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CrisisWatch Database

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DR Congo

  |  1 Aug 2014

Unchanged

Saïd Djinnit appointed UN Special Envoy for the Great Lakes region 17 July, replacing Mary Robinson. Govt 11 July presented final updated version of national disarmament plan to potential donors. Joint SADC – ICGLR meeting held in Luanda, 2 July agreed to six-month timeframe for demobilisation and reintegration of FDLR fighters and mid-term evaluation of progress. Demobilisation of FDLR currently stalled, govt 16 July decided to temporarily transfer former FDLR rebels to Kisangani ahead of formal relocation process. 4th list of amnesties made public by govt 9 July, 315 persons on list including 68 M23 members. After many delays, DRC mission to identify and register M23 combatants (agreed in Dec 2013 Nairobi declaration) allowed to visit Rwanda. Tshatshi military camp in Kinshasa attacked 22 July, 7 attackers and 2 presidential guards reportedly killed.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jul 2014

Unchanged

Clashes between Rwandan and Congolese troops at border in Kanyecheza, north of Goma/Gisenyi, killed up to 5 FARDC soldiers 11-12 June; Rwanda and DRC traded blame, Kigali reasserted allegation FARDC infiltrated by Hutu extremists. Regional ICGLR team visited area on fact-finding mission; MONUSCO called for calm, deployed intervention unit to area, announced investigation. FDLR demobilisation continued: 83 surrendered to MONUSCO in Kitogo, S Kivu; ceremony attended by SADC delegation; further steps and timing uncertain, depends on FDLR assessment of progress in meeting its requests. FDLR elements reportedly involved in creation of new Hutu military groups in Lubero territory, N Kivu. Over 33 civilians killed 6 June in Mutarala territory, Ruzizi plain near Burundi border; perpetrators unknown but incident widely attributed to Banyamulenge; majority of victims reportedly ethnic Bafuliru. Several MPs called for govt to cut ties with Congo-Brazaville over expulsion of DRC citizens, ongoing reports of rights abuses.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jun 2014

Unchanged

Anti-ADF operation “Sukola” continued in N Kivu; army seized most known ADF strongholds. Operations against the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) stalled. 2 new Hutu groups “Force Populaire pour la Protection des Hutu” and “Ingobokagihugu”, allegedly collaborating with FDLR, formed in Lubero. Fighting between FDLR/allied groups and Mai Mai Cheka/NDC displaced thousands in Lubero. FARDC operations against the Alliance of Patriots for Free and Sovereign Congo (APCLS) ongoing in Masisi/Walikale region. U.S. Sec State Kerry and Special Envoy Russ Feingold early May met with President Kabila, Kerry expressed concern over whether two-term limit will be respected in next election, announced $30mn support for transparent elections and reconstruction programs in east. Tensions mounted between DRC and Republic of Congo over vast security operation in Brazzaville in recent months that led to expulsions of thousands of DRC nationals; UN 26 May denounced ensuing humanitarian crisis, demanded halt to deportations. Former warlord Katanga sentenced to 12-year jail term by ICC 23 May.

DR Congo

  |  1 May 2014

Unchanged

Anti-Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) operation Sukola continued: stronghold Medina in N Kivu taken by army 13 April; Uganda military 22 April reported ADF leader Mukulu fled DRC. Ongoing army operations against Force de résistance patriotique de l’lturi (FRPI) in Ituri. Mai Mai-Simba militia leader Paul Sadala 12 April surrendered with 40 members; Sadala killed in gunfire 14 April while being escorted by army to Bunia, circumstances unclear. First list of 50 people granted amnesty under Feb amnesty law published 19 April, included 15 M23 members.

DR Congo

  |  1 Apr 2014

Unchanged

FARDC/MONUSCO operations in N Kivu continued: eastern town Lukweti recaptured 15 March from APCLS rebels after 6 years; soldiers 1 March struck ADF-NALU base near Beni, throughout month engaged in minor clashes with FDLR in Virunga national park. ADF-NALU sporadically retaliated: grenade attack on MONUSCO vehicle 3 March injured 5. UN 28 March extended MONUSCO and Intervention Brigade mandate to 31 March 2015.

DR Congo

  |  1 Mar 2014

Unchanged

UN SRSG Martin Kobler early Feb visited Katanga province, called on militias to disarm; MONUSCO 18 Feb announced reinforcements to be sent to Pweto territory after surge in deadly attacks on civilians by local militias; UN 25 Feb deployed some 100 troops to Katanga. MONUSCO 20 Feb denounced execution of over 70 civilians by armed groups in N Kivu, started investigation. Govt 14 Feb claimed victory in offensive against ADF-NALU in east. Parliament 4 Feb approved law granting amnesty for acts of insurgency and war, excluding genocide and war crimes: law welcomed by UN envoys, opposed by rights groups. Major opposition figure Vital Kamerhe of Union for the Congolese Nation (UNC) repeatedly obstructed during planned tour of east; supporters in Bukavu violently dispersed by police 20 Feb, UN reported nearly 50 injured.

DR Congo

  |  1 Feb 2014

Unchanged

Army and MONUSCO 18 Jan launched offensive in east against ADF-NALU; 14 Jan repulsed Mai Mai Sheka attack on Pinga in N Kivu; 4 soldiers killed, 3 civilians injured. Army 6 Jan clashed with Mai Mai Kata Katanga in Lubumbashi and Pweto, 26 killed. 3 rebels, 1 ranger killed 12 Jan in clash between Virunga Park rangers and suspected FDLR. Army commander credited with defeat of M23 killed in N Kivu 2 Jan; several military officers including one general arrested. Regional summit 15 Jan reaffirmed commitment to implementing Feb 2013 DRC cooperation framework and support to UN Special Envoy Mary Robinson. Robinson 11-12 Jan visited DRC, praised preparation of electoral roadmap, draft amnesty law and new DDR efforts. Blast 24 Jan in arms depot in Mbuji Mayi, 20 injured. Over 40 fighters from different groups surrendered to MONUSCO in N Kivu late Jan.

