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Undocumented Migration from the Northern Triangle of Central America
Undocumented Migration from the Northern Triangle of Central America
Report 39 / Latin America & Caribbean

Guatemala: narcotráfico y violencia

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Resumen Ejecutivo

En Guatemala, la sangrienta irrupción de carteles dirigidos por mexicanos constituye el capítulo mas reciente de un círculo vicioso de violencia y fracaso institucional. La geografía ha convertido al país – que está en la mitad del camino entre Colombia y Estados Unidos – en una de las intersecciones más concurridas para las drogas ilícitas. La cocaína (y ahora los ingredientes para las drogas sintéticas) entra por aire, tierra y mar. De ahí sigue a México, camino a Estados Unidos. El altiplano fresco ofrece un clima ideal para el cultivo de amapola. Debido a la laxa normatividad y a una larga historia de contrabando, las armas abundan. Una población empobrecida y subempleada es una buena fuente de reclutas. El ganador de las elecciones presidenciales de noviembre tendrá que enfrentar el problema de las inequidades sociales y económicas al igual que la violencia y la corrupción que asociada con el narcotráfico. Es necesario el apoyo decidido de la comunidad internacional para asegurar que estos retos no abrumen a una democracia que aún no se recupera de las décadas de violencia política y gobiernos militares.

Las pandillas y la delincuencia común florecen bajo las mismas condiciones que les permiten a los narcotraficantes operar con flagrante impunidad: fuerzas policiales desmoralizadas, un sistema judicial que suele ser objeto de intimidaciones y corrupción y una población que desconfía de las entidades encargadas de aplicar la ley, a tal punto que los ricos dependen de fuerzas de seguridad privada en tanto que los pobres se arman para formar grupos de autodefensa. Durante la última década, la tasa de homicidios ha duplicado, pasando de veinte a más de cuarenta por 100.000 habitantes. Mientras que los traficantes contribuyen a la ola de delincuencia en regiones fronterizas y a lo largo de los corredores del narcotráfico, pandillas de jóvenes siembran el terror en los barrios de Ciudad de Guatemala.

Las atrocidades perpetradas por los Zetas, la organización criminal mexicana más violenta, que decapita y descuartiza a sus víctimas para lograr el mayor impacto, generan el mayor número de titulares. Los violentos carteles de la droga, sin embargo, son sólo una manifestación de las bandas y asociaciones clandestinas que llevan mucho tiempo dominando a la sociedad guatemalteca y paralizando sus instituciones. Cómo cambiar esta dinámica será uno de los retos más difíciles para el ganador de las elecciones presidenciales de noviembre. Tanto Otto Pérez Molina como Manuel Baldizón han prometido una postura fuerte contra la delincuencia. Sin embargo, es muy probable que un enfoque de mano dura que no incluya una estrategia para fomentar el estado de derecho, sólo arroje resultados esporádicos y a corto plazo.

En décadas anteriores, el mismo Estado fue el violador más prolífico de derechos humanos. Durante el conflicto que duró 36 años y que terminó en los acuerdos de paz de 1996, las fuerzas armadas asesinaron a opositores en zonas urbanas y arrasaron con poblaciones ante la sospecha de que éstas servían como escondites para las fuerzas guerrilleras. Justo cuando Guatemala se recuperaba de años de violencia política, el control del narcotráfico sudamericano se desplazaba de Colombia hacia México. El aumento en la interdicción en el Caribe y el arresto de líderes de carteles colombianos les permitió a los traficantes mexicanos comenzar a tomar las riendas de la distribución de estupefacientes a finales de la década de 1990. La ofensiva contra el narcotráfico lanzada por el presidente mexicano Felipe Calderón después de 2006, obligó a los narcotraficantes a importar mayores cantidades de drogas a Centroamérica para luego transportarla hacia el norte por tierra.

El envío de más estupefacientes a través de Centroamérica ha tenido un efecto multiplicador sobre las actividades ilegales. La violencia es especialmente intensa en los departamentos costeros y fronterizos, donde los narcotraficantes y las pandillas han diversificado sus actividades para incluir, entre otras, el microtráfico, la prostitución, la extorsión y el secuestro.

