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CrisisWatch Database

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Nigeria

  |  1 Jul 2016

Deteriorated

Insecurity in Niger Delta worsened. Armed group Niger Delta Avengers (NDA) vandalised Nigerian and foreign-run oil and gas facilities, including three in Bayelsa, two in Delta and one in Akwa Ibom states. Six other previously unknown groups also threatened attacks. State-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation 9 June said attacks had cut electricity production by over 1,500 megawatts, about half usual national output. Govt 6 June offered to negotiate with armed groups but military continued operations against them; NDA 8 June refused talks, other groups agreed but set conditions. Suspected Niger Delta vandals attacked communities in Ikorodu area, Lagos state 23-24 June, killing at least 22 people, raising fears Delta violence may be spreading to SW zone. Unidentified gunmen 22 June kidnapped five foreigners and two Nigerians in Cross River state and killed their driver; freed captives 26 June. Nigerian military and multinational force continued operations against Boko Haram in NE; insurgents attacked police station and military post in Kanama, Yobe state 7 June, killing seven; attacked army positions in Pulka, Borno state 12 June, six killed as soldiers repelled them; insurgents killed four civilians and abducted four women in Kutuva, Borno state 14 June; killed 24 civilians in Kuda-Kaya, Adamawa state 16 June. Aid agencies reported critical humanitarian situation in parts of NE, called for urgent response. Suspected Fulani herdsmen killed about 59 people in Logo area of Benue state 18-19 June.

Niger

  |  1 Jul 2016

Deteriorated

Boko Haram (BH) significantly increased attacks in SE Diffa region and regional counter-BH Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) reportedly launched major offensive. BH insurgents 3 June attacked Bosso town, killing 26 soldiers, looting weapons and ammunition and forcing army to leave temporarily; insurgents 9 June temporarily forced army out of Kabelewa, looted town; insurgents 16 June reportedly attacked military barracks at Ghafam, Diffa region, killed seven military personnel and same day attacked refugee camp near Diffa. President Issoufou 7 June asked Chadian President Déby for military support. Army general 21 June said MNJTF including Chadian and Nigerian troops had launched major offensive to eliminate BH along Niger-Nigeria border.

Mali

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Implementation of June 2015 peace agreement remained slow, as armed group and ethnic violence continued. Govt, main rebel alliance Coalition of Azawad Movements (CMA) and pro-unity armed groups (Platform) 14 June agreed new calendar to appoint interim authorities and restore public services in five northern regions. Prospect of disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) program triggered violence between armed groups: two Platform groups, Groupe d’autodéfense touareg imrad et alliés (GATIA) and Ganda Izo, 11 June clashed after latter tried to create pre-DDR cantonment site near Douentza, Gourma region, which GATIA considered under its control; armed group leaders met in Bamako to ease tensions, GATIA released prisoners. Suspected jihadists continued attacks on national and international forces: unidentified gunmen 12 June clashed with govt forces in N Timbuktu region, wounding two soldiers; 19 June attacked National Guard outpost near Gao, wounding soldier. Communal violence continued in NE: alleged Imouchagh (Tuareg faction) fighters 12 June attacked CMA/Doosak position in Menaka region, three Imouchagh allegedly killed and two Doosak wounded. In centre two armed groups, Alliance nationale pour la sauvegarde de l’identité peule et la restauration de la justice (ANSIPRJ) and Mouvement pour la défense de la patrie (MDP), announced formation 18 and 25 June respectively, MDP joined pro-unity Platform coalition. UNSC 29 June extended MINUSMA mandate to 30 June 2017 and raised peacekeeper ceiling by some 2,500.

Liberia

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Following NGO Global Witness’s mid-May allegations of bribery against govt officials and British company Sable Mining, grand jury 8 June indicted Sable Mining CEO in connection with allegations; CEO denied charges. After thirteen years UN peacekeeping mission (UNMIL) 30 June handed over responsibility for security to govt.

Guinea

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged
Tensions persisted within ruling Rally of the Guinean People (RPG): President Condé 11 June banned from RPG former senior presidential advisor Ousmane Kaba and former Communications Minister Alhousseyni Makanera Kaké after they criticised his late May comments accusing ethnic Malinké politicians of trying to take control of RPG by appealing to ethnic solidarity.

Guinea-Bissau

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

PM Djá, appointed 26 May by President Vaz, formed govt 2 June; gave twelve of 31 positions to opposition Party for Social Renewal (PRS) and remainder to dissidents of former ruling party, African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), small allied New Democracy Party and Vaz associates. National assembly convened 14 June after two months’ inactivity, closed third session without resolving status of fifteen PAIGC dissident MPs. Former PAIGC ministers 9 June left main govt building which they had occupied since 26 May in protest against Djá’s appointment. PAIGC and former head of state broadcasting service appealed to Supreme Court against Djá’s appointment 3 and 9 June respectively; court’s decision awaited. ECOWAS 4 June prolonged mandate of its military mission (ECOMIB) until June 2017. IMF 3 June suspended budgetary assistance on grounds that previous govt’s bailout of two commercial banks would benefit wealthy at expense of poverty reduction.