DR Congo

  |  2 Jan 2014

Deteriorated

Security deteriorated with attempted coup by reported supporters of pastor Gideon Mukungubila 30 Dec: armed youths attacked state television, airport and military camp in Kinshasa; 46 attackers reportedly killed, 20 arrested by security forces. Congolese govt, M23 and Ugandan govt 12 Dec agreed to end fighting in East; agreement included amnesty for those not responsible for war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, and demobilisation of M23 soldiers. UN report leaked mid-Dec said M23 continuing to recruit in Rwanda, accused Congolese army of rights abuses and profiting from illegal mining in eastern provinces. 21 killed mid-Dec in series of attacks on villages near Beni, N Kivu; perpetrators unknown but some reports suggest Allied Democratic Forces behind attacks; UN deployed additional forces to province. At least 40 killed 25 Dec in reported ADF-NALU attack on Kamango village, N Kivu.

DR Congo

  |  1 Dec 2013

Improved

Govt rapidly deployed state services to eastern provinces with support of MONUSCO in order to restore state authority to region following 30 Oct military defeat of M23 rebels. M23 3 Nov called for ceasefire, 6 Nov said would disarm, pursue political settlement. Negotiations between govt and M23 collapsed 11 Nov as govt refused to sign any doc titled “peace agreement”. UN 13 Nov emphasised need for comprehensive DDR plan. At least 20, including 12 children, reportedly killed in police operation to tackle “delinquency” in Kinshasa; UN called for immediate govt action to prevent abuses. Trial began of 39 govt soldiers accused of mass rape in Minova in Nov 2012.

DR Congo

  |  1 Nov 2013

Unchanged

Heavy fighting between govt forces and M23 rebels in east resumed 25 Oct after peace talks suspended, reportedly over disagreement on amnesties for M23 rebels. Congolese army and UN forces quickly took control of M23 strongholds Kiwanja and Rutshuru 27 Oct, 1 peacekeeper killed by M23; last M23 stronghold Bunagana captured by govt troops 31 Oct; UN said M23 in disarray. U.S. and UN envoys mid-month attended peace talks where consensus reached on 8 of 12 articles of agreement including release of political prisoners, end of M23 rebel movement and resettlement of refugees and IDPs; no agreement reached on DDR or immunity for M23. Mayi Mayi attacks in east killed at least 34; UN condemned “unimaginable atrocities”. National dialogue on crisis in east ended late Sept without major incident. 15 UNSC representatives visited President Kagame and DRC Pesident Kabila, 7 Oct said regional states to determine peace in DRC.

DR Congo

  |  1 Oct 2013

Unchanged

Govt talks with M23 rebels resumed 10 Sept; skirmishes between FARDC and M23 restarted 26 Sept north of Kiwanja. President Kabila 25 Sept condemned Rwanda’s “never-ending aggression” at UNGA. At least 10 killed in clashes between rival militias in Masisi late Sept. Clashes between govt forces and Ituri Patriotic Resistance Front (FRPI) continued in Ituri, thousands displaced. National consultations began 7 Sept; President Kabila promised amnesty to defuse political tensions, 1,025 prisoners paroled followed by rise in criminality in Kinshasa. Main opposition parties boycotted process; 7 ex-rebel groups allowed to take part in consultations; deadline extended.

DR Congo

  |  1 Sep 2013

Deteriorated

Fighting between army and M23 rebels restarted around Goma late Aug; UN “intervention brigade” fought alongside national army for first time, shelled rebel positions, one peacekeeper killed, 5 injured; peacekeepers accused of killing 2 during protests against fighting. U.S. 25 Aug expressed alarm at violence, condemned M23 rebels, called for end to hostilities. M23 30 Aug announced unilateral ceasefire, withdrawal from front line. Tensions with Rwanda increased with accusations of cross-border bombings (see Rwanda); govt accused Rwanda of firing rockets on Goma to aid M23; Assistant UNSG Edmond Mulet 29 Aug said “consistent and credible reports” of ongoing Rwandan support for M23. Rwanda 27 Aug opposed additional UN sanctions on M23 military leaders Kazamama and Mboneza after M23 shelled civilians in Goma. MP Muhindo Nzangi Butondo arrested 11 Aug after criticising President Kabila’s management of M23 crisis. Army Colonel Richard Bisamaza 12 Aug defected along with some 60 men in N Kivu in largest defection so far this year; Bisananza reportedly killed in military operations mid-Aug. Army 23 Aug launched offensive in Lendu Bindi, Ituri District, against Ituri Patriotic Front (FPRI) rebels; thousands displaced. 300 Ugandan soldiers 27 Aug reportedly entered Mahagi, Ituri District, after govt relocated customs checkpoint closer to Uganda border. Preparatory workshop for national consultations opened 17 Aug; Speaker 28 Aug rejected Senate president Léon Kengo Wa Dondo’s earlier assertion that consultations would lead to cabinet reshuffle; opposition UDPS and UNC refused to participate in workshop.

DR Congo

  |  1 Aug 2013

Deteriorated

Month saw renewed fighting between M23 and FARDC national army including clashes 14-17 July in Mutaho, near Goma; govt 17 July reported at least 120 M23 rebels, including 15 Rwandans, killed. M23 said 5 civilians killed in govt strikes on Rumangabo camp north of Goma 24 July. MONUSCO 30 July announced it would use intervention brigade to enforce security zone around Goma, gave rebels 48 hours to disarm, threatened use of force. Uganda 10 July unsuccessfully attempted to revive Kampala peace talks between DRC govt and M23 rebels; regional leaders 24 July called for ceasefire. UNSC 26 July discussed insecurity in east, stated support for peace efforts; regional leaders met in Nairobi 27-31 July to discuss regional insecurity and conflicts. Human Rights Watch report late July documented rights violations by M23 in east. Group claiming to be Ugandan ADF rebels 11 July seized Kamango, North Kivu, took hostages; FARDC 13 July retook town; UN reported tens of thousands fled to Uganda.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jul 2013

Unchanged

Nyatura militia 17 June attacked M23 convoy, at least 8 M23 forces killed. MONUSCO 27 June denounced M23 human rights violations. Army 22 June reported it had repelled Mai Mai assault on Lubumbashi prison. UNSG Ban 10 June announced Martin Kobler UNSRSG and head of UN peacekeeping mission. National Assembly 8 June announced new electoral commission (CENI) to be chaired by priest Abbé Malumalu, who chaired Independent Electoral Commission during 2006 elections, despite opposition to his appointment from Congolese Catholic Church; CENI sworn in 14 June amid scepticism. National Assembly 15 June invalidated 5 opposition MPs citing prolonged absenteeism; accusations that move politically motivated.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jun 2013

Unchanged

First contingent of UN intervention force arrived in Goma 13 May; UNSG Ban visited Goma 23 May, said full contingent of 3,000 soldiers ready within 2 months. 19 international NGOs 23 May sent letter expressing concerns over intervention force. Armed clashes between M23 rebels and army resumed 20 May on outskirts of Goma killing 19; M23 28 May repeated ceasefire call, said they could easily target airport. Opposition, civil society failed to meet 27 May deadline for submission of appointees to new enlarged election commission CENI. IMF 13 May agreed to unfreeze financial aid suspended in 2012. Govt 23 May appointed François Muamba, former Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC) VP, as coordinator of National Oversight Mechanism of the Peace Agreement Framework; signatories agreed on Regional Oversight Mechanism.

