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CrisisWatch Database

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DR Congo

  |  3 Aug 2015

Unchanged

Establishment of provinces continued throughout month, increasing number of provinces from eleven to 26, following 11 July govt announcement of end decentralisation process. Electoral commission 28 July announced elections for provincial governors to take place 6 Oct instead of 31 Aug. Parliament 4 July began special session to discuss legislation required for local elections. Attacks on civilians attributed to Ugandan Allied Defence Forces (ADF) rebels continued in Beni: nine killed 14 July, three killed 24 July.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jul 2015

Unchanged

Several killed in 2 June attack on Goma airport, govt linked attack to insecurity around Beni. Several FARDC officers in “Sukola 1” operation against Ugandan ADF rebels arrested 14 June, accused of spreading insecurity; head of operation General Mondoz replaced 5 June. Electoral Commission proceeded with preparations for provincial elections, despite unclear funding and parliament’s failure to adopt key law on number of seats allocated to decentralised entities. President Kabila continued consultations; major opposition parties refused to participate. MONUSCO chief Martin Kobler 24 June said Patriotic Force of Resistance in Ituri (FRPI) rebel group weakened in joint MONUSCO-FARDC operation.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jun 2015

Unchanged

Attacks attributed to Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) in north Beni intensified following confirmation of ADF leader Mukulu’s arrest by Tanzania 29 April: two Tanzanian peacekeepers killed in 5 May ambush; some 23 reported killed near Beni 10 May; nineteen ADF fighters, four soldiers killed in clashes 12 May. Dozens reportedly killed in renewed clashes between Bantu and pygmies in south east 30 April-4 May. MONUSCO deputy chief 19 May called for FARDC and MONUSCO cooperation against ADF; cooperation remains dependent on dialogue between govt and MONUSCO. President Kabila’s 13 May initiative for political dialogue rejected 18 May by several opposition parties.

 

DR Congo

  |  30 Apr 2015

Unchanged

Govt early month announced inquiry into 19 March mass burial in Kinshasa’s Maluku district following popular and international calls for independent investigation. Govt said grave used to empty city morgue of unclaimed bodies, amid suspicions it contains bodies of protesters killed in Jan demonstrations against electoral law. Election commission CENI 15 April began candidate registration for Oct provincial elections despite calls to delay; opposition 20 April suspended its participation in process, requested meeting with CENI to revise electoral calendar. Authorities reported Rwandan incursion 22 April in N Kivu, one person wounded; Rwanda denied. Three MONUSCO members kidnapped 23 April in N Kivu, released 28 April. Attacks attributed to Ugandan rebel group ADF continued north of Beni, N Kivu; FARDC 29 April said one of ADF’s leaders killed in operation.

DR Congo

  |  1 Apr 2015

Unchanged

MONUSCO mandate renewed for one year 26 March, force reduced by 2,000. National intelligence service (ANR) 15 March arrested dozens in Kinshasa including visiting Senegalese-Burkinabe activists, Congolese activists, and USAID worker. Goma-based movement Lutte pour le changement’s (LUCHA) protest violently repressed 17 March; ten activists arrested, govt later claimed U.S. responsible for supporting social unrest; parliamentary mission established 28 March to investigate. President Kabila 2 March promulgated law on creation of 26 provinces from current eleven by mid-July. Tensions within presidential majority continued including 5 March request from senior party members’ alliance for clarity on Kabila’s candidacy. Army mid-March claimed unilateral Congolese military operation against FDLR neutralised 182 rebels.

DR Congo

  |  2 Mar 2015

Unchanged

Following Jan violent protests, President Kabila 18 Feb promulgated amended version of controversial electoral law. Electoral Commission (CENI) 12 Feb published 2015-2016 electoral calendar, condemned by opposition for lack of consensus or realism. UN 13 Feb said it would not support FARDC military operations until controversial commanders in N Kivu replaced. President Kabila 16 Feb reaffirmed decision to launch unilateral military operations against FDLR rebels, operations began 24 Feb in S Kivu. Conflict between Bantu and pygmies flared in Manono district, N Katanga, leaving seven dead mid-Feb.

DR Congo

  |  2 Feb 2015

Unchanged

Violent protests in several cities 19-21 Jan followed National Assembly’s 17 Jan adoption of controversial draft electoral bill linking national census to presidential elections, raising potential delay; at least fourteen reportedly killed in clashes in capital. Senate 23 Jan adopted amended version of bill passed by Assembly, omitting census-elections link. Joint ICGLR-SADC summit on military option against FDLR scheduled for 15 Jan cancelled by Angola on basis that agreement already exists, DRC govt said military action “inevitable”. UNSC 8 Jan urged swift military action; FARDC 29 Jan announced launch of offensive without MONUSCO. Military operations against armed groups in eastern provinces ongoing: MONUSCO troops 5 Jan attacked FNL bases in Uvira, S Kivu; several clashes between FRPI militia and FARDC south of Bunia, Ituri.

DR Congo

  |  5 Jan 2015

Unchanged

President Kabila 7 Dec appointed national cohesion govt, “Matata II”; interior, defence, justice, finance and budget ministries reshuffled. Kabila gave State of Union speech 15 Dec, repeated call for MONUSCO downscaling, UN and international community to take non-political role. Attacks by suspected ADF-Nalu continued: 37 civilians killed 7 Dec in Oïcha, thirteen killed 8 Dec 30km north of Beni. Local communities 20 Dec asked international community to investigate; MONUSCO and FARDC announced joint operations. Demobilised FDLR combatants arrived in Kisangani 3 Dec; 150 FDLR combatants voluntarily surrendered 28 Dec in Kivus. M23 rebels being repatriated from Uganda 16 Dec refused placement in Kamina DDR camps in DRC, citing security concerns; about 120 repatriated to DRC, majority staying in Uganda; ICRC and UNHCR refused to host them.

