largest political group, 13 Aug warned military rulers not to interfere in writing of new constitution, after Deputy PM Ali al-Silimi 11 Aug said govt may lay down basic tenets before elections. Army 15 Aug began operation in N Sinai involving about 1,000 troops in coordination with Israel after spike in attack on security forces in region including 30 July assault on police station that killed 6. 5 policemen killed by Israeli army 18 Aug responding to cross-border attack by militants on southern Israel; Egypt threatened to withdraw envoy to Tel Aviv (see Israel/OPT).



Egypt

  |  1 Aug 2011

Unchanged

Largely peaceful sit-in protests in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez 8-31 July; activists demanded swifter reforms, faster prosecution of Mubarak and officials. In face of protests PM Sharaf 21 July shuffled cabinet, replaced 12 members including FM, though unpopular interior minister el-Essawy remained. Over 100 injured in clashes 23 July when protesters attempted to march on Ministry of Defence. Military 23 July intervened to break up rival protests in Alexandria; authorities denied using force. Field Marshall Tantawi, head of ruling military council, 27 July blamed foreign groups for stirring unrest. Parliamentary elections postponed from Sept, polls for both houses now in Nov. Ruling military council 20 July said it will not allow international monitors to observe elections for reasons of national sovereignty.  Cairo court 25 July postponed trial of former interior minister Habib al-Adli until 3 Aug, to be tried alongside ousted president Mubarak; unclear whether Mubarak will appear. 6 killed, 21 injured 29 July in fighting between security forces and armed gunmen in Sinai region.

Egypt

  |  1 Jul 2011

Unchanged

Head of appeals court 1 June announced ousted President Mubarak and 2 sons to stand trial 3 August for killing protesters; Mubarak’s lawyer 20 June confirmed former president has stomach cancer, too ill to transfer from hospital to prison. Former finance minister Youssef Boutros-Ghali 4 June sentenced in absentia to 30 years in prison for profiteering and abusing state and private assets. Over 1,000 injured as protesters, police clashed 28-29 June in central Cairo following confrontations between families of those killed in Jan-Feb uprising. Interim govt 7 June officially recognised Muslim Brotherhood’s new non-theocratic Freedom and Justice Party to participate in Sept parliamentary elections; group 13 June announced will run on one candidate ticket with liberal Wafd party. Ruling military council 12 Jan said it will not field a candidate in forthcoming presidential elections. Supreme Administrative Court 28 June ruled local councils, elected under Mubarak and controlled by disbanded NDP, to be dissolved. Interim govt, Hamas 8 June reached agreement on numbers and opening hours of Rafah border crossing, after Hamas 5 June closed crossing over disagreement over blacklists and delays.

Egypt

  |  1 Jun 2011

Unchanged

At least 12 killed, 230 injured 7 May in sectarian riots in Cairo between Coptic Christians and Muslims; security forces detained 190 for military trial (140 subsequently released), blamed Salafi and ex-regime incitement, warned it will use “iron hand” to maintain security. 2 killed, dozens injured 14 May during clashes as Christians held sit-in protest in front of state TV building from 8 May against lack of state protection. Former interior minister Habib el-Adly 5 May sentenced to 12 years in prison for corruption, awaiting trial for ordering killing of civilians. Public prosecutor 24 May announced ousted president Mubarak and 2 sons to be tried for conspiring to kill unarmed protesters, graft. Tens of thousands in 27 May nationwide protests at slow pace of democratic change; Muslim Brotherhood did not participate. Military rulers 19 May said parliamentary elections will be held by 30 Sept. FM Elaraby elected new Arab League chief 15 May. Rafah border crossing with Gaza Strip permanently opened for certain groups 28 May