DR Congo

  |  1 May 2013

Unchanged

Authorities announced assassination plot against President Kabila foiled 17 April. Talks between M23 and govt remain stalled; M23 rebels 12 April warned of reprisals if attacked by 3,069-strong UN intervention force expected to deploy late April; UN 25 April appointed Brazilian General dos Santos Cruz head of MONUSCO. Govt 5 April authorised controversial ban on exports of non-processed copper and iron; mineral-rich Katanga province rejected ban. 12 senior army officers suspended 11 April following UN probe into mass rape allegations.

DR Congo

  |  1 Apr 2013

Unchanged

ICC indictee Bosco Ntaganda 18 March surrendered to U.S. embassy in Kigali, ending violent infighting between M23 rebel factions in DRC that has killed over 150; transferred to ICC custody 22 March. Ntaganda-allied Jean-Marie Runiga and Baudoin Ngaruye reportedly crossed into Rwanda 16 March with 550 M23 fighters; Rwanda swiftly announced their arrest. Ntaganda rival Sultani Makenga reportedly assumed leadership of M23. Following Ntaganda’s surrender, DRC and Ugandan govts announced imminent resumption of Kampala talks. President Kabila 24 March met with Rwandan and Ugandan counterparts in Oyo, Congo Brazzaville, to discuss regional security. Mayi Mayi asking for Katanga independence briefly occupied Lubumbashi 23 March before surrendering to MONUSCO. UNSC 28 March approved deployment of 2,500-strong intervention force.

DR Congo

  |  1 Mar 2013

Unchanged

Regional leaders 23 Feb signed Peace Framework Agreement under auspices of UN, AU, SADC and Great Lakes region; states agreed to abstain from interfering in internal affairs of neighbours, DRC agreed to structural reform. Govt 6 Feb signed agreement with M23 rebels on implementation of March 2009 peace agreement. Clash between rival M23 factions 24 Feb reportedly left 10 dead in Rutshuru region; M23 rebels 27 Feb accused leader Jean-Marie Runiga of treason and embezzlement, replaced him with General Sultani Makenga. Several Mayi Mayi groups 9-17 Feb attacked villages close to Lubumbashi and Pweto, Katanga Province. Head of UN mission Meece 21 Feb told UNSC of concern at re-emergence of armed groups, reported “worrisome security developments” in N Katanga.

DR Congo

  |  1 Feb 2013

Unchanged

Govt talks with M23 rebels resumed 17 Jan after agreement on agenda, but plans to sign peace deal on 28 Jan cancelled as negotiations stalled. U.S. 9 Jan backed UN plans to deploy surveillance drones to aid peacekeepers. UN/SADC/AU/ICGLR leaders 28 Jan failed to reach agreement on deployment of neutral force. Rebel groups continued to launch attacks in east: Mai Mai Morgan militants 7 Jan seized Mambasa city in Province Orientale for 3 days; Front for Patriotic Resistance of Ituri (FRPI) 11 Jan attacked Kagaba city, Irumu; Mai Mai Gedeon and Bakata Katanga militias launched several attacks in Katanga province; Rayia Mutomboki 10 Jan attacked several areas in Shabunda territory, South Kivu. 2013 budget adopted 15 Jan with significant increase in defence spending.

DR Congo

  |  30 Dec 2012

Unchanged

M23 rebel group withdrawal from Goma completed 2 Dec. Opposition parties 6 Dec rejected invitation to join govt-M23 talks facilitated by Uganda beginning 7 Dec; talks made little progress, extended to end of 2012. Insecurity around Goma, IDP camps continues. 2 MONUSCO helicopters reportedly fired at from areas under M23 control 26 Dec. ICC 18 Dec acquitted former militia leader Mathieu Ngudjolo (Chui) of war crimes, crimes against humanity in 2003 in Ituri.

DR Congo

  |  1 Dec 2012

Deteriorated

M23 rebels 15 Nov launched offensive against FARDC in east with alleged support from Rwanda, 19 Nov took regional capital Goma prompting thousands to flee and sparking protests against Monusco and presidential political party PPRD; M23 rapidly extended control to Sake town 10km from Goma, announced intention to take S Kivu capital Bukavu. President Kabila 19 Nov met with Rwandan, Ugandan counterparts for emergency regional meeting; 3 presidents 20 Nov called for M23 withdrawal from Goma. UNSC 20 Nov condemned Goma takeover and called for immediate withdrawal, 28 Nov extended sanctions against armed groups in DRC to 1 Feb 2014, said additional measures against M23 leaders and supporters will be considered. International Conference of the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) met 24 Nov; peace deal announced following reported first meeting between M23 rebels and President Kabila at gathering. M23 leader Colonel Sultani Makenga 29 Nov announced withdrawal from Goma and Sake; rebel leaders 30 Nov said withdrawal delayed due to “logistical reasons”, UN peacekeepers impeding withdrawal; promised rebels would fully withdraw by 2 Dec. UN Group of Experts report 21 Nov substantiated alleged Rwandan and Ugandan support for M23; Group mandate and current sanctions renewed 28 Nov for 14 months.

