Pou Gouvène Ayiti: Li lè pou gen yon Konsansis Nasyonal
Pou Gouvène Ayiti: Li lè pou gen yon Konsansis Nasyonal
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  1. Executive Summary
It’s Time for a National Consensus in Haiti
It’s Time for a National Consensus in Haiti
Report 46 / Latin America & Caribbean

Pou Gouvène Ayiti: Li lè pou gen yon Konsansis Nasyonal

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Rezime Egzekitif

Ayiti nan yon mache prese san pran souf pou li konvenk pwòp moun pa li yo, bayè de fon ak envestisè potansyèl yo, ke pwogrè ak stabilite posib. Reta kap pèsiste nan òganizasyon eleksyon lib epi onèt ka poze kom pi gwo defi nan yon tan ki tou pwòch, men (tankou prezidan anvan li yo) Prezidan Michel Martelly ki deja ap goumen pou’l gouvène yon peyi ki kraze epi ki divize depi plis pase yon lane edmi, manke yon baz politik stab () pou jwenn moun kap pote kole nan strateji devlòpman senk-E li te pwopoze a : travay, eta de dwa (règleman lalwa), edikasyon, anviwònman ak enèji. Pou li ta finalman kòmanse chanjman li te pwomèt depi lontan an, fòk li ta kapitalize sou akò frajil Lavèy Nwèl 2012 la, pou mete anplas yon òganis elektoral kredib pou òganize rapidman eleksyon Senatè, Majistra/Kazèk/Azèk ak Biwo Vòt Lokal yo. Epi fòk yo ta anbake tout aktè kle yo nan yon dyalòg nasyonal, pou fè chwa Konsèy Konstitisyonèl la pandan y ap rezoud kesyon kredibilite nan deziyasyon prezidan Lakou Kasasyon ak Konsèy Siperyè Polis Jidisyè a, epitou rapouswiv sou lòt politik piblik ki enpòtan anpil a lontèm epi a koutèm.

Menm si Li enpòtan anpil pou yo mete fen nan enbrogliyo eleksyon an, men sa pa ase. Li obligatwa pou fè swivi nan refòm yo, pou evite yon paralizi politik pandan manda Martelly a. Chimen ki long epi difisil pou mete yo dakò sou amandman konstitisyonèl yo pibliye dènyèman an, ak diskisyon san fen sou fòmasyon Konsèy Elektoral Pèmanan an (KEP) se yon temwayaj sou mank konfyans ki egziste ak absans yon Konsansis politik. Ayiti bezwen yon akò nasyonal pou jere rekonstriksyon ak devlòpman, patikilyèman kounye a, kote l ap antre nan yon peryòd elektoral difisil, ki jis kounye a poko gen kalandriye. Gen anpil sektè ki adopte yon dyalòg nasyonal ki baze sou retorik, men yo pa janm obseve’l seryezman. Men pil diskisyon kap chofe ozalantou eleksyon Sena a, eleksyon lokal ak minisipal yo nan lane 2013 lan ka ofri yon opòtinite pou rive jwenn yon akò sou gouvènans ki ta ka finalman mobilize fòs entèn yo, epi asire pibyen sipò bayè de fon yo pou transfòmasyon yo te pwomèt depi tranbleman tè 2010 la. Apre plizyè efò pou jwenn yon akò sou pwoblèm debaz entèn yo te echwe, menm gwo bayè de fon yo vin fristre akòz mank lidèchip, gouvènans ak responsablite.

Gouvènman ki pase yo depi plizyè deseni pa janm fè anyen, fristrasyon kap ogmante ak tolerans sitwayen yo kap diminye, kite yon ti maj tou kout pou erè. Efektivman mak fabrik politik ayisyen an pratikman ekskli majorite sitwayen yo, epi li vin chak jou pi difisil pou nenpot ki administrasyon gouvène nan yon fason ki efikas. Yo pa janm respekte kalandriye elektoral ki tabli nan konstitisyon an, se pou sa manda eli ofisyèl yo ekspire san yo pa ranplase yo, sa ki lakòz enstabilite enstitisyonèl. Eleksyon yo se vreman yon konpetisyon ant elit politik ak elit ekonomik yo, avek yon dividal pati politik ki pa menm reprezantatif yo pa ka rive mobilize elektora a epi ki rann palman fragmante. Patisipasyon moun ki vote yo ap bese depi 2006, ansanm avèk konfyans piblik la.

Politik sòm a zewo a pa yon repons a sekirite ak stabilite frajil ki gen nan peyi a. Pase yo fè sa, pito yo egzije yon Konsansis sou priyorite ak estrateji pou reyalize yo. Chak jou li pi aklè yon gouvènans fonksyonèl se pa tout bagay, toutotan kominote kap fè biznis la, lidè relijye yo, pwofesyonèl ak lidè politik yo rive jwenn yon antant. Si se pa sa, Ayiti ap kontinye fè fas a manifestasyon andedan peyi a. Rejyon Amerik Latin nan ofri yon eksperyans ki itil sou kijan pou mete anplas yon seri de akò ki dirab, efikas epi ke yo ka progresivman transfere nan de politik ki konkrè epi dirab. “Konsansis Nasyonal pou demokrasi” nan peyi Chili, Akò pou Jistis ak Sekirite nan peyi Gwatemala, “Akò Nasyonal” nan peyi Perou epi, tou dènyèman, “Pak pou peyi Meksik” la, se egzanp sou kijan pou idantifye ak pataje priyorite epi degaje angajman nan pati politik yo ak sosyete sivil la. Yo demontre premye dyalòg la dwe gen tout moun ladan’l, si nou vle rive a yon priz de desizyon ak yon enplemantasyon ki efikas.