Côte d'Ivoire

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Govt 1 June appointed ten-member committee to draft new constitution; possible changes could clarify presidential eligibility criteria and create VP position. President Ouattara 7 June said constitutional referendum to be held Sept-Oct followed by Nov-Dec legislative elections; 23 opposition parties 30 June rejected proposed process for amending constitution. Updating of voter rolls began 25 June. International Criminal Court trial of former President Gbagbo and youth leader Charles Blé Goudé resumed 6 June; former First Lady Simone Gbagbo on trial in Abidjan for crimes against humanity pleaded not guilty, denounced trial as political.

Burkina Faso

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Govt 1 June created 92-member committee to draft new constitution comprising experts, politicians, civil society representatives, religious and customary chiefs and security forces. Military court 6 June said it would not re-issue arrest warrant against Côte d’Ivoire’s national assembly speaker Guillaume Soro for involvement in Sep 2015 coup and that govt has asked Côte d’Ivoire to prosecute him. Signalling it would take firmer stance against Koglweogo vigilante groups, govt 13 June reiterated that carrying weapons without authorisation, collecting unofficial fines and taxes and corporal punishment are crimes that will be sanctioned. Thousands of Koglweogo 22 June held general assembly, rejected laws; clashes 25 June between Koglweogo and opposed youths in Ouagadougou outskirts injured five. Election of mayors stoked inter- and intra-party tensions, clashes 18-28 June killed at least three across country. Govt 30 June said ten people suspected of involvement in Jan Ouagadougou and March Grand-Bassam terrorist attacks arrested; six still wanted.

Zimbabwe

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Factional tensions in ruling ZANU-PF party persisted: in speech to ZANU-PF central committee President Mugabe 9 June described war veterans as dissidents for allegedly threatening war if VP Emmerson Mnangagwa failed to succeed him.

Madagascar

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Grenade attack 26 June in stadium in Antananarivo during Independence Day celebrations killed two and injured 84; President Rajaonarimampianina blamed attack on “political divergences”. Opposition senator René Lylison, under arrest warrant for threats to state security, early-June denied charges.

Angola

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Secessionist group Front for the Liberation of the Cabinda Enclave (FLEC) late May reportedly raided offshore Chevron gas platform, threatened foreign workers. FLEC Commander Sem Medo 22 June claimed group killed fourteen soldiers late May. Clashes 25-26 June left seven soldiers, two FLEC dead in Miconje area. Death of FLEC historic leader Nzita Tiago 3 June prompted uncertainty over future leadership: son Emmanuel Nzita and FLEC VP Alexandre Tati both claimed presidency; Emmanuel Nzita 21 June called on all FLEC factions to unite.

Uganda

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Security forces 7-10 June arrested 30 soldiers, including Entebbe air base commander, and opposition Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) MP for allegedly planning coup; army court charged 22 soldiers and MP with treason 28 June. Unidentified gunmen 12 June attacked police station in northern Gulu killing two; govt dismissed rumours that rebels were responsible for raid and 27 May attack on Local Defence Unit in Opit, Gulu district. Army 10 June said it would withdraw most troops from AU Regional Task Force deployed in Central African Republic to counter rebel Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), citing group’s reduced strength and insufficient international support.

South Sudan

  |  1 Jul 2016

Deteriorated Risk Alert

No progress on peace deal implementation, fighting rose and govt and rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Army-In Opposition (SPLA-IO) prepared for return to war. Forces allied to SPLA-IO 11 June attacked Kajo Keji, former Central Equatoria State and 15 June attacked Raja, former Western Bahr el Ghazal State to demonstrate need for cantonment sites and unification into army or disarmament program in those areas. Independent armed group primarily comprising ethnic Fertit 25 June attacked and briefly captured Wau, second largest city; 10,000 civilians under UN protection and over 100,000 displaced. Govt delegation and Sudan govt 6 June in Khartoum committed to withdraw troops from Safe Demilitarised Border Zone along shared border and stop supporting rebel groups hostile to each other (see Sudan).