DR Congo

  |  1 Nov 2012

Unchanged

Clashes between M23/Congolese Revolutionary Army rebels and FARDC continued in east. M23 10 and 14 Oct conducted unsuccessful offensives to extend territory in NE. FARDC 24 Oct began integration of Nyatura local militias. Leaked UN group of experts report mid-month said Uganda, Rwanda backing M23 rebellion; UNSC 19 Oct announced intention to impose sanctions on M23 leaders, anyone who violated sanctions regime, arms embargo. DRC 17 Oct called for sanctions against Ugandan and Rwandan officials named in leaked report. At 14th Francophonie summit in Kinshasa, French president Hollande, Canadian PM Harper criticised govt over human rights, democratic record; govt denounced outside involvement in eastern rebellion. Attempted assassination of rights activist Dr Denis Mukwege in Bukavu 25 Oct prompted international condemnation. 6 UN peacekeepers wounded 19 Oct near Buganza, NE; 2 rangers, 1 soldier, 5 Mayi Mayi rebels killed 25 Oct in attack on Virunga National Park, NE.

DR Congo

  |  1 Oct 2012

Unchanged

Regional summit on DRC conflict early Sept agreed to deploy neutral force, excluding Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi troops, to combat M23 rebels. UN peacekeeping chief Hervé Ladsous 18 Sept told UNSC M23 rebels have established de facto administration in east. Govt 20 Sept began integration of 800 FRPI militias in Ituri into FARDC, 7 Sept initiated talks with Hutu self-defence groups in Masisi territory, N Kivu. Opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress 6 Sept accused govt of “treason” for crisis in east, presence of Rwandan troops. UNSG Ban 7 Sept expressed concern at continued reports of external support to M23; Human Rights Watch 11 Sept reported M23 rebels committing war crimes, said Rwandan officials possibly complicit. Govt continued to lobby international community to embargo minerals, impose sanctions on Rwanda. Roger Lumbala, Congolese MP and former rebel accused of supporting M23 rebellion in DRC, reportedly early month sought asylum at South African embassy in Burundi before fleeing to France; govt requested extradition.

DR Congo

  |  1 Sep 2012

Unchanged

FARDC defections in S Kivu, Oriental Province and Kasai Occidental continued throughout month. FARDC colonel 14 Aug announced defection, formation of new rebel movement. Insecurity in S Kivu, Ituri escalated despite govt-M23 truce as Mai Mai groups, local militias, FARDC factions stepped up operations. UNSC 2 Aug called for “outside countries” to end support for M23 rebellion; govt 31 Aug said it asked UNSC to impose sanctions on Rwandan Defence Minister, 2 top military officials, for support to M23. ICGLR met 6-8 Aug, 16 Aug, failed to reach agreement on composition, funding of 4,000-strong force to neutralise armed groups, defend borders. UN 23 Aug confirmed providing security for meeting between govt officials and former Alliance of Patriots for a Free and Sovereign Congo (APCLS) leader Janvier Karairi; meeting reportedly discussed future cooperation with FARDC.

DR Congo

  |  1 Aug 2012

Unchanged

M23 early July took control of several towns in N Kivu, pushing back FARDC; M23, FARDC clashed again 25-26 July, FARDC retreated. 2 civilians killed, 2 injured 18 July when MONUSCO bombed M23 troops. President Kabila 12 July met with Rwandan counterpart at International Conference of the Great Lakes Region summit in Addis Abeba, agreed on creation of internationally-backed military force to combat M23 rebels. Raia Mutomboki Mai-Mai 19 July attacked Walikale town, killed Rwandophones.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jul 2012

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Human Rights Watch 4 June reported Rwandan officials supplying Ntaganda with troops, weapons. EU, U.S. 7 June released statements acknowledging external support to M23; UN SRSG Roger Meece 13 June warned UNSC mutiny in east threatens to destabilise region; UNSC 16 June requested enquiry into external support to M23. FARDC defection continued throughout month; M23 extended control in Kivus, pushed back FARDC offensive. CNDP delegation 18 June initiated MONUSCO-facilitated talks with govt. Rwandan govt officials met with DRC counterparts 19 June, reiterated denial of Rwandan support for mutineers; DRC govt 20 June warned of “rupture of the peace” between the two states. AU 21 June called for end to mutiny, use of “political channels” to address concerns. Govt accused U.S. of blocking inclusion of findings on Rwanda’s involvement in interim UN Group of Experts report released 22 June. UNSC 27 June extended MONUSCO peacekeeping mandate 1 year to June 2013. Garamba National Park rangers 6 June clashed with some 50 LRA combatants.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jun 2012

Deteriorated

Fighting escalated in Kivu region as FARDC continue to hunt Bosco Ntaganda, wanted by ICC for war crimes; UNHCR 29 May said over 40,000 displaced by recent violence; MONUSCO said over 98 killed between 9 May and 25 May, N Kivu. New armed group, Movement for 23 March (M23), emerged 10 May after govt crackdown on former CNDP troops following April attempted mutiny by Ntaganda; military court 30 May sentenced in absentia 2 officers to death for role in mutiny, 11 others given prison sentences. Leaked MONUSCO report late May said Rwandans recruited to help M23; Kigali denied allegation, DRC govt 29 May said investigation underway; UN 30 May said 11 Rwandans recruited but no evidence Rwandan govt involved. FDLR launched several attacks on FARDC throughout month in Kivus; UNOCHA 16 May said FDLR killed at least 50 civilians in May. 7 peacekeepers wounded by gunfire 15 May during protest at UN base in S Kivu. Kinshasa police 14 May confirmed investigation into corruption allegations levelled at former PM Adolphe Muzito.

DR Congo

  |  1 May 2012

Deteriorated

April saw further deterioration in Security situation in Eastern DRC. Attempted mutiny by former CNDP leader Bosco Ntaganda, wanted by ICC, failed early April; President Kabila 11 April reportedly called for his arrest, domestic trial; clashes throughout month between army and rebels in Kivus displaced thousands. Doctors early April began strike protesting low pay, collapsing infrastructure. CENI 20 April announced provincial elections for Jan 2013, released report blaming international assistance for problems in presidential elections. SRSG Abou Moussa and AU Special Envoy on LRA Madeira 10-15 April visited DRC, discussed LRA threat with authorities, regional and international partners. PM late April appointed new govt, no opposition politicians included.