DR Congo

  |  1 Dec 2014

Unchanged

Ongoing attacks in Beni, N Kivu, attributed to Allied Defence Forces (ADF) militias: over 200 killed since early Oct, one attack targeted MONUSCO vehicles; several arrested, govt and opposition traded accusations of political complicities. MONUSCO reinforcements sent to region; govt imposed curfew 25 Nov; 5 FARDC killed 27 Nov in Dungu. Disarmament program for FDLR rebels slow, 600 alleged FDLR weapons destroyed 27 Nov in Goma; M23 absent from evaluation meeting on implementation of Nairobi declarations held 7 Nov in Kinshasa. Govt 14 Nov announced launch of “Operation Likofi Three” to fight rising crime in Kinshasa.

DR Congo

  |  1 Nov 2014

Unchanged

Attacks attributed to Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) killed over 80, displaced thousands in N Kivu 2-17 Oct; population 22 Oct attacked MONUSCO base in Beni in protest; suspected ADF attack 30 Oct killed 14; President Kabila late Oct visited region, promised action; suspected ADF lynched 31 Oct in Beni. UN joint human rights office (UNJHRO) 9 Oct published report on M23 human rights violations, called for initiation of judicial enquiries; M23 denounced findings. UNJHRO 15 Oct published report on rights violations included extrajudicial executions by police in Kinshasa anti-gang operations; govt declared head of UNJHRO office “persona non-grata”. SADC met 18-20 Oct for mid-term evaluation, FDLR disarmament process due to end early Jan; no progress since last meeting.

DR Congo

  |  1 Oct 2014

Unchanged

Authorities 21 Sept said Ebola outbreak under control after cases confirmed late Aug in Equateur province; 40 dead, 71 suspected cases. FDLR mid-Sept clashed with Cheka armed group in Lubero, North Kivu. SADC summit on DRC 15 Sept urged FDLR to meet 6-month deadline for disarmament, called on international community to initiate resettlement program in third countries. Tensions over possible reform of article 220 of constitution to extend presidential terms limit continued: Senate President Léon Kengo Wa Dondo 15 Sept reiterated opposition; platform of opposition parties rallied against reform 13 and 27 Sept in Kinshasa. MP Jean-Bertrand Ewanga sentenced 11 Sept to one year imprisonment on charges of insulting head of state, govt and parliament. Military reshuffle announced 18 Sept. President Kabila 25 Sept confirmed elections to be held in 2016.

DR Congo

  |  1 Sep 2014

Unchanged

UN SRSG Kobler 7 Aug proposed benchmarks for Oct evaluation of FDLR disarmament; regional ICGLR summit 14 Aug also set Oct benchmarks, threatened military action against FDLR in case of noncompliance; Rwanda called for quicker military action. ICGLR also called on DRC govt to provide roadmap for M23 repatriation. UNSC 26 Aug called for swift neutralisation of FDLR, stressed MONUSO’s mandate allowing unilateral and joint military operations. Constitutional reform debate intensified: opposition parties 4 Aug protested against reform in Kinshasa; Union pour la Nation Congolaise (UNC) MP Jean-Bertrand Ewanga arrested 5 Aug, charged with insulting president; majority coalition’s internal debate held 25 Aug, after request by Social Movement for Renewal (MSR); national referendum on constitutional reform closely considered.

DR Congo

  |  1 Aug 2014

Unchanged

Saïd Djinnit appointed UN Special Envoy for the Great Lakes region 17 July, replacing Mary Robinson. Govt 11 July presented final updated version of national disarmament plan to potential donors. Joint SADC – ICGLR meeting held in Luanda, 2 July agreed to six-month timeframe for demobilisation and reintegration of FDLR fighters and mid-term evaluation of progress. Demobilisation of FDLR currently stalled, govt 16 July decided to temporarily transfer former FDLR rebels to Kisangani ahead of formal relocation process. 4th list of amnesties made public by govt 9 July, 315 persons on list including 68 M23 members. After many delays, DRC mission to identify and register M23 combatants (agreed in Dec 2013 Nairobi declaration) allowed to visit Rwanda. Tshatshi military camp in Kinshasa attacked 22 July, 7 attackers and 2 presidential guards reportedly killed.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jul 2014

Unchanged

Clashes between Rwandan and Congolese troops at border in Kanyecheza, north of Goma/Gisenyi, killed up to 5 FARDC soldiers 11-12 June; Rwanda and DRC traded blame, Kigali reasserted allegation FARDC infiltrated by Hutu extremists. Regional ICGLR team visited area on fact-finding mission; MONUSCO called for calm, deployed intervention unit to area, announced investigation. FDLR demobilisation continued: 83 surrendered to MONUSCO in Kitogo, S Kivu; ceremony attended by SADC delegation; further steps and timing uncertain, depends on FDLR assessment of progress in meeting its requests. FDLR elements reportedly involved in creation of new Hutu military groups in Lubero territory, N Kivu. Over 33 civilians killed 6 June in Mutarala territory, Ruzizi plain near Burundi border; perpetrators unknown but incident widely attributed to Banyamulenge; majority of victims reportedly ethnic Bafuliru. Several MPs called for govt to cut ties with Congo-Brazaville over expulsion of DRC citizens, ongoing reports of rights abuses.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jun 2014