En algunas regiones, los narcotraficantes se han convertido en empresarios prominentes, con negocios lícitos e ilícitos. Ellos participan en eventos comunitarios, distribuyen regalos a los necesitados y financian campañas políticas. Sus secuaces fuertemente armados ofrecen protección contra otras pandillas y la delincuencia común. Aquellos que financian el cultivo de amapola ofrecen a comunidades indígenas empobrecidas ingresos monetarios superiores a cualquiera que hayan conocido antes. Pero estos grupos de narcotráfico a nivel nacional operan también con impunidad a la hora de tomar tierras e intimidar o eliminar a competidores. La policía y las autoridades judiciales locales oponen poca resistencia, al carecer de recursos y ser objeto de una desconfianza generalizada.

Hay indicios de progreso. La fiscal general está reabriendo investigaciones sobre abusos de derechos humanos a la vez que toma medidas severas contra la actual amenaza que presenta el crimen organizado. Una activista veterana de derechos humanos fue nombrada por el gobierno saliente para reformar la policía. La Comisión Internacional Contra la Impunidad en Guatemala (CICIG), una iniciativa conjunta entre la ONU y Guatemala, está impulsando procesos penales de alto perfil. Los donantes están financiando unidades previamente depuradas, brindando nuevas herramientas de investigación y construyendo nuevas instalaciones judiciales. Además, durante el último año las autoridades centroamericanas, con apoyo internacional, han arrestado a media docena de narcotraficantes guatemaltecos de alto perfil que serán extraditados a Estados Unidos.

No obstante, ponerle fin a la impunidad que ha permitido el florecimiento de redes de narcotráfico y otras organizaciones ilegales implicará un esfuerzo multidimensional a largo plazo. Para sostener los avances recientes y sentar las bases para una reforma sostenible es urgente que:

  • el nuevo Presidente le permita a la fiscal general, Claudia Paz y Paz, terminar su mandato de cuatro años, le dé su pleno respaldo a la comisionada para la reforma policial, Helen Mack, y respalde los esfuerzos de la CICIG para iniciar procesos penales de alto perfil y fortalecer las capacidades de la justicia penal;
     
  • líderes políticos y empresariales trabajen juntos tanto para aumentar las rentas públicas para la lucha contra la delincuencia y los programas sociales, como para idear iniciativas anticorrupción que obliguen a los funcionarios a responder cuando utilicen fondos públicos;
     
  • los líderes regionales aumenten la cooperación para interceptar cargamentos de narcóticos ilícitos y desmantelar grupos criminales transnacionales a través de entidades como el Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana (SICA);
     
  • Estados Unidos y otros países consumidores brinden ayuda financiera acorde con su interés nacional en frenar el narcotráfico y con objeto no sólo de arrestar narcotraficantes, sino también de construir instituciones fuertes, sujetas a mecanismos democráticos de rendición de cuentas; y
     
  • los líderes internacionales abran un debate serio sobre políticas antidrogas, incluyendo estrategias diseñadas para reducir tanto la producción como el consumo. Es tiempo de reevaluar las políticas que no han logrado ni aliviar el sufrimiento causado por la drogadicción ni reducir la corrupción y la violencia vinculadas a la producción y tráfico de estupefacientes.

Ciudad de Guatemala/Bogotá/Bruselas, 11 de octubre de 2011

 

Undocumented Migration from the Northern Triangle of Central America

The northward flow of undocumented migrants fleeing economic hardship and violence in the Northern Triangle of Central America exposes thousands of vulnerable people to mass victimisation. In this excerpt from the Watch List 2017 – Third Update early warning report for European policy makers, Crisis Group urges the European Union and its member states to continue to pursue an approach grounded in supporting community violence prevention, institutional reform and poverty alleviation in the countries of origin while supporting transiting countries in managing the flow.

This commentary is part of our Watch List 2017 – Third Update.

Flows of undocumented migrants from Central America, through Mexico and toward the U.S. have given rise to a humanitarian emergency, albeit one that at present is largely treated by Washington as a national security menace and a justification for tougher border control. Originally driven by economic hardship, this northbound migration owes its intensity and longevity to multiple causes that make controlling or reducing it extremely hard. Mass victimisation of vulnerable migrants in transit has become the norm and could well be aggravated by Washington’s growing anti-immigration agenda. In this context, the European Union (EU) should adapt its current strategies in Central America to promote a more comprehensive approach to the protection of migrants.