DR Congo

  |  1 Apr 2012

Unchanged

FDLR rebel commander Idrissa Muradadi surrendered 10 March during joint MONUSCO-FARDC offensive; fears offensive aggravating civilian displacement, provoking rebel reprisals. ICC 14 March found Thomas Lubanga, alleged Patriotic Forces for the Liberation of the Congo (FPLC) militia leader, guilty of war crimes. Despite requests from ICC, civil society and NGOs, DRC govt continued refusal to fulfil ICC arrest warrant for Bosco Ntaganda, accused of war crimes. UN Joint Human Rights Office 20 March reported security forces loyal to President Kabila killed at least 33 in Kinshasa during Nov 2011 polls; FM Alexis Mwamba 23 March reportedly denounced “unilateral, partisan and selective nature” of report, urged investigation. UNHCR expressed concern at increased LRA attacks on civilians in Orientale Province since Nov 2011, said thousands displaced.

DR Congo

  |  1 Mar 2012

Unchanged

CENI 2 Feb released official election results: ruling coalition took 260 of 500 seats but Kabila’s DDRP party won only 63, down from 111; opposition coalition won 110 seats, 41 of which won by Tshisekedi’s UDPS; 17 seats unfilled pending Supreme Court ruling after allegations of fraud. UNSRSG Meece 8 Feb said elections marred by “numerous problems”, expressed concern over security situation. Key presidential aide killed 12 Feb in plane crash sparking fears of power struggle within Kabila inner circle. Police 16 Feb fired tear gas to disperse Christian groups in Kinshasa protesting Nov 2011 election results; groups 17 Feb said 3 priests, 2 nuns jailed.

DR Congo

  |  1 Feb 2012

Unchanged

CENI 26 Jan published most results from Nov legislative elections, giving ruling PPRD lead with 57 seats followed by opposition UDPS with 34; fractious ruling coalition, including PPRD, believed to have won some 245 of 424 seats, as yet unconfirmed. Majority and opposition parties accused CENI of fixing results; Catholic Church called on CENI to correct results or resign; 40 deputies from parliamentary majority 18 Jan called for cancellation of legislative election results. UDPS leader Etienne Tshisekedi maintained “no concession policy” amid increasing isolation. Month saw surge in violence by armed militants and rebel groups; UNHCR 20 Jan said fresh violence displaced 100,000 since Nov 2011. Over 40 killed, thousands displaced early-Jan by FDLR in South Kivu; Gedeon Mayi-Mayi attack 11 Jan displaced over 10,000 in Katanga; early Jan clashes between rival Walikale and Masisi militias left 22 dead, displaced 35,000.

DR Congo

  |  2 Jan 2012

Deteriorated

Tensions remained high following disputed Nov elections, with continued deadly violence and repression by security forces. President Kabila sworn in 20 Dec despite major and widespread irregularities reported in vote; Kabila 12 Dec admitted flaws in elections but rejected reports by international observers, including EU and Carter Center, that results “lacked credibility”. Counting of ballots for legislative polls continues, without additional international assistance initially agreed by authorities. Human Rights Watch 2 Dec said at least 18 killed in late Nov election violence, 21 Dec said at least 24 killed by security forces, dozens arbitrarily detained since 9 Dec; authorities pledged to investigate. 6 killed in clashes 9-10 Dec after opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi declared himself president; police 23 Dec used stun grenades, tear gas to disperse people attempting to attend Tshisekedi’s self-proclaimed inauguration. MONUSCO 21 Dec announced crackdown on Ituri militias.

DR Congo

  |  1 Dec 2011

Deteriorated Risk Alert

Fears violence will escalate following 28-30 presidential elections marred by disorganisation, allegations of fraud and violence, and subsequent call by 4 opposition candidates for results to be invalidated. SADC, AU observers 30 Nov said polls success, no basis for annulment. Political rallies banned 26 Nov following violence in Kinshasa; police 28 Nov fired tear gas on crowd gathered at Kinshasa polling station. 7 killed 28 Nov in 2 separate clashes in Lubumbashi and West Kasai, SE. Opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS) leader Tshisekedi 7 Nov proclaimed himself president, told followers to jail-break political prisoners, provoking national, international condemnation. Opposition Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC) candidate Marcus Gangale shot dead 22 Nov in Kinshasa. UNSC 29 Nov added Mai Mai Shka leader and parliamentary candidate Ntabo Sheka to UN sanctions list. UN Joint Human Rights Office report 9 Nov documented 188 rights violations Nov 2010 - Sept 2011, most involving police or National Intelligence Services.

DR Congo

  |  1 Dec 2011

Unchanged

Vice PM Mulenda 7 Oct announced arrest of 5 armed men from Congo Brazzaville suspected of planning attack on 6 cities including Kinshasa. 5 Congolese aid workers, 2 civilians killed 6 Oct in Malinda, S Kivu; attack blamed on Burundian National Liberation Front. Police continued to forcibly repress political rallies ahead of 28 Nov elections, including opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS) demonstrations in Kinshasa 6, 18 Oct. UDPS 4 Oct announced kidnapping of Kapata section chief; accused National Intelligence Agency (ANR) of responsibility. Supreme Court 5 Oct declared inadmissible petition filed by UDPS against electoral body (CENI) and ruling Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (PPRD) seeking invalidation of certain PPRD electoral lists; CENI 14 Oct published final candidate list. MONUSCO 7 Oct announced it is developing contingency plan to secure elections; 20 Oct announced 700 police officers being trained to provide better policing in S Kivu during polls.

DR Congo

  |  1 Oct 2011

Unchanged

Tensions continued to rise ahead of Nov presidential, legislative elections. Deadly clashes 1 Sept between police and opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS) supporters demanding transparent electoral process in Kinshasa and Mbuji May town in South; several injured, 2 reported dead in Mbuji May. Also early Sept attacks on UDPS HQ,  ruling Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (PPRD) HQ, arson of opposition media RTLV. 2 UDPS supporters died 5 Sept in riots in Kinshasa, at least 3 others injured. Congo Liberation Movement (MLC) 8 Sept announced leader Jean-Pierre Bemba, currently on trial at ICC, would not be presidential candidate after ICC refused his provisional release; UDPS leader Tshisekedi 5 Sept officially entered race. Electoral Commission (CENI) 19 Sept reportedly agreed to audit of voter register by UDPS experts, key UDPS prerequisite for signing electoral code of conduct; later qualified agreement saying PPRD would also have to audit, PPRD refused. Planned UDPS march on CENI dispersed 29 Sept by police. 7 Sept armed raid on Kassapa prison in Lubumbashi, Katanga, freed nearly 970 inmates, including Mai Mai militia leader Gideon Kyungu Mutanga. Following peace deal struck in run-up to elections, newly integrated banyamulenge militia Federal Republican Forces (FRF) 12 Sept refused to receive biometric cards, demonstrated in Bukavu with weapons. Former Mai Mai officers protested against ranks given to ex-FRF, threatened to disengage from integration process.