Unchanged

Anti-ADF operation “Sukola” continued in N Kivu; army seized most known ADF strongholds. Operations against the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) stalled. 2 new Hutu groups “Force Populaire pour la Protection des Hutu” and “Ingobokagihugu”, allegedly collaborating with FDLR, formed in Lubero. Fighting between FDLR/allied groups and Mai Mai Cheka/NDC displaced thousands in Lubero. FARDC operations against the Alliance of Patriots for Free and Sovereign Congo (APCLS) ongoing in Masisi/Walikale region. U.S. Sec State Kerry and Special Envoy Russ Feingold early May met with President Kabila, Kerry expressed concern over whether two-term limit will be respected in next election, announced $30mn support for transparent elections and reconstruction programs in east. Tensions mounted between DRC and Republic of Congo over vast security operation in Brazzaville in recent months that led to expulsions of thousands of DRC nationals; UN 26 May denounced ensuing humanitarian crisis, demanded halt to deportations. Former warlord Katanga sentenced to 12-year jail term by ICC 23 May.

DR Congo

  |  1 May 2014

Unchanged

Anti-Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) operation Sukola continued: stronghold Medina in N Kivu taken by army 13 April; Uganda military 22 April reported ADF leader Mukulu fled DRC. Ongoing army operations against Force de résistance patriotique de l’lturi (FRPI) in Ituri. Mai Mai-Simba militia leader Paul Sadala 12 April surrendered with 40 members; Sadala killed in gunfire 14 April while being escorted by army to Bunia, circumstances unclear. First list of 50 people granted amnesty under Feb amnesty law published 19 April, included 15 M23 members.

DR Congo

  |  1 Apr 2014

Unchanged

FARDC/MONUSCO operations in N Kivu continued: eastern town Lukweti recaptured 15 March from APCLS rebels after 6 years; soldiers 1 March struck ADF-NALU base near Beni, throughout month engaged in minor clashes with FDLR in Virunga national park. ADF-NALU sporadically retaliated: grenade attack on MONUSCO vehicle 3 March injured 5. UN 28 March extended MONUSCO and Intervention Brigade mandate to 31 March 2015.

DR Congo

  |  1 Mar 2014

Unchanged

UN SRSG Martin Kobler early Feb visited Katanga province, called on militias to disarm; MONUSCO 18 Feb announced reinforcements to be sent to Pweto territory after surge in deadly attacks on civilians by local militias; UN 25 Feb deployed some 100 troops to Katanga. MONUSCO 20 Feb denounced execution of over 70 civilians by armed groups in N Kivu, started investigation. Govt 14 Feb claimed victory in offensive against ADF-NALU in east. Parliament 4 Feb approved law granting amnesty for acts of insurgency and war, excluding genocide and war crimes: law welcomed by UN envoys, opposed by rights groups. Major opposition figure Vital Kamerhe of Union for the Congolese Nation (UNC) repeatedly obstructed during planned tour of east; supporters in Bukavu violently dispersed by police 20 Feb, UN reported nearly 50 injured.

DR Congo

  |  1 Feb 2014

Unchanged

Army and MONUSCO 18 Jan launched offensive in east against ADF-NALU; 14 Jan repulsed Mai Mai Sheka attack on Pinga in N Kivu; 4 soldiers killed, 3 civilians injured. Army 6 Jan clashed with Mai Mai Kata Katanga in Lubumbashi and Pweto, 26 killed. 3 rebels, 1 ranger killed 12 Jan in clash between Virunga Park rangers and suspected FDLR. Army commander credited with defeat of M23 killed in N Kivu 2 Jan; several military officers including one general arrested. Regional summit 15 Jan reaffirmed commitment to implementing Feb 2013 DRC cooperation framework and support to UN Special Envoy Mary Robinson. Robinson 11-12 Jan visited DRC, praised preparation of electoral roadmap, draft amnesty law and new DDR efforts. Blast 24 Jan in arms depot in Mbuji Mayi, 20 injured. Over 40 fighters from different groups surrendered to MONUSCO in N Kivu late Jan.

DR Congo

  |  2 Jan 2014

Deteriorated

Security deteriorated with attempted coup by reported supporters of pastor Gideon Mukungubila 30 Dec: armed youths attacked state television, airport and military camp in Kinshasa; 46 attackers reportedly killed, 20 arrested by security forces. Congolese govt, M23 and Ugandan govt 12 Dec agreed to end fighting in East; agreement included amnesty for those not responsible for war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, and demobilisation of M23 soldiers. UN report leaked mid-Dec said M23 continuing to recruit in Rwanda, accused Congolese army of rights abuses and profiting from illegal mining in eastern provinces. 21 killed mid-Dec in series of attacks on villages near Beni, N Kivu; perpetrators unknown but some reports suggest Allied Democratic Forces behind attacks; UN deployed additional forces to province. At least 40 killed 25 Dec in reported ADF-NALU attack on Kamango village, N Kivu.

DR Congo

  |  1 Dec 2013

Improved

Govt rapidly deployed state services to eastern provinces with support of MONUSCO in order to restore state authority to region following 30 Oct military defeat of M23 rebels. M23 3 Nov called for ceasefire, 6 Nov said would disarm, pursue political settlement. Negotiations between govt and M23 collapsed 11 Nov as govt refused to sign any doc titled “peace agreement”. UN 13 Nov emphasised need for comprehensive DDR plan. At least 20, including 12 children, reportedly killed in police operation to tackle “delinquency” in Kinshasa; UN called for immediate govt action to prevent abuses. Trial began of 39 govt soldiers accused of mass rape in Minova in Nov 2012.