Somalia

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Al-Shabaab stepped up attacks against civilians and security forces: in Mogadishu militants 1-2 June stormed hotel, killed at least eighteen people including two MPs; suspected Al-Shabaab 5 June shot dead female journalist; militants 7 June shot dead two National Intelligence and Security Agency officers; militants 25 June detonated suicide car bomb then stormed hotel, at least fifteen people killed including minister and militants; suspected Al-Shabaab launched mortar attacks in several districts, no reported casualties. Al-Shabaab claimed 21 June killing of Middle Shabelle security chief in Jowhar. In Halgan, central Hiraan region, Al-Shabaab 9 June overran base of Ethiopian AMISOM contingent, forcing soldiers to retreat to bases in Wabha and Adan Yebal. Roadside bomb 30 June killed at least eighteen people in Lafoole, Lower Shabelle. Somali Special Forces 1 June killed senior Al-Shabaab commander Mohamed Dulyadeyn in Lower Juba and U.S. drone strike 3 June killed Al-Shabaab military instructor Ma’alim Adan Hassan in Lower Shabelle. National Leaders’ Forum 25 June agreed electoral timetable: legislative elections in Aug, presidential in Sept. At least 40 civilians reportedly killed 5 June in clashes between Ethiopian Liyu Police and herders in Gashamo contested border district, prompted protest against Liyu Police in Galgadud region (see Ethiopia). Militia loyal to former Bari regional commissioner clashed with Puntland security forces 22 June, no reported casualties.

Kenya

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Police 6 June fired on opposition supporters protesting in western Nyanza region against Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC) for alleged pro-govt bias, killing at least two. Al-Shabaab fighters 20 June ambushed police escorting bus in NE Mandera county, killing five police. Al-Shabaab militants clashed with army in coastal Lamu county 29 June, four militants killed, one soldier injured. Police same day shot dead one suspected terrorist, arrested three at house in Malindi, coastal Kilifi county. Four-day clashes late June between two communities living along Kisumu-Nandi county border killed four, displaced more than 2,000.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Political manoeuvring over electoral crisis continued as ethnic tensions rose in east. Ruling party Sec Gen 4 June raised possibility of referendum on constitution to extend President Kabila’s rule. Etienne Tshisekedi, leader of opposition Union of Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS), brought together representatives of most opposition parties and civil society near Brussels 8-9 June: participants rejected dialogue as foreseen by Kabila but called for UN, EU, AU, International Organisation of La Francophonie and U.S. to support AU-appointed facilitator Edem Kodjo, established “Rassemblement” follow-up mechanism. Tshisekedi met Kodjo in Brussels 17 June, expressed support for dialogue in spirit of UNSC Resolution 2277. In east, army and UN operations against Rwandan Hutu rebel group Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) stoked tensions between Hutu and other ethnic groups at Buleusa, eastern Walikale; non-Hutu groups suspected Hutu of complicity with FDLR. UN Force Intervention Brigade 16 June reportedly killed seven Mai Mai militants who tried to block food distribution to displaced people in Buleusa camp. U.S. imposed sanctions on Kinshasa police chief Céléstin Kanyama 23 June for “violence against civilians”.

Chad

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

President Déby 4 June went to Ngouboua on Lake Chad island to galvanise troops and call for people’s support against Boko Haram (BH). Following BH attack on Bosso town, south Niger 3 June, Nigerien President Issoufou 7 June asked Déby for military support against BH. Chadian troops in Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) mid-late June reportedly took part in operations against BH in Lake Chad region.

Central African Republic

  |  1 Jul 2016

Deteriorated

Violence spiked in Bangui and NW and central regions, continued in SE. In Bangui, killing of Muslim motorcycle taxi driver led to clashes in PK5 neighbourhood between Muslims and Christians 11 June, four killed; ex-Seleka rebels 19 June took six police captive for five days. Anti-balaka 24 June killed UN peacekeeper in Bangui. Anti-balaka fighters and ex-Seleka-backed herders clashed multiple times from 10 June in NW Ngaoundaye; ex-Seleka 15-16 June took control of town. Unidentified gunmen killed local Médecins Sans Frontières driver in ambush 17 June between Sibut and Grimari, NE of Bangui. Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) rebels kidnapped 29 people in separate raids 12 and 14 June in and near Kadjema in SE. Uganda 10 June said it would withdraw troops from AU Regional Task Force pursuing LRA in SE by end of 2016 citing group’s reduced strength and insufficient international support. France 22 June said it had reduced troops in CAR from 650 to 350. Human Rights Watch 7 June said soldiers from Republic of Congo serving as peacekeepers in African Union mission (MISCA) and UN mission (MINUSCA) killed at least eighteen people Dec 2013-June 2015. National assembly 10 June adopted govt’s General Policy Programme. International Criminal Court 21 June sentenced Congolese former rebel Jean-Pierre Bemba to eighteen years in prison for his militia’s abuses in CAR 2002-2003.