Humanitarian impact

The flow of migrants from the countries of the Northern Triangle of Central America (NTCA) – El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras – to the U.S. has become as much a flight from life-endangering violence as a search for economic opportunity. Surveys of migrants and refugees carried out by Doctors Without Borders (MSF) in Mexico showed 39.2 per cent cite attacks or threats to themselves or their families, extortion or forced recruitment into gangs as the main reasons for their flight.

Once on their journey north, undocumented migrants must chart a perilous path between the dual threats of law enforcement and criminal groups. Crisis Group’s 2016 report (Easy Prey: Criminal Violence and Central American Migration, 28 July 2016) describes how toughened law enforcement has diverted undocumented migration into more costly, circuitous and dangerous channels, where criminal gangs and corrupt officials benefit from policies that lead desperate people to pay increasing sums to avoid detention.

In the process, undocumented migrants are exposed to kidnappings, human trafficking, enforced disappearances, sexual violence, robbery and extortion. The most egregious cases include the 2010 and 2011 San Fernando massacres, in the northern Mexican state of Tamaulipas, in which 265 migrants, most of them Central American, were killed by the Zetas drug trafficking cartel. Stuck in a legal limbo, migrants are doubly victimised: fearful of authorities, they are highly unlikely to report the crimes they suffer or gain access to medical care should they need it.

MSF has described undocumented migrants’ plight as “comparable to the conditions in conflict zones”. Two thirds of migrants reported being victims of violence during their transit toward the U.S.; nearly one third of women surveyed said they had been sexually abused during the journey. Among the migrants exposed to these risks are some of the most vulnerable groups in Central American society. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reports that asylum requests by unaccompanied NTCA minors in Mexico increased 416 per cent from 2013 to 2016.

U.S. policies

Fear of undocumented migration to the U.S. increasingly dominates political debate in that country. Although former President Obama stepped up border controls and continued a vigorous deportation policy – returning over five million people in total – his administration also welcomed legal migrants, acknowledged the humanitarian crisis posed by unaccompanied children arriving from Central America, and extended support to refugees around the world. President Trump, by contrast, was elected in part on a platform of clamping down on immigration, and some of his most influential supporters have made clear that their continued backing depends on implementation of stringent restrictive measures.

Undocumented entry into the U.S. already had become more difficult. 100,000 undocumented migrants made it into the U.S in 2016, compared to over 600,000 in 2006, according to a Department of Homeland Security (DHS) report.

Deepening Mexican collaboration with U.S. efforts to staunch the flow of Central Americans accounts for much of this reduction, and is likely to persist as Mexico strives to mitigate bilateral frictions with the Trump administration. In response to the 2014 crisis presented by migrant children arriving at the U.S. border, Mexican authorities boosted checkpoints, detentions and deportations of Northern Triangle nationals on its southern border with Guatemala. Mexico now deports more Central Americans than the U.S. (see graph).

Sources: Mexican Secretariat of Government http://politicamigratoria.gob.mx/es_mx/SEGOB/Boletines_Estadisticos and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency (ICE) https://www.ice.gov/statistics

None of this has lessened the Trump administration’s determination to curb recent arrivals from Mexico and the Northern Triangle. The Temporary Protected Status (TPS) – which benefits some 200,000 migrants who came to the U.S. following hurricane Mitch in Honduras in 1998 and an earthquake in El Salvador in 2001 – is at risk of termination in 2018.

Likewise, on 5 September, President Trump rescinded the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, created by the Obama administration to defer deportation and provide work permits to 800,000 undocumented migrants who entered the U.S. as minors. President Trump suggested that Congress should use the six-month wind-down period before the DACA work permits expire to create a legislative framework for the program. But, under pressure from some of the administration’s staunchest supporters, the White House has made clear that it will only support such legislation if Congress also enacts tough new immigration measures. How the legislative process will play out is not yet clear.

Although overall deportations by the Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency (ICE) are reported to have fallen slightly – they reached 211,068 as of 9 September 2017, three weeks before the end of the fiscal year, as compared to 240,255 in FY 2016 – arrests of undocumented migrants have risen by 43 per cent since Trump took office, as compared to the same period the year before. Most strikingly, the number of migrants without a criminal record being detained has increased threefold since 2016.