DR Congo

  |  1 Nov 2013

Unchanged

Heavy fighting between govt forces and M23 rebels in east resumed 25 Oct after peace talks suspended, reportedly over disagreement on amnesties for M23 rebels. Congolese army and UN forces quickly took control of M23 strongholds Kiwanja and Rutshuru 27 Oct, 1 peacekeeper killed by M23; last M23 stronghold Bunagana captured by govt troops 31 Oct; UN said M23 in disarray. U.S. and UN envoys mid-month attended peace talks where consensus reached on 8 of 12 articles of agreement including release of political prisoners, end of M23 rebel movement and resettlement of refugees and IDPs; no agreement reached on DDR or immunity for M23. Mayi Mayi attacks in east killed at least 34; UN condemned “unimaginable atrocities”. National dialogue on crisis in east ended late Sept without major incident. 15 UNSC representatives visited President Kagame and DRC Pesident Kabila, 7 Oct said regional states to determine peace in DRC.

DR Congo

  |  1 Oct 2013

Unchanged

Govt talks with M23 rebels resumed 10 Sept; skirmishes between FARDC and M23 restarted 26 Sept north of Kiwanja. President Kabila 25 Sept condemned Rwanda’s “never-ending aggression” at UNGA. At least 10 killed in clashes between rival militias in Masisi late Sept. Clashes between govt forces and Ituri Patriotic Resistance Front (FRPI) continued in Ituri, thousands displaced. National consultations began 7 Sept; President Kabila promised amnesty to defuse political tensions, 1,025 prisoners paroled followed by rise in criminality in Kinshasa. Main opposition parties boycotted process; 7 ex-rebel groups allowed to take part in consultations; deadline extended.

DR Congo

  |  1 Sep 2013

Deteriorated

Fighting between army and M23 rebels restarted around Goma late Aug; UN “intervention brigade” fought alongside national army for first time, shelled rebel positions, one peacekeeper killed, 5 injured; peacekeepers accused of killing 2 during protests against fighting. U.S. 25 Aug expressed alarm at violence, condemned M23 rebels, called for end to hostilities. M23 30 Aug announced unilateral ceasefire, withdrawal from front line. Tensions with Rwanda increased with accusations of cross-border bombings (see Rwanda); govt accused Rwanda of firing rockets on Goma to aid M23; Assistant UNSG Edmond Mulet 29 Aug said “consistent and credible reports” of ongoing Rwandan support for M23. Rwanda 27 Aug opposed additional UN sanctions on M23 military leaders Kazamama and Mboneza after M23 shelled civilians in Goma. MP Muhindo Nzangi Butondo arrested 11 Aug after criticising President Kabila’s management of M23 crisis. Army Colonel Richard Bisamaza 12 Aug defected along with some 60 men in N Kivu in largest defection so far this year; Bisananza reportedly killed in military operations mid-Aug. Army 23 Aug launched offensive in Lendu Bindi, Ituri District, against Ituri Patriotic Front (FPRI) rebels; thousands displaced. 300 Ugandan soldiers 27 Aug reportedly entered Mahagi, Ituri District, after govt relocated customs checkpoint closer to Uganda border. Preparatory workshop for national consultations opened 17 Aug; Speaker 28 Aug rejected Senate president Léon Kengo Wa Dondo’s earlier assertion that consultations would lead to cabinet reshuffle; opposition UDPS and UNC refused to participate in workshop.

DR Congo

  |  1 Aug 2013

Deteriorated

Month saw renewed fighting between M23 and FARDC national army including clashes 14-17 July in Mutaho, near Goma; govt 17 July reported at least 120 M23 rebels, including 15 Rwandans, killed. M23 said 5 civilians killed in govt strikes on Rumangabo camp north of Goma 24 July. MONUSCO 30 July announced it would use intervention brigade to enforce security zone around Goma, gave rebels 48 hours to disarm, threatened use of force. Uganda 10 July unsuccessfully attempted to revive Kampala peace talks between DRC govt and M23 rebels; regional leaders 24 July called for ceasefire. UNSC 26 July discussed insecurity in east, stated support for peace efforts; regional leaders met in Nairobi 27-31 July to discuss regional insecurity and conflicts. Human Rights Watch report late July documented rights violations by M23 in east. Group claiming to be Ugandan ADF rebels 11 July seized Kamango, North Kivu, took hostages; FARDC 13 July retook town; UN reported tens of thousands fled to Uganda.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jul 2013

Unchanged

Nyatura militia 17 June attacked M23 convoy, at least 8 M23 forces killed. MONUSCO 27 June denounced M23 human rights violations. Army 22 June reported it had repelled Mai Mai assault on Lubumbashi prison. UNSG Ban 10 June announced Martin Kobler UNSRSG and head of UN peacekeeping mission. National Assembly 8 June announced new electoral commission (CENI) to be chaired by priest Abbé Malumalu, who chaired Independent Electoral Commission during 2006 elections, despite opposition to his appointment from Congolese Catholic Church; CENI sworn in 14 June amid scepticism. National Assembly 15 June invalidated 5 opposition MPs citing prolonged absenteeism; accusations that move politically motivated.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jun 2013

Unchanged

First contingent of UN intervention force arrived in Goma 13 May; UNSG Ban visited Goma 23 May, said full contingent of 3,000 soldiers ready within 2 months. 19 international NGOs 23 May sent letter expressing concerns over intervention force. Armed clashes between M23 rebels and army resumed 20 May on outskirts of Goma killing 19; M23 28 May repeated ceasefire call, said they could easily target airport. Opposition, civil society failed to meet 27 May deadline for submission of appointees to new enlarged election commission CENI. IMF 13 May agreed to unfreeze financial aid suspended in 2012. Govt 23 May appointed François Muamba, former Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC) VP, as coordinator of National Oversight Mechanism of the Peace Agreement Framework; signatories agreed on Regional Oversight Mechanism.