Cameroon

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged
Boko Haram (BH) slightly increased rate of attacks in Far North killing 43 mostly civilians, including twenty fishermen in Tomboun Ali, Hile Alifa district, and launching other attacks in Limani town, Kolofata district and Mora district. Suicide bomber killed eleven in Djakana near Limani 29 June. BH abducted 40 people in Darak district 6-8 June. Cameroonian troops in counter-BH Multinational Joint Task Force 25 June launched operation on Lake Chad’s Cameroonian and Nigerian islands.

Burundi

  |  1 Jul 2016

Unchanged

Govt continued to repress opposition; talks to end political crisis postponed from 21 June to 5 July. Lead facilitator former Tanzanian President Mkapa 10 June in Brussels promised opposition figures he would invite main exiled opposition alliance National Council for the Respect of the Arusha Agreement, Restoration of the Rule of Law (CNARED) as single entity to second round of talks. Govt repeated it would not negotiate with CNARED. Security forces mid-June deployed in centre-west Mugamba and Burambi areas to disarm rebels, made multiple arrests. Police 3 June arrested eleven students in Muramvya, east of Bujumbura, for defacing Nkurunziza’s image in textbooks, triggering protests. Police and intelligence services violently suppressed protests, killing one taxi driver and injuring two students. Provincial governors early June prevented Agathon Rwasa, opposition National Forces of Liberation (FNL) leader, from meeting his supporters in Gitega, Cibitoke and Karusi provinces. UN 3 June said it would not renew mandate of Burundian police in Central African Republic peacekeeping mission (MINUSCA) when tour ends Sept 2016, citing allegations of human rights abuses. U.S. Treasury 2 June said it put sanctions on two govt officials and one Republican Forces of Burundi (FOREBU) rebel. Govt 20 June threatened to withdraw from ICC Rome Statute.

Niger

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Alleged Boko Haram (BH) fighters reportedly attacked civilians in SE several times: 3 May broke into medical centre in N’Garwa, Diffa region, stole food and medical equipment; 19 May reportedly killed at least six civilians in Yebi, Bosso district and burned village. Govt said army 27 May repelled BH attack in Bosso district, killing ten BH. Fulani and Mohamid Arab armed groups reportedly clashed repeatedly with alleged BH insurgents during month along shore of Lake Chad.

Liberia

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Govt 9 May said UN Mission in Liberia will transfer its responsibilities to national security forces as part of drawdown due to be completed June 2016, but will remain in country to help maintain peace. NGO Global Witness 11 May published report highlighting bribes British company Sable Mining allegedly paid to officials in Liberia and Guinea to obtain licenses: govt opened probe into allegations; senior officials including ruling Unity Party chairman and parliament speaker arrested 25 May, immediately released on bail.

Guinea

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
President of leading opposition party Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea (UFDG) Cellou Dalein Diallo 23 April said he would file lawsuit against four govt officials after security forces blocked march organised by UFDG women in Conakry to protest imprisonment of opposition activists; trial, due to begin 31 May, was adjourned. NGO Global Witness 11 May published report highlighting bribes British company Sable Mining allegedly paid to officials in Guinea and Liberia to obtain licenses; Guinea govt denied allegations, 23 May said it had opened investigation into issues (see Liberia).

Côte d'Ivoire

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
ICC trial of former President Gbagbo and youth leader Charles Blé Goudé for crimes against humanity resumed 9 May. Gbagbo’s son Michel and French journalist indicted 24 May for “spreading false information” after saying that govt still held political prisoners. Alleged member of terrorist cell reportedly responsible for mid-March Grand-Bassam attack arrested in Abidjan 26 May. Trial of former First Lady Simone Gbagbo for crimes against humanity began 31 May in Abidjan.

Burkina Faso

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Govt 6 May dismissed commissioner and judge investigating 1987 killing of former President Sankara and Sept 2015 coup, prompting accusations of govt interference. New commissioner, contradicting Supreme Court’s 28 April announcement, 17 May said arrest warrant against former President Compaoré not yet cancelled. President of former ruling party now opposition Congress for Democracy and Progress (CDP) Eddie Komboigo provisionally released 30 May, following late-Jan arrest for complicity in Sept 2015 coup. Alleged terrorists 17 May attacked police station in Koutougou, 45km from border with Mali, injuring two police officers. 22 May municipal elections saw large victory for ruling Movement of People for Progress (MPP); opposition Union for Progress and Change (UPC) and CDP came second and third. Elections took place amid localised violence; party militants clashed and ransacked two electoral commission offices.