DR Congo

  |  1 Sep 2011

Unchanged

Continued violence in S Kivu: 2 Aug attack in Mutungo by Mai-Mai militia Janvier and FDLR displaced nearly 7,000 people; Yakutumba, another Mai-Mai militia, 7 Aug threatened to attack Lubichako town unless locals paid money. LRA remained active in Orientale Province; MONUSCO 8 Aug launched unilateral operation “Dragon Fire” near S Sudanese border, 5 Aug launched joint operation “Long Drive” with FARDC in Haut-Uélé. President Kabila 18 Aug ratified electoral law, despite allegations of inadequate transparency in electoral process, irregularities during voter registration; date for elections confirmed as 28 Nov. Opposition parties rejected “code of good behaviour” presented by CENI and MONUSCO 2 Aug, refused to sign as long as their members remain in jail. MONUSCO 27 Aug agreed to facilitate dialogue between CENI and opposition during electoral period; CENI extended candidate registration period until 11 Sept. Angola denied allegations that many of 20,000 people deported to DRC since April were beaten, raped. Deportations seen by some as part of deteriorating relations between countries; Angolan media July reported thousands of troops deployed to border in response to DRC military exercises.

DR Congo

  |  1 Aug 2011

Unchanged

Ahead of Nov presidential election, electoral commission mid-month completed voter registration, claimed 32mn voters registered. Opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS) claimed irregularities in process including registration of minors; 1 killed, several injured 4 July as security forces dispersed “unlawful” Kinshasa protest by UDPS supporters. Electoral law remains unfinalised, threatening to delay planned 4 Aug start of candidate registration. Main parliamentary opposition party Movement for the Liberation of Congo 22 July announced ICC indictee Jean-Pierre Bemba will be its candidate in presidential election. 2 UN Joint Human Rights Office fact-finding reports on 2010 N Kivu attacks released, implicating FARDC in mass rapes, attacks on civilians; said rapes may constitute crimes against humanity, war crimes. U.S., EU called on govt to end impunity in East. FARDC Col. and former Mai Mai member Niragire Kifaru and 150 men 7 July surrendered to military authorities, following June accusations of mass rapes in S Kivu. Following June surge in LRA activity, attacks continued in Haut-Uélé, Bas-Uélé.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jul 2011

Unchanged

Parliament 13 June passed electoral law ahead of planned Nov elections; opposition coalition 15 June called for 30-day extension of voter registration period, set to end 30 June, citing delays, technical difficulties. EU and DRC Finance Ministry 24 June signed €47.5mn election funding agreement; govt 26 June transferred $20mn to electoral commission. Military court 23 June sentenced 4 policemen to death, another to life imprisonment for June 2010 murder of rights activist Floribert Chebeya. Estimated 170 women attacked, many raped 10-12 June in attacks by deserting soldiers near Fizi, South Kivu; FARDC 26 June said ex-rebel Colonel Niragire Kifaru responsible. Unidentified men in uniform 21 June assassinated journalist in Kirumba, N Kivu. 5 killed, including 3 civilians, 29 June as police fired on unidentified men attempting to raid military depot in southern town Lubumbashi. Goma court 16 June convicted 4 Mai-Mai militiamen of Aug 2010 murder of 3 UN peacekeepers; 1 sentenced to death, others to life imprisonment.  At least 6 killed in mid-month LRA attacks in NE Dungu region. At AU meeting 6-8 June, DRC, other LRA-affected countries agreed increased cooperation, combined operations to target militants.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jun 2011

Unchanged

Coalition of 26 opposition parties 6 May said electoral calendar, announced end-Apr, “unconstitutional and unrealistic”. Elections currently set for 28 Nov, despite constitutional requirement that elections be held 90 days before end of current mandate, therefore by 6 Sept; opposition also said revision of voter registration lists unlikely to be complete by 30 June deadline. Month saw increased violence in east, including 8 May failed attack on Education Minister Léonard Mashako Mamba. Reports 24 May said Mai Mai commander Luc Yabili offered surrender in return for MONUSCO protection; local FARDC commander refused offer. FARDC forces 1 May killed Union of Congolese Patriots (UCP) member General Floribert Kisembo; govt claimed Kisembo planned rebellion, UCP alleged political assassination. Independent U.S. study found 400,000 rapes committed in 12-month period in 2006-7.

DR Congo

  |  1 May 2011

Unchanged

Election Commission 30 Apr announced national elections to take place 28 Nov. Despite earlier parliament rejection 11 Apr of electoral reform proposals, leading opposition candidate Vital Kamerhe said content overall with new electoral calendar but remained concerned about transparency of vote  Main opposition Movement for Liberation of Congo (MLC) 18 Apr appointed Thomas Luhaka as party leader, replacing Francois Mwamba. Etienne Tshisekedi, leader of extra-parliamentary opposition Union for Democracy and Social Progress, 24 Apr addressed estimated 50,000 during first political rally since return to Kinshasa. East saw continued pockets of insecurity: in North Kivu Mai Mai 2-3 Apr attacked Masereka; FARDC killed 3 Apr during operations against rebel ADF; FDLR 16 Apr attacked FARDC in Kalehe, South Kivu. LRA continued attacks on villages and FARDC in Haut and Bas-Uélé districts, Oriental Province.

DR Congo

  |  1 Apr 2011

Unchanged

Preparations for Nov elections continued as newly appointed election commission members sworn in end Feb; new chairman Ngoy Mulunda 4 March announced commission preparing new electoral calendar to ensure fair process. Month also saw focus on mining sector: govt 10 March lifted mining ban in east, in place since Sept 2010, aimed at minimising role of mineral exploitation in conflict. Officials, mining stakeholders early March adopted new code of conduct; analysts, NGOs said code failed to address military, armed group involvement in mining sector.  President Kabila 14 March led state security meeting in Kinshasa, reported peace deal with FDLR in pipeline. Insecurity continued in east as LRA 4 March attacked civilians near Dungu, 10 March clashed with FARDC near Bando, Ango Territory. Ugandan army 29 March said LRA leader Joseph Kony back in DRC. Following 27 Feb “attempted coup d’etat” in Kinshasa authorities 8 March listed 126 suspects, said 44 already before judiciary.