DR Congo

  |  1 May 2013

Unchanged

Authorities announced assassination plot against President Kabila foiled 17 April. Talks between M23 and govt remain stalled; M23 rebels 12 April warned of reprisals if attacked by 3,069-strong UN intervention force expected to deploy late April; UN 25 April appointed Brazilian General dos Santos Cruz head of MONUSCO. Govt 5 April authorised controversial ban on exports of non-processed copper and iron; mineral-rich Katanga province rejected ban. 12 senior army officers suspended 11 April following UN probe into mass rape allegations.

DR Congo

  |  1 Apr 2013

Unchanged

ICC indictee Bosco Ntaganda 18 March surrendered to U.S. embassy in Kigali, ending violent infighting between M23 rebel factions in DRC that has killed over 150; transferred to ICC custody 22 March. Ntaganda-allied Jean-Marie Runiga and Baudoin Ngaruye reportedly crossed into Rwanda 16 March with 550 M23 fighters; Rwanda swiftly announced their arrest. Ntaganda rival Sultani Makenga reportedly assumed leadership of M23. Following Ntaganda’s surrender, DRC and Ugandan govts announced imminent resumption of Kampala talks. President Kabila 24 March met with Rwandan and Ugandan counterparts in Oyo, Congo Brazzaville, to discuss regional security. Mayi Mayi asking for Katanga independence briefly occupied Lubumbashi 23 March before surrendering to MONUSCO. UNSC 28 March approved deployment of 2,500-strong intervention force.

DR Congo

  |  1 Mar 2013

Unchanged

Regional leaders 23 Feb signed Peace Framework Agreement under auspices of UN, AU, SADC and Great Lakes region; states agreed to abstain from interfering in internal affairs of neighbours, DRC agreed to structural reform. Govt 6 Feb signed agreement with M23 rebels on implementation of March 2009 peace agreement. Clash between rival M23 factions 24 Feb reportedly left 10 dead in Rutshuru region; M23 rebels 27 Feb accused leader Jean-Marie Runiga of treason and embezzlement, replaced him with General Sultani Makenga. Several Mayi Mayi groups 9-17 Feb attacked villages close to Lubumbashi and Pweto, Katanga Province. Head of UN mission Meece 21 Feb told UNSC of concern at re-emergence of armed groups, reported “worrisome security developments” in N Katanga.

DR Congo

  |  1 Feb 2013

Unchanged

Govt talks with M23 rebels resumed 17 Jan after agreement on agenda, but plans to sign peace deal on 28 Jan cancelled as negotiations stalled. U.S. 9 Jan backed UN plans to deploy surveillance drones to aid peacekeepers. UN/SADC/AU/ICGLR leaders 28 Jan failed to reach agreement on deployment of neutral force. Rebel groups continued to launch attacks in east: Mai Mai Morgan militants 7 Jan seized Mambasa city in Province Orientale for 3 days; Front for Patriotic Resistance of Ituri (FRPI) 11 Jan attacked Kagaba city, Irumu; Mai Mai Gedeon and Bakata Katanga militias launched several attacks in Katanga province; Rayia Mutomboki 10 Jan attacked several areas in Shabunda territory, South Kivu. 2013 budget adopted 15 Jan with significant increase in defence spending.

DR Congo

  |  30 Dec 2012

Unchanged

M23 rebel group withdrawal from Goma completed 2 Dec. Opposition parties 6 Dec rejected invitation to join govt-M23 talks facilitated by Uganda beginning 7 Dec; talks made little progress, extended to end of 2012. Insecurity around Goma, IDP camps continues. 2 MONUSCO helicopters reportedly fired at from areas under M23 control 26 Dec. ICC 18 Dec acquitted former militia leader Mathieu Ngudjolo (Chui) of war crimes, crimes against humanity in 2003 in Ituri.

DR Congo

  |  1 Dec 2012

Deteriorated

M23 rebels 15 Nov launched offensive against FARDC in east with alleged support from Rwanda, 19 Nov took regional capital Goma prompting thousands to flee and sparking protests against Monusco and presidential political party PPRD; M23 rapidly extended control to Sake town 10km from Goma, announced intention to take S Kivu capital Bukavu. President Kabila 19 Nov met with Rwandan, Ugandan counterparts for emergency regional meeting; 3 presidents 20 Nov called for M23 withdrawal from Goma. UNSC 20 Nov condemned Goma takeover and called for immediate withdrawal, 28 Nov extended sanctions against armed groups in DRC to 1 Feb 2014, said additional measures against M23 leaders and supporters will be considered. International Conference of the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) met 24 Nov; peace deal announced following reported first meeting between M23 rebels and President Kabila at gathering. M23 leader Colonel Sultani Makenga 29 Nov announced withdrawal from Goma and Sake; rebel leaders 30 Nov said withdrawal delayed due to “logistical reasons”, UN peacekeepers impeding withdrawal; promised rebels would fully withdraw by 2 Dec. UN Group of Experts report 21 Nov substantiated alleged Rwandan and Ugandan support for M23; Group mandate and current sanctions renewed 28 Nov for 14 months.