Zimbabwe

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
To manage factionalism within ruling ZANU-PF, President Mugabe 5 May created body to hear appeals against decisions by party’s disciplinary machinery which enemies of first VP Emmerson Mnangagwa have reportedly used to sanction his allies. Body is chaired by second VP Phelekezela Mphoko, staunch opponent of Mnangagwa, but includes some Mnangagwa allies. Suspicious death of Mnangagwa supporter Espinah Nhari in car accident 13 May prompted allegations by Mnangagwa allies of involvement of rival G40 ZANU-PF faction aligned with First Lady Grace Mugabe.

Madagascar

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Rumours of imminent coup persisted throughout May despite appointment of new army and police chiefs to keep in check alleged seditious groups in security forces. Opposition Senator René Lylison 23 May called for general strike to protest govt’s poor governance; call not heeded but security forces next day dispersed protests in Antananarivo.

Angola

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Police acknowledged to press that officers 8 May killed opposition party National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) supporter in Malanje; 24 May detained and beat Voice of America correspondent in Luanda; 27 May arrested four members of activists’ alliance Union of Activists in the Eighteen Provinces in Malanje (UA18P). Police and UNITA 27 May jointly confirmed deaths of three UNITA supporters in attack by members of ruling Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in Cubal, Benguela province; govt 27 May said it had created commission to investigate incident. Supreme Court 20 May acquitted Cabinda activist Marcos Mavungo, arrested March 2015 for allegedly planning violent protest against state.

Uganda

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Govt continued crackdown on opposition: security forces 3 May arrested over twenty officials of major opposition party Forum for Democratic Change (FDC) and activists for “disobeying lawful orders” by attempting to hold prayer meeting at FDC HQ. FDC led march 5 May in defiance of court order, govt deployed army as preventive security measure, banned media coverage. FDC leader Kizza Besigye arrested 11 May after mock ceremony to swear in Besigye as “rightful” president; Besigye charged with treason and terrorism 13 May. President Museveni sworn in 12 May following Feb re-election; Sudanese President Bashir attended ceremony ignoring ICC arrest warrant, U.S. and EU diplomats left ceremony in protest.

Sudan

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Opposition alliance Future Forces of Change (FFC) and national dialogue (ND) committee 24 May agreed to continue talks on roadmap agreement on multiple conflicts despite disagreements on major issues. Govt, AU and UN 23 May completed fact-finding mission in Darfur to inform discussions on UN Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) exit strategy; made little progress on timetable. Clashes between police and students continued from April: police reportedly arrested dozens of students in Khartoum and other cities; some 25 students injured 16-17 May in Khartoum in clashes between ruling National Congress Party and opposition Popular Congress Party supporters over student union election results. Fighting continued between Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF), pro-govt militias and rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North in S Kordofan and Blue Nile states, including SAF aerial bombing of civilian areas; military and civilian deaths reported.

South Sudan

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Transitional unity govt 27 May approved cantonment of rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Army-In Opposition (SPLA-IO) forces in Greater Equatoria and Bahr el Ghazal; 22 May formed committee to resolve controversial issues of boundaries and number of states as demanded by IGAD. Small groups of Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and SPLA-IO clashed in former Unity and Upper Nile states.

Somalia

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Al-Shabaab continued to launch regular attacks despite Somali National Army (SNA) and AMISOM offensive and U.S. drone strikes, but lost territory. Al-Shabaab 1 May attacked SNA base in Middle Shabelle, killed at least fifteen soldiers; IED killed two security officials in Puntland 6 May; suicide attack on traffic police HQ in Mogadishu killed five police 9 May; militants ambushed convoy of Kenyan AMISOM troops and Jubaland militia 24 May in Lower Juba, killed one Jubaland militant and wounded seven; militants 31 May killed two soldiers in Puntland. SNA and AMISOM forces 6 May repelled Al-Shabaab assault in Gedo region, three militants, one SNA killed; SNA 12-15 May retook three villages in Lower Shabelle, no casualties reported. Somali Federal Govt President Hassan Sheikh 22 May endorsed plan for electoral process ending months of dispute.

Kenya

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Opposition protests in Nairobi against Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC) for alleged pro-govt bias continued from late April and started in Mombasa and several counties: dozens wounded during month in clashes with police, who 23 May reportedly killed at least one protester in Kisumu county and two in Siaya county. Govt 6 May announced plan to close Dadaab refugee camp in NE despite international pressure.

Rwanda

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
UN experts’ report leaked 13 May claimed govt continues to support Burundian rebels seeking to oust Burundian President Nkurunziza, following UN experts’ similar accusation in Feb. President Kagame denied allegations. Burundian officials 16 May said Rwandan govt had expelled over 1,300 Burundians including refugees and long-time residents; Kigali said expulsions part of crackdown on illegal residents, not Burundians specifically.

