Nigeria is confronted by multiple security challenges, notably the resilient Boko Haram Islamist insurgency in the north east, long-running discontent and militancy in the Niger Delta, increasing violence between herders and farming communities spreading from the central belt southward, and separatist Biafra agitation in the Igbo south east. Violence, particularly by the Boko Haram insurgency, has displaced more than two million people, created a massive humanitarian crisis, and prompted the rise of civilian vigilante self-defence groups that pose new policy dilemmas and possible security risks. Crisis Group seeks to help the Nigerian government by shedding new light on the country’s security challenges, de-escalating risks and tension, and encouraging regional and gender-specific approaches toward ending the violence durably.
Women are streaming home from Boko Haram’s domain in north-eastern Nigeria, some having escaped captivity and others having left jihadist husbands behind. The state should safeguard these women from abuse, so that they stay in government-held areas and encourage men to come back as well.
Boko Haram (BH) insurgency continued in Borno and Yobe states in north east, bandit-related violence persisted in north west, and incidents of criminal and communal violence occurred in Niger Delta. In north east, BH continued to attack communities and execute captives, as military and vigilantes continued to fight both factions – Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) and Abubakar Shekau’s group. Notably, insurgents 12 Dec stormed security post at Mamuri about 80km north of Borno state capital Maiduguri, killing fifteen including hunters, vigilantes and policeman. ISWAP 13 Dec killed four of six humanitarian workers abducted near Damasak in July. Insurgents 14 Dec killed nineteen herders in fighting outside Fuhe village, near Ngala, Borno state; 22 Dec ambushed travellers on Maiduguri-Monguno road, Borno state, killing at least six and abducting five; 25 Dec issued video showing execution of eleven Christian men, claiming vengeance for U.S. killing of ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi in Oct. ISWAP fighters 22 Dec attempted to invade Yobe state capital Damaturu, but govt forces repelled them killing about 40. Air Force said it killed scores of insurgents in 31 Dec raid on camp in Abulam area of Sambisa forest, Borno state. In north west, bandit-related violence continued, notably in Zamfara and Niger states despite state govts’ dialogues with bandit leaders. In Zamfara state, bandits raided communities in rural areas of Kaura, Maru and Gummi local govt areas. In Niger state, bandits 1 Dec attacked Koki in Shiroro local govt area killing eleven people, 3 Dec stormed village in Kagara local govt area killing thirteen people and kidnapping nine. In Kaduna state, gunmen 8 Dec killed four youths in Zunuruk, Kaura local govt area. In Niger Delta in far south, pirates 3 Dec stormed oil vessel about 143km off Bonny Island in Rivers state abducting nineteen of 26 crewmembers. Gunmen 7 Dec killed six people at Chokocho, Etche local govt area, Rivers state, possibly in intercommunal feud.
Three years after Boko Haram broke apart, one faction, the Islamic State in West Africa Province, is forming a proto-state in northern Nigeria. The state should press its military offensive against the jihadists but also try undercutting their appeal by improving governance and public services.
Nigerian elections are high-stakes affairs often marred by street clashes and worse. As the 2019 contests approach, the risk of disturbances is particularly high in six states. The government and its foreign partners can limit campaign-related violence by enhancing security and promoting dialogue among rivals.
Rising conflict between herders and farmers in Nigeria is already six times deadlier in 2018 than Boko Haram’s insurgency. To stop the bloodshed, the federal government should improve security; end impunity for assailants; and hasten livestock sector reform. State governments should freeze open grazing bans.
Four years after the abductions in Chibok, and months after more kidnappings in Dapchi, over 100 schoolgirls are still missing. Nigeria must act to make schools safe – beefing up security, learning from past mistakes and, ultimately, working to end the Boko Haram insurgency.
Propelled by desertification, insecurity and the loss of grazing land to expanding settlements, the southward migration of Nigeria’s herders is causing violent competition over land with local farmers. To prevent the crisis from escalating, the government should strengthen security for herders and farmers, implement conflict resolution mechanisms and establish grazing reserves.
Massive unemployment [in Nigeria] has created a growing army of unemployed youth, vulnerable to recruitment in the criminal industry.
Stakes are high for Nigeria and the region. A vote marred in controversy and violence inevitably would hinder efforts to address the country’s security and economic challenges.
While ending the insurgency and countering the militants’ appeal is obviously vital, it is also essential to recognise what precisely has guided women to join [Boko Haram] in the first place.
The fact that some of the recent attacks [in Nigeria] specifically targeted military bases shows they were deliberate, not opportunistic.
Jihadist groups present since the 2012 crisis in Mali exploited local unrest and the weak presence of the state in northern Mali to launch cross-border attacks against the Nigerien army... Despite direct support from Chadian troops since 2015 and closer collaboration with the Nigerian army, Nigerien forces have been unable to fully secure the border with Nigeria from attacks, including some linked to the Islamic State.
More people to feed means more agricultural settlement and less available land and water for herders. All of this tend to trigger more and more disputes [between farmers and semi-nomadic herders in Nigeria].
In late 2018 Crisis Group’s Senior Analyst for Gender Azadeh Moaveni went to north-east Nigeria, which has been the epicenter of the fight between Boko Haram and the Nigerian military, to explore how effectively women formerly associated with the group have been rehabilitated and reintegrated back into society.
In northeastern Nigeria, the militant group exploits a broken social system. There are lessons here for the rest of the world.
Originally published in The Guardian
Crisis Group’s third update to our Watch List 2018 includes entries on economic reforms in Libya, preserving the fragile quiet in Syria’s Idlib province, addressing the plight of civilians in eastern Ukraine, supporting Colombia's uneasy peace process and averting violence in Nigeria's upcoming elections. This annual early-warning report identifies conflict situations in which prompt action by the European Union and its member states would generate stronger prospects for peace.
As election preparations get underway in Nigeria, conflict and insecurity in many parts of the country risk exacerbating intercommunal tensions and preventing a peaceful transfer of power. In this excerpt from our Watch List 2018 annual early-warning update for European policy makers, Crisis Group urges the EU and its members states to remain fully engaged during the election in order to curb violence and strengthen the country’s democratic institutions.