Defi Ayiti ap fè fas yo pa difisil pou devine. An gwo, yo konsantre sou yon bezwen pou bon gouvènans, ranfòsman Konsansis pami elit yo, strateji pou rediksyon povrete epitou aplikasyon ak ranfòsman tout bon vre eta de dwa. Se byen tris, men yo pat janm adrese defi sa yo nan yon fason ki efikas. Jounen jodi a, Ayiti pa prezante okenn rezon pou ta fè nou optimis. Pou chak egzanp sou pwogrè nan nenpòt ki fron sa yo, gen plizyè egzanp ki montre yo fè bak oswa pou nou di’l pibyen, gen anpil reta. Sa ki chanje la a, se siyal yo sòt bay yo nan demand otantik pou mete fen nan blokaj bayè de fon yo, ki yo menm tou ap montre gwo siy fatig. Si Ayiti ta vle retire kò li nan sa, se pou pi bon lezanj lanati nan lidè li yo ta aksepte fè yon gwo sakrifis e fòk yo ta fèl bonè. Sa se yon pye wozo fen ki gen avni peyi a kap flote sou li, men se posib tou se tout sa li genyen. San yon pak nasyonal, Prezidan Martelly malerezman ap gen pou fè fas a yon seri de menas ki ka fè prezidans li an echwe, epi Ayiti ap kouri ris yon abandon Entènasyonal.

Pòtoprens/Bogota/Briksèl, 4 fevriye 2013

Executive Summary

Haiti is in a race against time to convince its own people, donors and potential investors that progress and stability are achievable. Continued delay in holding free and fair elections may well pose the greatest immediate challenge, but President Michel Martelly, already struggling to govern the broken and divided nation for one and a half years, lacks the stable political base (also denied to his predecessors) to obtain buy-in to his proposed Five-E development strategy: employment, état de droit (rule of law), education, environment and energy. To finally start the long-promised transformation, he should build on the tenuous Christmas Eve 2012 agreement for a credible electoral body to hold much delayed Senate, municipal and local polls quickly. He also should bring key actors into a national dialogue on selecting the Constitutional Council and resolving credibility questions about the appointment of the president of the Supreme Court and the Superior Judicial Council, as well as on pursuing other critical short- and longer-term public policies.

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Ending the elections imbroglio is essential but insufficient. Follow-on reforms are required to avoid political paralysis during Martelly’s term. The long and difficult path to the recently concluded constitutional amendment process and still inconclusive debate over formation of the Permanent Electoral Council (CEP) are testament to the deficit of confidence and absence of political consensus. Haiti needs a national accord to manage reconstruction and development, particularly as it enters a difficult electoral period, whose calendar is still unknown. Many sectors espouse national dialogue rhetorically but do not pursue it seriously. The intensifying debate around organisation of Senate, municipal and local elections in 2013, however, may offer an opportunity to pursue a governance accord that could finally mobilise domestic forces and better secure donor support for the transformation that has been touted ever since the 2010 earthquake. After several failed efforts to reach domestic agreement on basic issues, even strong donor supporters are becoming frustrated by the lack of leadership, governance and accountability.

Decades of government inaction, growing frustration and decreasing citizen tolerance leave little margin for error. The Haitian brand of politics in effect virtually excludes the majority of citizens, and it is becoming increasingly difficult for any administration to govern effectively. The electoral calendar laid down in the constitution is never respected, so the terms of elected officials expire without replacement, giving rise to institutional instability. Elections are largely a contest between political and economic elites, as a myriad of parties give voice to few, fail to mobilise the electorate and fragment parliament. Voter participation has been falling since 2006, along with public confidence.

Zero-sum politics is not the answer to the country’s fragile security and stability. Rather, consensus is required on priorities and the strategy for achieving them. It is increasingly evident that functional governance is unlikely until and unless the business community, religious, professional and political leaderships can reach an accord. Otherwise Haiti faces increasing internal unrest. The Latin American region offers useful experience about how to build sustainable, effective agreements that can progressively be translated into concrete and sustainable policies. The National “Concertación por la Democracia” in Chile, the Agreement for Justice and Security in Guatemala, the “Acuerdo Nacional” in Peru and, most recently, the “Pact for Mexico” are examples of how to identify shared priorities and extract commitments from political parties and civil society. They demonstrate that the initial dialogue must be inclusive, if there is to be effective decision-making and efficient implementation.

The challenges facing Haiti are not difficult to divine. In essence they focus on a need for good governance, consensus-building among the elites, poverty reduction strategies effectively implemented and strengthened rule of law. Sadly, these challenges have never been confronted effectively. Haiti today presents little cause for optimism. For every instance of progress on any of these fronts, there are multiple instances of regression or, at best, stasis. What has changed, though, are the recent signs of a genuine demand for an end to that stalemate from donors who are also showing strong signs of fatigue. If Haiti is to pull through, the better angels in the natures of its leaders are going to have to prevail for once and prevail soon. This is a thin reed on which to float the country’s future; but it might be all it has. Without a national pact, President Martelly unfortunately faces the spectre of a failed presidency, and Haiti risks international abandonment.

Port-au-Prince/Bogotá/Brussels, 4 February 2013

It’s Time for a National Consensus in Haiti

Delayed elections, mistrust and public protests against Haitian President Michel Martelly threaten the country’s chance to end decades of political conflict and to recover from the 2010 earthquake. Without a national accord, the country risks ongoing crises. Javier Ciurlizza, Crisis Group Program Director for Latin America and the Caribbean, tells us more on the current challenges Haiti is facing.

haiti-podcast
In this podcast, Javier Ciurlizza tells us more on the current challenges Haiti is facing. CRISIS GROUP

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