DR Congo

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged

Constitutional court 11 May ruled that President Kabila could legally stay in office after his second term ends in Dec if elections have not been held. Main opposition parties rejected judgement, called for protest marches. Anti-govt protests held throughout country 26 May, clashed with police in several cities, one protester and one policeman killed in Goma. Ex-Katanga Governor Moïse Katumbi 4 May said he would run in presidential elections; govt same day opened investigation into Katumbi’s alleged hiring of foreign mercenaries in plot against govt. Prosecutor general 19 May issued arrest warrant for him but Katumbi flew with prosecutor’s permission to South Africa 20 May for medical treatment, 27 May flew to Europe. Attacks on civilians rose in eastern Beni territory, North Kivu, attributed to Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) rebels, leaving at least twenty people dead; armed forces 14 May launched new operation against ADF.

Chad

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Constitutional council 3 May announced official results of 10 April presidential elections; President Déby winner with 59.92% of vote, Saleh Kebzabo second with 12.77%. Council’s dismissal on procedural grounds of opposition’s request that vote be invalidated led six opposition candidates to call for general strike on 5 May; call not heeded. U.S. and France early May called on govt to investigate disappearance of at least twenty military personnel 9 April allegedly after voting for opposition. Former President Habré 30 May convicted in Senegal for crimes against humanity and sentenced to life.

Central African Republic

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged

National assembly 6 May elected former Minister Karim Mekassoua as assembly president, despite corruption allegations against him. French President Hollande 13 May visited Bangui, said Sangaris mission would end by Dec, 250 French soldiers would secure airport in 2017 and more would join EU training mission and UN mission. Ex-Seleka rebel factions late May demanded positions in govt and threatened to reunify to pressure govt. Legislative elections held 15 May in ten constituencies where initial results contested; results due by 5 June. Govt 19 May created committee to prevent genocide. Armed men 18 May killed Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) driver 82km north of Bossangoa (NW); MSF 19 May suspended operations in area. ICC prosecutor 18 May requested minimum 25 years’ imprisonment for Congolese former rebel Jean-Pierre Bemba for abuses committed by his militia in CAR 2002-2003. IMF 29 May said it would provide $110mn in financial aid over three years.

Cameroon

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Boko Haram (BH) continued attacks on civilians in Far North but at lower rate, killing thirteen people, including: girls detonated suicide bombs 2 May in Kolofata and 9 May in Homaka-Blabine killing only themselves, BH killed nine civilians and abducted two in Idoua 20 May. Army and govt-recognised vigilante groups sustained counter-BH operations, including in Nigeria: jointly attacked BH in Kambalam, Nigeria 2 May; jointly killed seven BH members in Homaka 7 May; army rapid intervention force 12 May conducted operation in Madawaya forest, Nigeria, freed over fifty captives, arrested Boukar Kaou, alleged BH amir of Kumshe, Nigeria. Security forces arrested opposition Cameroon People’s Party members in Yaoundé 20 May.

Burundi

  |  1 Jun 2016

Unchanged
Talks to end political crisis postponed from 2 May after govt and opposition threatened to boycott over participants, later held in Arusha, Tanzania 21-24 May. Bowing to pressure from Bujumbura and Burundian East African Community (EAC) chief, lead facilitator former Tanzanian President Mkapa did not invite main exiled opposition alliance National Council for the Respect of the Arusha Agreement, Restoration of the Rule of Law (CNARED) but only some CNARED members. CNARED leaders and civil society organisations asked EAC chief not to interfere in talks. Mkapa 24 May said he would convene next session in June. African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 20 May called for international police force, more military and rights observers to be deployed in Burundi. Burundian rights activist late April said 1,098 civilians killed since violence began April 2015; police 3 May said 77 police and 374 civilians killed in same period. Security forces mid-late May arrested about 400 youths in Bujumbura and Mugamba; Bujumbura mayor said necessary to “manage movement of people”. Court 9 May delivered 21 life sentences to those involved in May 2015 attempted coup. Assassinations of military personnel continued; former colonel killed 25 May in Bujumbura. Rwanda mid-month expelled over 1,300 Burundians (see Rwanda).

Nigeria

  |  1 Jun 2016

Deteriorated
Security in Niger Delta deteriorated further, cutting oil output to lowest in two decades and reducing national electricity supply. Little-known group Niger Delta Avengers claimed six attacks during month on facilities operated by Chevron, Shell, Nigerian Agip Oil Company (NAOC) and Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) in Delta and Bayelsa states. Security forces attacked Delta militants 26 May, unknown number killed. Hitherto unknown group Egbesu Mightier Fraternity next day threatened to attack offshore oil facilities in Delta if govt did not release within two weeks Biafra separatist leader Nnamdi Kanu and former national security adviser Sambo Dasuki. Security forces clashed with Biafra separatist agitators in several SE cities 30 May, at least twenty killed. Army continued operations to clear Boko Haram (BH) strongholds in NE Borno state’s Sambisa forest, reporting several gains during month: 14 May repelled insurgents’ attack; 17 May found escaped Chibok girl kidnapped April 2014; 19 May freed 97 girls and women. Clashes between farmers and Fulani herdsmen continued in several states: suspected Fulani herdsmen attacked two villages in Zamfara state 4 May, at least ten people killed; attacked three villages in Taraba state 7 May, about thirteen killed; attacked Tarfi, Benue state 13 May, at least five killed.