DR Congo

  |  1 Nov 2012

Unchanged

Clashes between M23/Congolese Revolutionary Army rebels and FARDC continued in east. M23 10 and 14 Oct conducted unsuccessful offensives to extend territory in NE. FARDC 24 Oct began integration of Nyatura local militias. Leaked UN group of experts report mid-month said Uganda, Rwanda backing M23 rebellion; UNSC 19 Oct announced intention to impose sanctions on M23 leaders, anyone who violated sanctions regime, arms embargo. DRC 17 Oct called for sanctions against Ugandan and Rwandan officials named in leaked report. At 14th Francophonie summit in Kinshasa, French president Hollande, Canadian PM Harper criticised govt over human rights, democratic record; govt denounced outside involvement in eastern rebellion. Attempted assassination of rights activist Dr Denis Mukwege in Bukavu 25 Oct prompted international condemnation. 6 UN peacekeepers wounded 19 Oct near Buganza, NE; 2 rangers, 1 soldier, 5 Mayi Mayi rebels killed 25 Oct in attack on Virunga National Park, NE.

DR Congo

  |  1 Oct 2012

Unchanged

Regional summit on DRC conflict early Sept agreed to deploy neutral force, excluding Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi troops, to combat M23 rebels. UN peacekeeping chief Hervé Ladsous 18 Sept told UNSC M23 rebels have established de facto administration in east. Govt 20 Sept began integration of 800 FRPI militias in Ituri into FARDC, 7 Sept initiated talks with Hutu self-defence groups in Masisi territory, N Kivu. Opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress 6 Sept accused govt of “treason” for crisis in east, presence of Rwandan troops. UNSG Ban 7 Sept expressed concern at continued reports of external support to M23; Human Rights Watch 11 Sept reported M23 rebels committing war crimes, said Rwandan officials possibly complicit. Govt continued to lobby international community to embargo minerals, impose sanctions on Rwanda. Roger Lumbala, Congolese MP and former rebel accused of supporting M23 rebellion in DRC, reportedly early month sought asylum at South African embassy in Burundi before fleeing to France; govt requested extradition.

DR Congo

  |  1 Sep 2012

Unchanged

FARDC defections in S Kivu, Oriental Province and Kasai Occidental continued throughout month. FARDC colonel 14 Aug announced defection, formation of new rebel movement. Insecurity in S Kivu, Ituri escalated despite govt-M23 truce as Mai Mai groups, local militias, FARDC factions stepped up operations. UNSC 2 Aug called for “outside countries” to end support for M23 rebellion; govt 31 Aug said it asked UNSC to impose sanctions on Rwandan Defence Minister, 2 top military officials, for support to M23. ICGLR met 6-8 Aug, 16 Aug, failed to reach agreement on composition, funding of 4,000-strong force to neutralise armed groups, defend borders. UN 23 Aug confirmed providing security for meeting between govt officials and former Alliance of Patriots for a Free and Sovereign Congo (APCLS) leader Janvier Karairi; meeting reportedly discussed future cooperation with FARDC.

DR Congo

  |  1 Aug 2012

Unchanged

M23 early July took control of several towns in N Kivu, pushing back FARDC; M23, FARDC clashed again 25-26 July, FARDC retreated. 2 civilians killed, 2 injured 18 July when MONUSCO bombed M23 troops. President Kabila 12 July met with Rwandan counterpart at International Conference of the Great Lakes Region summit in Addis Abeba, agreed on creation of internationally-backed military force to combat M23 rebels. Raia Mutomboki Mai-Mai 19 July attacked Walikale town, killed Rwandophones.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jul 2012

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Human Rights Watch 4 June reported Rwandan officials supplying Ntaganda with troops, weapons. EU, U.S. 7 June released statements acknowledging external support to M23; UN SRSG Roger Meece 13 June warned UNSC mutiny in east threatens to destabilise region; UNSC 16 June requested enquiry into external support to M23. FARDC defection continued throughout month; M23 extended control in Kivus, pushed back FARDC offensive. CNDP delegation 18 June initiated MONUSCO-facilitated talks with govt. Rwandan govt officials met with DRC counterparts 19 June, reiterated denial of Rwandan support for mutineers; DRC govt 20 June warned of “rupture of the peace” between the two states. AU 21 June called for end to mutiny, use of “political channels” to address concerns. Govt accused U.S. of blocking inclusion of findings on Rwanda’s involvement in interim UN Group of Experts report released 22 June. UNSC 27 June extended MONUSCO peacekeeping mandate 1 year to June 2013. Garamba National Park rangers 6 June clashed with some 50 LRA combatants.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jun 2012

Deteriorated

Fighting escalated in Kivu region as FARDC continue to hunt Bosco Ntaganda, wanted by ICC for war crimes; UNHCR 29 May said over 40,000 displaced by recent violence; MONUSCO said over 98 killed between 9 May and 25 May, N Kivu. New armed group, Movement for 23 March (M23), emerged 10 May after govt crackdown on former CNDP troops following April attempted mutiny by Ntaganda; military court 30 May sentenced in absentia 2 officers to death for role in mutiny, 11 others given prison sentences. Leaked MONUSCO report late May said Rwandans recruited to help M23; Kigali denied allegation, DRC govt 29 May said investigation underway; UN 30 May said 11 Rwandans recruited but no evidence Rwandan govt involved. FDLR launched several attacks on FARDC throughout month in Kivus; UNOCHA 16 May said FDLR killed at least 50 civilians in May. 7 peacekeepers wounded by gunfire 15 May during protest at UN base in S Kivu. Kinshasa police 14 May confirmed investigation into corruption allegations levelled at former PM Adolphe Muzito.