Egypt

  |  1 May 2011

Unchanged

Protesters 8 Apr returned to streets in greatest numbers since former president Mubarak’s resignation, demanded Mubarak, top regime officials stand trial. Military, police next day cleared protesters from Tahrir Square; at least 2 killed, military denied it used live rounds. Mubarak and 2 sons 12 Apr placed in detention for alleged corruption, role in deaths of protesters during uprising; following health problems Mubarak held in hospital. Other top regime figures, including former PM Nazif, on trial for graft from 17 Apr. Military 15 Apr replaced provincial governors appointed by Mubarak in concession to ongoing demonstrations. Supreme Administrative Court 16 Apr dissolved Mubarak’s former ruling party, NDP. Formerly banned Muslim Brotherhood 30 Apr announced formation of non-theocratic Freedom and Justice Party, will contest up to half of parliament’s seats in Sept elections. Internal govt report 19 Apr said at least 846 protesters killed, 8,000 injured during Jan-Feb popular uprising; held Mubarak ultimately responsible for deaths.

Egypt

  |  1 Apr 2011

Unchanged

77% voted for constitutional amendments in 19 March referendum, precursor to Sept parliamentary elections and later presidential vote. Ruling Supreme Council 30 March issued interim constitution until new head of state elected. Govt 23 March passed laws easing formation of political parties and imposed prison sentences and fines for strikes and protests disrupting business. State security buildings stormed 4 March, secret police dissolved, renamed National Security, senior officers to face prosecution. Wildcat protests, labour strikes continued; hundreds of protesters reported detained, tortured. 13 Christians killed, 140 wounded 8 March in sectarian violence in outskirts of Cairo. Under pressure from protesters PM Shafiq and other Mubarak-linked cabinet members resigned 3 March. Former transport minister Essam Sharaf PM, new cabinet sworn in 7 March. Public prosecutor 23 March charged former interior minister and security officials with aiding killing of protesters during uprising that ousted former President Mubarak.

Egypt

  |  1 Mar 2011

Improved

President Hosni Mubarak stepped down 11 Feb following 18 days of massive protests; up to 365 civilians and 32 police killed, 5,500 and 1,000 injured respectively. Supreme Military Council assumed control until promised presidential and parliamentary elections within 6 months; 13 Feb dissolved parliament and suspended constitution. Reformists continue to press for purge of all those linked to Mubarak, lifting of 30-year emergency law. Military council 18 Feb warned it will not tolerate further protests or strikes due to disastrous effect on economy following post-Mubarak wave of strikes over economic conditions. New civilian cabinet sworn in 22 Feb with 11 new ministers, including opposition and independent members; however, former Mubarak loyalists retained key PM, FM and justice minister posts. Army 25 Feb forcefully dispersed activists from Tahrir Square; military council 26 Feb apologised, said violence was “unintentional”. Ruling military council 26 Feb proposed constitutional amendments to be put to referendum before planned elections, including term limits on presidency, stronger judicial oversight of elections, restriction of govt power to retain emergency laws. Public prosecutor 28 Feb issued travel ban, freeze of assets on Mubarak. 

Egypt

  |  1 Feb 2011

Deteriorated Risk Alert Resolution Opportunity

Over 135 killed, more than 2,000 injured in security crackdown on anti-govt protesters. Protests against authoritarian rule, poor living standards began 25 Jan during organised “day of revolt” inspired in part by Tunisian uprising (see Tunisia); tens of thousands protested across country over following days. Most serious violence in Suez, Alexandria and Cairo. Army deployed 28 Jan to control late month unrest and looting, 31 Jan vowed to not use force against protestors; some reports implicating regime in chaos and lawlessness as deliberate ploy. Embattled President Mubarak 29 Jan sacked cabinet, appointed intelligence chief Omar Suleiman Vice President, former air force commander Ahmed Shafik as PM, 31 Jan replaced unpopular interior minister implicated in police violence, but protesters continued calls for Mubarak to step down. Opposition figure Mohamed ElBaradei 30 Jan claimed popular and political mandate, including backing of Muslim Brotherhood, to negotiate creation of national unity govt. U.S. President Obama 30 Jan called for “orderly Egyptian-led transition” of govt. Situation rapidly developing as CrisisWatch went to press with major day of protests 1 Feb. Earlier in month, more than 100 people injured during demonstrations over 1 Jan deadly bombing of Coptic Christian church.