Mali

  |  1 Jun 2016

Deteriorated
Clashes between ethnic armed groups and attacks by suspected jihadists rose in centre and armed groups continued to clash in north. Hundreds of protesters in Gao 13 May demanded govt and UN mission MINUSMA include more local youth in delayed disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) process. Pro-govt Groupe d’autodéfense touareg imrad et alliés (GATIA) 14 May reportedly attempted to forcefully disarm Ganda Izo militia in Ndaki, Timbuktu region; two GATIA and one Ganda Izo reportedly killed. French Barkhane mission and govt forces (FAMA) maintained efforts to counter jihadist groups: Special Forces 5 May arrested alleged second-in-command of Ansar Dine’s southern brigade, Yacouba Touré, outside Bamako; Barkhane forces 6 May said they had killed Ansar Dine commander and captured another. Jihadists continued to target FAMA and international forces: alleged jihadists 11 May ambushed FAMA convoy, killing one officer and one soldier; ambushed MINUSMA convoys, killing five peacekeepers in Kidal region 18 May and five in central Mopti region 28 May. Ethnic clashes increased in centre: Fulani and Bambara armed groups clashed repeatedly in Mopti region 30 April-3 May, leaving some 30 dead.

Guinea-Bissau

  |  1 Jun 2016

Deteriorated
Confrontation between President Vaz and dominant faction of ruling African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) led to standoff. High court 9 May annulled earlier regional court decision to suspend mandates of fifteen dissident PAIGC MPs; PAIGC and allied parties same day accused Vaz of legal coup, reiterating call for immediate legislative elections. Vaz 12 May dismissed PAIGC-designated PM Correia, citing his failure to secure both majority in parliament and parliament’s approval of govt agenda; began consultations with all parties. PAIGC 16 May proposed Correia and PAIGC whip Califa Seidi as PM candidates and reallocation of cabinet positions. Vaz, claiming PAIGC’s proposal too vague, decided to create govt of “presidential initiative”, built on coalition of leading opposition Party for Social Renewal (PRS) and fifteen dissident PAIGC MPs; designated PAIGC dissident Baciro Dja as PM 26 May. PAIGC same day said move unconstitutional, called for popular mobilisation and refused to leave main government building. PAIGC and opposition supporters protested outside presidency; some wounded in clashes with security forces.

Nigeria

  |  2 May 2016

Unchanged

Govt continued operations against Boko Haram (BH) in NE Borno state; claimed it killed over 120 insurgents, arrested three commanders, captured twelve camps and rescued over 2,000 captives during month. Govt said it arrested Khaled al-Barnawi, leader of BH splinter group Ansaru, with three others 1 April in Lokoja, Kogi state. BH 1 April posted video online insisting leader Abubakar Shekau still in charge after March video suggested he would step down. Clashes between herdsmen and farmers continued: about 30 killed in four villages in Taraba state 10 April; eighteen killed in Moor, Benue state 18 April; about 40 killed in Nimbo, Enugu state 24 April. Security in Niger Delta threatened to deteriorate; little known group Niger Delta Avengers threatened to step up attacks on oil facilities after govt 16 April proposed setting up special security force to combat pipeline vandalism. President Buhari 28 April announced plan to establish multinational task force to patrol Gulf of Guinea.

Niger

  |  2 May 2016

Unchanged
President Issoufou sworn in 2 April for second five-year term. Opposition 17 April ended its boycott of state institutions which began following late-March presidential run-off, but reiterated rejection of election results. Issoufou 11 April formed new govt comprising mainly members of ruling Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism (PNDS) party, despite late March pledge to create “govt of national unity”. In SE Boko Haram maintained pressure on military and civilians; 6 April suicide attack near Diffa killed two civilians.