DR Congo

  |  1 Mar 2011

Unchanged

Unidentified gunmen 27 Feb attacked residence of President Kabila, Kokolo military camp. Presidential guard responded killing 6; govt said “attempted coup d’etat”, launched investigation. Pockets of insecurity continued in east: LRA carried out series of small scale attacks in Dungu, Ango territories in Province Orientale, FARDC 21 Feb killed 6 LRA, freed hostages during clashes in Faradje Territory; in North Kivu Rwandan rebel FDLR attacked 2 villages early Feb in Rutshuru Territory; suspected ADF-Nalu Ugandan rebels tortured, killed 11 people in Beni Territory, victims thought to be among 15 who disappeared during 27 Jan-5 Feb rebel attacks on Beni-Mbau villages near Ugandan border. Military court 21 Feb sentenced FARDC Lt-Col Kibibi Mutware to 20 years’ jail for 1 Jan mass rape in Fizi, South Kivu. Meanwhile, following Kabila-led changes to constitution annulling provision for second-round presidential election, main opposition leaders Vital Kamerhe and Jean-Claude Vuemba advocated alliance behind one opposition candidate. Opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi 16 Feb launched new party alliance “Dynamique Tshisekedi President”, refused to rally behind any other candidate.

DR Congo

  |  1 Feb 2011

Unchanged

President Kabila 20 Jan promulgated new constitution following 15 Jan adoption in parliament. Key amendments include 1-round presidential election instead of 2; new presidential power to dissolve provincial assemblies, revoke governors; prosecutor’s office incorporated under justice ministry. Opposition boycotted parliamentary vote; claimed changes favour incumbent president; Information Minister Lambert Mende 15 Jan dismissed claim, said revision would avoid conflict caused by presidential election run-off. Vital Kamerhe of Union pour la Nation Congolaise 16 Jan called for petitions across country demanding further revision of constitution; opposition delegation 17 Jan met UN SRSG to voice protest. National Assembly 15 Jan approved new electoral commission including 4 members of Kabila’s Alliance de la majorité presidentielle (AMP), 3 opposition. Early Jan incident in Fizi South Kivu between FARDC soldier and civilian escalated into violence; military units went on rampage in Fizi raping more than 60. UN deployed additional troops, 20 Jan called on army to remove commander Lt-Col Kibibi Mutware, recently promoted former CNDP rebel. Reports 21 Jan said Mutware arrested. FDLR 26 Jan attacked Mirangi, Rutsuhuru territory in North Kivu; 6 killed including 2 FARDC.

DR Congo

  |  3 Jan 2011

Unchanged

Month dominated by 2011 election-related developments including 8 Dec return of former exiled opposition Union pour la démocratie et le progrès social (UDPS) leader Etienne Tshisekedi, endorsed by party as its presidential candidate during UDPS congress 10-14 Dec. Former national assembly president Vital Kamerhe 14 Dec officially announced creation of Union pour la nation Congolaise (UNC), signifying his breakaway from President Kabila’s Parti du peuple pour la reconstruction et le développement (PPRD) and intent to run for elections. Kamerhe’s unofficial 15 Dec campaign visit to Kivus prompted confrontation between his supporters, PPRD and police; 20 wounded. On heels of Kabila’s 8 Dec state of nation address, political party Congrès national pour la defense du people (CNDP) 11 Dec pledged allegiance to umbrella Alliance de la majorité presidentielle (AMP) on condition ex-CNDP combatants integrated into FARDC following 2009 deal with Rwanda given military ranks. International Conference of Great Lakes Region (ICGLR) 15 Dec agreed on certification process for minerals, endorsement of OECD due diligence guidelines and mineral trade reform agenda. Human Rights Watch 20 Dec declared rogue army officers, including ICC indictee Bosco Ntaganda and FDLR in east, responsible for forced recruitment of hundreds of children during campaign over past 4 months; called on govt to stop recruitment, prosecute those responsible.

DR Congo

  |  1 Dec 2010

Unchanged

Month saw increased localised violence. UN agencies early Nov said over 650 rapes took place on DRC-Angola border since Sept during Angola’s forced expulsion of 7,000 Congolese illegal immigrants, called on both countries to investigate. In North Kivu rebel Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) 16 Nov killed 21 civilians in ambush at Mungazi, Walikale territory. 2,500 displaced in South Kivu as 7 Nov FDLR attack on Kisowa village led to 10 days of fighting against FARDC. Clashes broke out 7 Nov in Fizi territory between FARDC and armed group alliance comprising Force republicaine federaliste (FRF), FDLR and Burundian former rebel National Liberation Forces (FNL). UN peacekeeping mission MONUSCO 23 Nov launched operation “protection shield” aiming to neutralise armed groups, reinforce security for population in Fizi, Minembwe, Uvira areas.  UN Panel of Experts 29 Nov published report on violations of arms embargo, stated 700 FNL fighters in South Kivu supported by FDLR; alleged top FARDC commanders including General Gabriel Amisi involved in illegal mineral trade. UNSC passed resolution same day renewing sanctions, extending monitoring group until 30 Nov 2011, took unprecedented decision to support new due diligence guidelines for mining sector. Trial commenced 12 Nov of 8 police officers charged with June 2010 killing of prominent rights advocate Floribert Chebeya. International Criminal Court (ICC) trial commenced 22 Nov for former VP, opposition leader Jean-Pierre Bemba (see CAR); opposition supporters claim trial manipulated for political ends.