Mexican and Central American responses

An increase in deportations – driven by arrests of undocumented migrants and expiry of the TPS and DACA – would place further strains on troubled social conditions in the Northern Triangle. Although the region has relatively robust legal frameworks to protect refugees, with Mexico at the forefront of international refugee and migrant protection efforts, they frequently are unable to provide what they preach.

For instance, asylum in Mexico can be a prolonged process. Out of 8,788 requests, only 5,954 were resolved in 2016, 3,076 of which were granted. Asylum-seekers must file requests within 30 days of crossing the border, and are kept in detention if arrested before applying. Many give up because of the detention centers’ cramped and insalubrious conditions, or because they have no right to work while their requests are being considered.

Overall, the [Northern Triangle] countries are not adequately equipped to receive new deportees.

Overall, the NTCA countries are not adequately equipped to receive new deportees. El Salvador’s preparations to receive them are almost entirely restricted to the monitoring of suspected gang activities. The National Assembly’s security commission has agreed on measures to track returnees accused of being street-gang members: over 500 suspected gang members have been sent back so far in 2017 to El Salvador, where high rates of violent crime and reported cases of extrajudicial execution of gang members complicate prospects of a return to peaceful civilian life.

Capacities to provide legal counsel, shelter, social reintegration or even transportation for returnees across the Northern Triangle are scant. Proposed legislation in Guatemala to strengthen the state’s readiness to protect migrants has stalled because of that country’s political crisis. In Honduras, the number of departing refugees and arriving deportees is the highest in the NTCA, but its government is concentrating on the president’s re-election campaign and on activating its own protocols against deported gang members.

Recommendations to the European Union and its member states

The more U.S. concerns about security and the economic effects of mass migration continue to drive a restrictive immigration policy, the more important it will be – from both a humanitarian and regional stability perspective – for the U.S. and its partners to help generate economic opportunities, better governance and broader social protection south of the U.S. border. That was the logic behind the “Alliance for Prosperity”, which the Obama administration established jointly with the NTCA governments and pursuant to which some $1.3 billion have been allocated to Central America in the 2017 and 2018 federal budgets. Today, that logic is at risk. A June 2017 high-level summit in Miami on prosperity and security in the NTCA, heralded a far stronger emphasis on security issues at the expense of recognition of the humanitarian emergency related to undocumented migration.

While the European Union (EU)’s role is limited due to the U.S.’s overwhelming influence in the region, it nonetheless could strengthen humanitarian responses and press for a more informed, integral approach to the protection of migrants, especially women and children. Migration forms a significant part of the EU’s cooperation with Latin America. The 2015 EU-CELAC Action Plan as well as the 2014-2020 Multiannual Indicative Regional Programme for Latin America include migration management and the protection of migrant rights as action points. So far, the EU’s initiatives in this field have focused on Latin America as a whole. However, the evolving migration dynamics in the NTCA call for a more targeted response. The EU should adapt its priorities in Central America and promote migration policies that focus on the protection and integration of migrants.

Technical assistance and capacity-building support for the under-resourced Central American consulates situated on the migrant route through Mexico would help ensure better protection for those in transit.

The EU should support Mexican and Northern Triangle authorities in their efforts to strengthen oversight of security agencies and state institutions working on migrant issues. Technical assistance and capacity-building support for the under-resourced Central American consulates situated on the migrant route through Mexico would help ensure better protection for those in transit. The initiative MIgration EU eXpertise (MIEUX), a peer-to-peer experts’ facility that supports partner countries to better manage migration through tailor-made assistance, can be a useful platform and starting point for the exchange of expertise and best practices.

The EU could also boost technical support to expand refugee processing of NTCA nationals in neighbouring countries (mainly Belize and Costa Rica), particularly minors, and ensure regional governments and NGOs provide adequate shelter to those awaiting decisions. Financial and logistical support to neighbouring countries such as Panama and Costa Rica, as well as to other Latin American countries that agree to take a share of refugees, would help cushion the impact of increasingly forbidding U.S. immigration policies.

All in all, the EU should continue to pursue an approach to Central America grounded in supporting community violence prevention, institutional reform and poverty alleviation. Perhaps most urgently, it should assist the three Northern Triangle countries in developing new programs to help them reintegrate deportees, including through initiatives to help them access health care, training, employment and psychosocial support when necessary.