Mali

  |  2 May 2016

Unchanged
Limited progress made in implementing June 2015 Bamako agreement; following national assembly’s 31 March adoption of law on appointment of interim authorities in north, signatories discussed nomination modalities 8-11 April but made no decision. French Operation Barkhane and army (FAMA) intensified efforts to counter jihadists: arrested at least five and killed two suspected jihadists 7-9 April in central region. Kidal inhabitants 18 April protested house searches and Barkhane forces’ arrests; youth demonstrators clashed with MINUSMA forces at airport, three protesters killed. After Barkhane forces arrested local guide for alleged links with jihadist groups, jihadist group Ansar Dine 16 April abducted three ICRC employees he was guiding, demanded his release. Jihadists continued attacks: Ansar Dine claimed responsibility for 20 March and 17 April mortar attacks on Amachach military camp, Tessalit district, occupied by FAMA, MINUSMA and Barkhane forces; Barkhane vehicle detonated IED 12 April near Amachach, Kidal region, three French soldiers killed. Bandit attack on civilian convoy 3 April on Douékiré axis, Timbuktu region, killed pro-govt armed group escort.

Guinea-Bissau

  |  2 May 2016

Unchanged
Supreme Court of Justice (STJ) 5 April overturned decision by permanent commission of People’s National Assembly (ANP) to cancel mandate of fifteen MPs expelled from ruling African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC). Dissident MPs could form new majority with 41 MPs from opposition Party for Social Renewal (PRS) and cause govt collapse. PAIGC President Domingos Simoes Pereira 6 April said party would abide by decision, but needed clarity on dissidents’ status as their expulsion from PAIGC remains valid and constitution forbids independent MPs. Other PAIGC supporters called for early general elections, which they believe PAIGC would win. In ANP special session 19 April President Vaz insisted he would not convene elections, urged PAIGC to find solution or he would form new legislative majority.

Guinea

  |  2 May 2016

Unchanged
Preparations for local elections planned for Oct continued to generate tension between govt and opposition: opposition led by Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea (UFDG) 4 April rejected Electoral Commission (CENI)’s allocation of opposition seats in its local structures to Union of Republican Forces (UFR), which is now pro-govt; UFR leader Sidya Touré 12 April announced possible alliance with ruling Rally of the Guinean People (RPG). In separate dispute, RPG member and national assembly speaker Claude Kory Kondiano 5 April proposed holding municipal councillor elections separate from ward and borough councillor vote. Former PM Lansana Kouyaté’s opposition Party of Hope for National Development (PEDN) rejected proposal, denounced alleged non-implementation of Aug 2015 political agreement and suspended participation in electoral preparations. Opposition called for general strike 30-31 March and 14 April to protest electoral issues and govt authoritarianism; opposition supporters heeded call largely peacefully.

Côte d'Ivoire

  |  2 May 2016

Unchanged
Govt 13 April said it had arrested 83 people in connection with 13 March terrorist attack in Grand-Bassam claimed by al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), including sixteen with direct links; prime suspect Kounta Dallah still at large. Students in Abidjan demanding better living conditions clashed with police 11 April. Govt detained 40-50 students and 13 April arrested leader of Student Federation of Côte d’Ivoire (FESCI), former President Gbagbo’s violent student wing; protests erupted next day against arrest. UN group of experts report early-April accused former Forces Nouvelles rebels, led by national assembly speaker Guillaume Soro, of holding 300 tonnes of weapons that Soro allegedly obtained in 2011 after post-election crisis, violating UN arms embargo in place since 2004; Soro denied accusations. UNSC 28 April lifted arms embargo, renewed UN mission’s mandate for one final year until June 2017 and removed remaining sanctions (asset freeze and travel bans), including against Gbagbo.

Burkina Faso

  |  2 May 2016

Unchanged
Amid ongoing tensions between military old guard (some suspected of involvement in Sept 2015 coup) and young officers (who stopped coup leaders), gunshots reportedly heard 18 April at military prison holding those arrested in connection with coup; army said they were warning shots against bystanders. Military judge 27 April summoned for second time high-ranking officers including chief of staff General Pingrenoma Zagré allegedly involved in Sept 2015 coup but they ignored summons; military 29 April denied these officers had been summoned. Citing procedural reasons Supreme Court 28 April cancelled arrest warrants for those suspected of involvement in both Sept 2015 coup, including Côte d’Ivoire’s national assembly speaker Guillaume Soro, and 1987 killing of former President Thomas Sankara, including former President Compaoré.

Zimbabwe

  |  2 May 2016

Unchanged
President Mugabe 18 April called for unity on 36th anniversary of independence, amid ongoing factionalism within ruling ZANU-PF. Mugabe tried to appease thousands of war veterans in Harare in 7 April address, but sidestepped their allegations that senior ZANU-PF members associated with G40 group aligned with First Lady Grace Mugabe used party disciplinary and organising structures to marginalise rival factions. Thousands of opposition Movement for Democratic Change-Tsvangirai (MDC-T) supporters 14 April protested govt’s failure to stop economic decline; first major demonstration since 2013 elections.
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