DR Congo

  |  1 Nov 2010

Unchanged

Continued insecurity in east as UNHCR 15 Oct noted at least 6 attacks, 3 ambushes by LRA in recent weeks in Haut Uele, Province Orientale. About  50 armed men 24 Oct attacked UN base in Rwindi, North Kivu; peacekeepers returned fire, killing 8 assailants. Burundi 23 Oct claimed former rebel leader Agathon Rwasa recently struck deal with FDLR, regrouping and rearming in South Kivu (see Burundi). In 15 Oct briefing to UNSC, MONUSCO Special Representative Meece emphasised mission should focus on security sector reform, urged bilateral partners to stay engaged. UN OHCHR 1 Oct officially released mapping report detailing rights violations committed in East DRC 1993-2003. French authorities 11 Oct arrested exiled FDLR leader Callixte Mbarushimana, charged by International Criminal Court (ICC) with crimes committed in east 2009. ICC-indicted former rebel leader Bosco Ntaganda 5 Oct said he continues to command FARDC operations in east; Human Rights Watch 13 Oct urged UN to suspend FARDC logistical support until Bosco arrested. ICC 8 Oct reversed order to release Ituri warlord Thomas Lubanga, 19 Oct ruled trial of former MLC leader and VP Jean-Pierre Bemba should start 22 Nov (see CAR).


 

DR Congo

  |  1 Oct 2010

Unchanged

UN DPKO ASG Atul Khare 7 Sept reported more than 500 rapes in Walikale and Uvira areas from late July to early Aug, admitted UN response inadequate. UN report 24 Sept confirmed at least 303 raped in Walikale territory alone 30 July-2 Aug by Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), Mai Mai rebels; MONUSCO 1 Sept launched operation “shop window” to enhance civilian protection in N Kivu. President Kabila 6 Sept attended inauguration of Rwandan President Kagame, reportedly discussed military operations in East including possible suspension of FARDC General and ICC indictee Bosco Ntaganda. FARDC 3 Sept launched second phase of Operation Ruwenzori against Allied Democratic Forces. Kabila 9 Sept declared suspension of mining in Walikale territory; ban extended 11 Sept to entire N/S Kivu and Maniema provinces. Ugandan police 2 Sept arrested leader of Ituri rebel group Popular Front for Justice in Congo (FPJC) Shariff Manda in Arua town bordering DRC, handed over to Congolese authorities. Small scale sporadic LRA attacks against civilians, including killings and kidnappings, continued in Haut-Uélé, Province Orientale.



 

DR Congo

  |  1 Sep 2010

Unchanged

Month saw sporadic clashes between army and rebel factions in East, rebels targeting UN base, mass rape of civilians by rebels, and leak of draft UN report detailing massive violations of human rights and possible genocide 1993-2003. In North Kivu at least 179 women raped by FDLR and Mai Mai militia during four day period following 30 July rebel occupation of Luvungi and at least 3 other villages, Walikale territory; UN investigating lack of response by nearby peacekeepers. Over 50 suspected Mai Mai rebels attacked MONUSCO base 18 Aug at Kirumba, Lubero territory; 3 peacekeepers killed, 7 injured. Heavy fighting reported in NE Beni 14 Aug despite 3 Aug govt claim FARDC operation “Ruwenzori” had freed areas previously held by Ugandan ADF/NALU armed group. In Ituri district of Province Orientale heavy fighting since 15 Aug south of Bunia between FARDC and Popular Front for Justice in Congo (FPJC) triggered mass displacement. Draft UN OHCHR report leaked to media 26 Aug detailing war crimes committed in DRC by security forces of Angola, Mobutu’s Zaire, Uganda, Chad, both Kabila govts, Zimbabwe, Rwandan Patriotic Army, ex-FAR and Interahamwe (later FDLR), Mai-Mai and other rebel groups between 1993-2003; recommends new truth and reconciliation commission and mixed tribunal to investigate worst crimes (see Rwanda). NGO Enough 10 Aug issued report detailing LRA slaughter of some 100 civilians and abduction of at least 570 in Bas-Uele over past 15 months. Human Rights Watch 11 Aug also released report describing LRA ongoing atrocities in DRC and CAR (see Uganda, CAR). Former electoral commission chair 9 Aug announced 2011-2013 election road map.



 

DR Congo

  |  1 Aug 2010

Unchanged

Wide-ranging security concerns persisted across eastern DRC. In North Kivu, ongoing FARDC operation “Ruwenzori”, launched 27 June, against Ugandan ADF-NALU rebels near Beni triggered clashes in Eringeti area; FARDC 12 July said 13 rebels killed, 5 rebels and 10 associates arrested. ADF 27 July reportedly ambushed civilian truck in east Beni; 15 killed. Massive FARDC presence in Beni, Butembo areas coincided with increased violence and killing of prominent civilians. OCHA 19 July reported over 70,000 displaced; new mission MONUSCO launched 1 July, 20 July set up temporary bases to facilitate humanitarian assistance. Orientale province saw increased small-scale LRA attacks in Niangara, Bangadi and Faradje areas; 7 killed in early month LRA attacks on Faradje and Dungu. 20 arrested 11 July during pro-secession demonstration in Lubumbashi. 19 alleged ex-FDLR arrested 3 July having fled resettlement camps in Kisenge, Katanga due to poor living conditions; local authorities requested repatriation to Rwanda. In western Equateur province, political leader of Enyele rebels Mambenga arrested 3 July and transferred to Kinshasa. ICC judges 15 July ordered release of Thomas Lubanga after Chief Prosecutor Moreno-Ocampo refused order to provide information to judges; release suspended following appeal by prosecutor 17 July. ICC 7 July postponed Jean Pierre Bemba trial; defence’s challenge to admissibility of case not decided. New Independent National Electoral Commission officially launched 30 July to prepare for 2011 elections.



 

DR Congo

  |  1 Jul 2010

Unchanged

Prominent human rights advocate Floribert Chebeya killed 2 June in Kinshasa, after being summoned to meet inspector general of police Gen Numbi. Numbi and several aides suspended amid domestic, international outcry; govt announced inquiry; country-wide marches against Chebeya’s death. Outgoing SRSG Doss 8 June announced strengthening of MONUSCO troops in Ituri (Province Orientale) to dismantle militias. Roger Meece (U.S.) appointed new SRSG 9 June. Defence Minister Nsimba 9 June confirmed rebel alliances between FDLR, FRF and Mai Mai in S Kivu. FARDC 10 June announced Amani Leo operation extended until Aug. PM Muzito 7 June said govt preparing roadmap to implement decentralisation law, 10 June annulled decrees establishing new cities; contentious issue of self-proclaimed provinces still not addressed. Maniema and S Kivu provincial assemblies 12 June elected new governors, both from ruling AMP. 16 reported killed near Uganda border in 28 June attack by suspected Ugandan ADF rebels (see Uganda). Country marked 50 years independence 30 June.

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