DR Congo

  |  1 May 2012

Deteriorated

April saw further deterioration in Security situation in Eastern DRC. Attempted mutiny by former CNDP leader Bosco Ntaganda, wanted by ICC, failed early April; President Kabila 11 April reportedly called for his arrest, domestic trial; clashes throughout month between army and rebels in Kivus displaced thousands. Doctors early April began strike protesting low pay, collapsing infrastructure. CENI 20 April announced provincial elections for Jan 2013, released report blaming international assistance for problems in presidential elections. SRSG Abou Moussa and AU Special Envoy on LRA Madeira 10-15 April visited DRC, discussed LRA threat with authorities, regional and international partners. PM late April appointed new govt, no opposition politicians included.

DR Congo

  |  1 Apr 2012

Unchanged

FDLR rebel commander Idrissa Muradadi surrendered 10 March during joint MONUSCO-FARDC offensive; fears offensive aggravating civilian displacement, provoking rebel reprisals. ICC 14 March found Thomas Lubanga, alleged Patriotic Forces for the Liberation of the Congo (FPLC) militia leader, guilty of war crimes. Despite requests from ICC, civil society and NGOs, DRC govt continued refusal to fulfil ICC arrest warrant for Bosco Ntaganda, accused of war crimes. UN Joint Human Rights Office 20 March reported security forces loyal to President Kabila killed at least 33 in Kinshasa during Nov 2011 polls; FM Alexis Mwamba 23 March reportedly denounced “unilateral, partisan and selective nature” of report, urged investigation. UNHCR expressed concern at increased LRA attacks on civilians in Orientale Province since Nov 2011, said thousands displaced.

DR Congo

  |  1 Mar 2012

Unchanged

CENI 2 Feb released official election results: ruling coalition took 260 of 500 seats but Kabila’s DDRP party won only 63, down from 111; opposition coalition won 110 seats, 41 of which won by Tshisekedi’s UDPS; 17 seats unfilled pending Supreme Court ruling after allegations of fraud. UNSRSG Meece 8 Feb said elections marred by “numerous problems”, expressed concern over security situation. Key presidential aide killed 12 Feb in plane crash sparking fears of power struggle within Kabila inner circle. Police 16 Feb fired tear gas to disperse Christian groups in Kinshasa protesting Nov 2011 election results; groups 17 Feb said 3 priests, 2 nuns jailed.

DR Congo

  |  1 Feb 2012

Unchanged

CENI 26 Jan published most results from Nov legislative elections, giving ruling PPRD lead with 57 seats followed by opposition UDPS with 34; fractious ruling coalition, including PPRD, believed to have won some 245 of 424 seats, as yet unconfirmed. Majority and opposition parties accused CENI of fixing results; Catholic Church called on CENI to correct results or resign; 40 deputies from parliamentary majority 18 Jan called for cancellation of legislative election results. UDPS leader Etienne Tshisekedi maintained “no concession policy” amid increasing isolation. Month saw surge in violence by armed militants and rebel groups; UNHCR 20 Jan said fresh violence displaced 100,000 since Nov 2011. Over 40 killed, thousands displaced early-Jan by FDLR in South Kivu; Gedeon Mayi-Mayi attack 11 Jan displaced over 10,000 in Katanga; early Jan clashes between rival Walikale and Masisi militias left 22 dead, displaced 35,000.

DR Congo

  |  2 Jan 2012

Deteriorated

Tensions remained high following disputed Nov elections, with continued deadly violence and repression by security forces. President Kabila sworn in 20 Dec despite major and widespread irregularities reported in vote; Kabila 12 Dec admitted flaws in elections but rejected reports by international observers, including EU and Carter Center, that results “lacked credibility”. Counting of ballots for legislative polls continues, without additional international assistance initially agreed by authorities. Human Rights Watch 2 Dec said at least 18 killed in late Nov election violence, 21 Dec said at least 24 killed by security forces, dozens arbitrarily detained since 9 Dec; authorities pledged to investigate. 6 killed in clashes 9-10 Dec after opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi declared himself president; police 23 Dec used stun grenades, tear gas to disperse people attempting to attend Tshisekedi’s self-proclaimed inauguration. MONUSCO 21 Dec announced crackdown on Ituri militias.

DR Congo

  |  1 Dec 2011

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Fears violence will escalate following 28-30 presidential elections marred by disorganisation, allegations of fraud and violence, and subsequent call by 4 opposition candidates for results to be invalidated. SADC, AU observers 30 Nov said polls success, no basis for annulment. Political rallies banned 26 Nov following violence in Kinshasa; police 28 Nov fired tear gas on crowd gathered at Kinshasa polling station. 7 killed 28 Nov in 2 separate clashes in Lubumbashi and West Kasai, SE. Opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS) leader Tshisekedi 7 Nov proclaimed himself president, told followers to jail-break political prisoners, provoking national, international condemnation. Opposition Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC) candidate Marcus Gangale shot dead 22 Nov in Kinshasa. UNSC 29 Nov added Mai Mai Shka leader and parliamentary candidate Ntabo Sheka to UN sanctions list. UN Joint Human Rights Office report 9 Nov documented 188 rights violations Nov 2010 - Sept 2011, most involving police or National Intelligence Services.