Egypt

  |  3 Jan 2011

Unchanged

Ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) won 83% of seats in parliamentary election following 5 Dec run-off after main opposition parties Muslim Brotherhood and Wafd boycotted second round over alleged massive vote-rigging. Protests carried on for weeks, opposition and rights groups called for results to be annulled. Gamal Mubarak, son of President, 27 Dec said presidential election will be held Sept 2011; NDP to meet July to choose candidate. Authorities 20 Dec said Israeli spy ring uncovered, charged Egyptian businessman, 2 Israelis with spying, trying to recruit operatives working for telecoms companies in region. 21 people killed, more than 90 injured in 1 Jan suspected suicide bombing of Coptic Christian church in Alexandria; police 2 Jan clashed with Christian protestors in Cairo, Alexandria demanding more protection. Security forces 28 Dec uncovered weapons stockpile in Sinai Peninsula, including anti-aircraft missiles, bound for Gaza Strip.

Egypt

  |  1 Dec 2010

Deteriorated

28 Nov parliamentary elections marred by irregularities and reports of scattered violence.. Ruling National Democratic Party won 209 of 221 seats decided in first round; 287 seats to be contested in 5 Dec runoff. None of 130 candidates affiliated to banned opposition Muslim Brotherhood won seats outright in first round; 26 will contest second round. Movement called vote "rigged and invalid". Demonstrations, clashes with police during voting, particularly in Nile Delta and the city of Suez; at least 3 people reported killed. U.S. 30 Nov said it was "disappointed" with conduct citing "worrying" problems with restrictions. Ahead of elections, more than 1,300 Muslim Brotherhood supporters detained, about half released by polls. Security forces 11 Nov arrested at least 25 suspected of belonging to radical Islamic group planning to attack Israeli tourists in Sinai Peninsula. Mob torched 10 homes of Christians 16 Nov in al-Nawahid village after rumours of interfaith relationship. One killed, dozens injured, over 150 arrested 24 Nov after Christians clashed with police in Giza over permission to build church

  • "U.S. criticizes Egypt’s elections", CNN, 30 Nov. 2010.

Egypt

  |  1 Nov 2010

Unchanged

President Mubarak 20 Oct set 28 Nov date for parliamentary elections. Banned Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, largest opposition group, 9 Oct ignored calls for opposition boycott led by Mohamed el Baradei, announced affiliated candidates will contest 30% of seats; reported that within a week more than 160 members detained, 90 affiliated businesses raided. Govt increased state control over media and information through series of new measures; journalists’ union 4 Oct accused govt of cracking down on media critical of authorities. High Administrative Court 23 Oct banned permanent Interior Ministry presence on university campuses.

 

Egypt

  |  1 Oct 2010

Unchanged

Reformist Mohamed ElBaradei 6 Sept called for boycott of Nov parliamentary elections, warned of “civil disobedience” if political reform not forthcoming. Opposition Al-Ghad party 14 Sept joined boycott; Al-Wafd party 17 Sept voted to participate in election. Police 21 Sept arrested at least 55 protesters during anti-govt demonstrations in Cairo, Alexandria. Intelligence chief reportedly met Hamas leader Khaled Meshal in Saudi Arabia early Sept in attempt to reconcile group with Fatah ahead of 14 Sept second round of U.S.-brokered peace talks in Egypt (See Israel/OPT). Top Hamas internal security official arrested in Cairo airport 19 Sept over falsified travel documents, freed 24 Sept. Bedouin 24 Sept surrounded police station in remote Sinai village, set police vehicle on fire.

 

Items 1 - 50 of 135 First   Previous   Next   Last
 
This page in:
English

CrisisWatch N°135

crisiswatch

CrisisWatch Map

CrisisWatch

View CrisisWatch as an interactive map.