DR Congo

  |  1 Dec 2011

Unchanged

Vice PM Mulenda 7 Oct announced arrest of 5 armed men from Congo Brazzaville suspected of planning attack on 6 cities including Kinshasa. 5 Congolese aid workers, 2 civilians killed 6 Oct in Malinda, S Kivu; attack blamed on Burundian National Liberation Front. Police continued to forcibly repress political rallies ahead of 28 Nov elections, including opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS) demonstrations in Kinshasa 6, 18 Oct. UDPS 4 Oct announced kidnapping of Kapata section chief; accused National Intelligence Agency (ANR) of responsibility. Supreme Court 5 Oct declared inadmissible petition filed by UDPS against electoral body (CENI) and ruling Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (PPRD) seeking invalidation of certain PPRD electoral lists; CENI 14 Oct published final candidate list. MONUSCO 7 Oct announced it is developing contingency plan to secure elections; 20 Oct announced 700 police officers being trained to provide better policing in S Kivu during polls.

DR Congo

  |  1 Oct 2011

Unchanged

Tensions continued to rise ahead of Nov presidential, legislative elections. Deadly clashes 1 Sept between police and opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS) supporters demanding transparent electoral process in Kinshasa and Mbuji May town in South; several injured, 2 reported dead in Mbuji May. Also early Sept attacks on UDPS HQ,  ruling Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (PPRD) HQ, arson of opposition media RTLV. 2 UDPS supporters died 5 Sept in riots in Kinshasa, at least 3 others injured. Congo Liberation Movement (MLC) 8 Sept announced leader Jean-Pierre Bemba, currently on trial at ICC, would not be presidential candidate after ICC refused his provisional release; UDPS leader Tshisekedi 5 Sept officially entered race. Electoral Commission (CENI) 19 Sept reportedly agreed to audit of voter register by UDPS experts, key UDPS prerequisite for signing electoral code of conduct; later qualified agreement saying PPRD would also have to audit, PPRD refused. Planned UDPS march on CENI dispersed 29 Sept by police. 7 Sept armed raid on Kassapa prison in Lubumbashi, Katanga, freed nearly 970 inmates, including Mai Mai militia leader Gideon Kyungu Mutanga. Following peace deal struck in run-up to elections, newly integrated banyamulenge militia Federal Republican Forces (FRF) 12 Sept refused to receive biometric cards, demonstrated in Bukavu with weapons. Former Mai Mai officers protested against ranks given to ex-FRF, threatened to disengage from integration process.

DR Congo

  |  1 Sep 2011

Unchanged

Continued violence in S Kivu: 2 Aug attack in Mutungo by Mai-Mai militia Janvier and FDLR displaced nearly 7,000 people; Yakutumba, another Mai-Mai militia, 7 Aug threatened to attack Lubichako town unless locals paid money. LRA remained active in Orientale Province; MONUSCO 8 Aug launched unilateral operation “Dragon Fire” near S Sudanese border, 5 Aug launched joint operation “Long Drive” with FARDC in Haut-Uélé. President Kabila 18 Aug ratified electoral law, despite allegations of inadequate transparency in electoral process, irregularities during voter registration; date for elections confirmed as 28 Nov. Opposition parties rejected “code of good behaviour” presented by CENI and MONUSCO 2 Aug, refused to sign as long as their members remain in jail. MONUSCO 27 Aug agreed to facilitate dialogue between CENI and opposition during electoral period; CENI extended candidate registration period until 11 Sept. Angola denied allegations that many of 20,000 people deported to DRC since April were beaten, raped. Deportations seen by some as part of deteriorating relations between countries; Angolan media July reported thousands of troops deployed to border in response to DRC military exercises.

DR Congo

  |  1 Aug 2011

Unchanged

Ahead of Nov presidential election, electoral commission mid-month completed voter registration, claimed 32mn voters registered. Opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS) claimed irregularities in process including registration of minors; 1 killed, several injured 4 July as security forces dispersed “unlawful” Kinshasa protest by UDPS supporters. Electoral law remains unfinalised, threatening to delay planned 4 Aug start of candidate registration. Main parliamentary opposition party Movement for the Liberation of Congo 22 July announced ICC indictee Jean-Pierre Bemba will be its candidate in presidential election. 2 UN Joint Human Rights Office fact-finding reports on 2010 N Kivu attacks released, implicating FARDC in mass rapes, attacks on civilians; said rapes may constitute crimes against humanity, war crimes. U.S., EU called on govt to end impunity in East. FARDC Col. and former Mai Mai member Niragire Kifaru and 150 men 7 July surrendered to military authorities, following June accusations of mass rapes in S Kivu. Following June surge in LRA activity, attacks continued in Haut-Uélé, Bas-Uélé.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jul 2011

Unchanged

Parliament 13 June passed electoral law ahead of planned Nov elections; opposition coalition 15 June called for 30-day extension of voter registration period, set to end 30 June, citing delays, technical difficulties. EU and DRC Finance Ministry 24 June signed €47.5mn election funding agreement; govt 26 June transferred $20mn to electoral commission. Military court 23 June sentenced 4 policemen to death, another to life imprisonment for June 2010 murder of rights activist Floribert Chebeya. Estimated 170 women attacked, many raped 10-12 June in attacks by deserting soldiers near Fizi, South Kivu; FARDC 26 June said ex-rebel Colonel Niragire Kifaru responsible. Unidentified men in uniform 21 June assassinated journalist in Kirumba, N Kivu. 5 killed, including 3 civilians, 29 June as police fired on unidentified men attempting to raid military depot in southern town Lubumbashi. Goma court 16 June convicted 4 Mai-Mai militiamen of Aug 2010 murder of 3 UN peacekeepers; 1 sentenced to death, others to life imprisonment.  At least 6 killed in mid-month LRA attacks in NE Dungu region. At AU meeting 6-8 June, DRC, other LRA-affected countries agreed increased cooperation, combined operations to target militants.

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