Pou yon Ayiti apre depa MINISTA: yon tranzisyon ki efikas
Pou yon Ayiti apre depa MINISTA: yon tranzisyon ki efikas
Table of Contents
  1. Executive Summary
Haiti: Paths to Stability for a Nation in Shock (Online Event, 19th October 2021)
Haiti: Paths to Stability for a Nation in Shock (Online Event, 19th October 2021)

Pou yon Ayiti apre depa MINISTA: yon tranzisyon ki efikas

  • Share
  • Save
  • Print
  • Download PDF Full Report

Rezime egzekitif

Ayiti kounye-a nan uityèm lane depi Misyon Stabi­lizasyon Nasyonzini an (MINISTA) nan peyi a. Dis­ki­syon sou posibilite pou retrè Misyon an, ogmante pi plis sou administrasyon Prezidan Michel Martelly ki deja gen yon lane. Opozisyon kont prezans MINISTA, sòti nan fyète nasyonalis nan peyi a,kòlè lè epidemi kolera a, ki gen rapò ak fòs mentyen lapè Nasyonzini a ak piblisite ki ozalantou abi ki pa akseptab ke yon ti minorite fòs mentyen lapè yo fè. Men, menm moun kap kritike’l yo admèt ke fòs polis ki gen nan peyi a toujou limite, e li pa kapab garanti sekirite ki nesesè pou pwoteje ayisyen kap viv nan peyi a, aplike lalwa epi bay stabilite politik la jarèt. Vre diskisyon an se pa si MINISTA dwe ale ou non, men pito, ki lè, epi kisa yo dwe chanje nan manda misyon an, nan strikti ak nan konpòtman pou garanti ke yon retrè pwogresiv ap makònen ak enstitisyon ki pi fò yo, epi ap pwogrese pou’l rive nan yon stabilite ak yon devlòpman kap dire anpil tan.

Nan dat 8 mas 2012, Konsèy Sekirite Nasyonzini an te byen kontan wè pwogrè ki te fèt an Ayiti, epi yo te kon­fime yon kòmansman nan rediksyon twoup militè MINISTA yo, pou yo retounen nan nivo anvan tran­bleman de tè ki te ravaje peyi a, epi ki te sekwe zile a nan mwa janvye 2010. Anvan renouvèlman manda myson lapè a nan mwa Oktòb, avèk diskisyon prelim­inè ki te deja planifye pou mwa Dawout, yon konsansis dwe konstwi ant Nasyonzini ak nasyon nan Amerik Latin la ki bay pifò nan twoup yo, lòt kontribitè entènasyonal yo, donatè ak nasyon Ayisyen an. Kon­sansis sa a dwe konstwi sou yon analiz pèfòmans ak priyorite ki objektif, ke MINISTA te reyalize anvan, nan kad restriktirasyon an, nan sitiyasyon politik la ki toujou enstab nan peyi a, enstitisyon ki fèb yo ak pov­rete ekstrèm nan.

Ayiti toujou rete plonje nan yon gwo kriz politik, sosyal ak ekonomik. Malgre prezans anvan de 12,000 militè ak polis Nasyonzini yo, epi repriz èd la apre tranbleman de tè a nan yon fason ki siyifikatif, pwogrè nan zafè re­kon­striksyon an, devlòpman ak eta de dwa pwovoke desep­syon. Ayiti bezwen omwen doub kantite polisye ki gen kounyea nan polis la, fòmasyon ak kontwòl ki apwopriye, deplwaman ki kapab pwoteje sitwayen li yo ak fwontyè yo kont menas andedan peyi ak menas kriminèl trans­nasyonal yo. Yon dezyèm plan nasyonal pou devlòpman polis la sou 5 lane dwe adopte epi mete sou pye, pou trase chimen pou kwasans lan, epi polis la dwe fè pati de yon sistèm jisis ki konplè epi ki profesy­onèl, ki repoze sou yon eta de dwa. Gouvènman Mar­telly a dwe kenbe rekonstitisyon lame a sou pòz, jiskaske objektif sa yo reyalize.

Gouvènman ayisyen an ak tout Konsèy Sekirite Nasy­onzini an ap chèche yon fason pou MINISTA ta ale, men li pa tap pridan pou akselere pwosesis sa a, akòz de gwo twou vid ki genyen nan konsolidasyon sekirite ak jistis la. Malgre ke gen vwa kap defann yon egzòd pi rapid, li ta sanble ke depa final la kapab fèt oswa ta dwe fèt anvan yon twazyèm pasasyon pouvwa demokratik ta fèt nan fen prezidans Mateli a, 5 lane a pati de kounye a, epi ki ta dwe koresponn tou ak fen devlòpman plan nasyonal polis la sou senk lane.

Li pa nan enterè Ayiti ni donatè yo, pou yo ta wè yon retrè misyon an nan prese, men MINISTA bezwen re­panse epi fè revizyon an pwofondè. Sou baz tran­zisyon lòt leta asiste NU yo, tankou Syera Leòn ak Liberya ki te fè fas oswa kap fè fas a plizyè defi ki konparab, prezans Nasyonzini an Ayiti ta dwe panse a yon rekonfigirasyon MINISTA, ak twoup ki redui men ki toujou kalifye, epi yon prezans lapolis ki fò. Trans­fòmasyon sa a dwe pase de yon fòs ki gen plis militè ki nan chapit VII la, a yon misyon politik nan fen 2016 ki sponsorize pa Konsèy Sekirite a, ki ta dwe toujou ka­pab kowòdone tout ou seri ajans Nasyonzini ki depann de Reprezantan Espesyal ke Sekretè Jeneral la desiye – (SRSG) pou apiye yon ajanda konsolidasyon lapè en­tegre ansanm ak Gouvènman Ayisyen an.

MINISTA detounen korèkteman menas aktè vyolans organize yo ki te jete gouvènman an pa la fòs, se sa ki te rezon fondamantal egzistans yo . Li amelyore sekirite nan anpil kote nan peyi a prensipalman nan rediksyon vyolans ame nan Site Solèy ak lòt bidonvil yo. Misyon an te pote kontribisyon’l nan anpil operasyon lojistik nan tout peyi a, depi nan ede ak distribisyon ak re­kiperasyon materyèl eleksyon nan lane 2006, 2009 ak 2010, jis nan pote sou­laj­man nan dezas aprè tanpèt 2008 la ak tranbleman tè 2010 a.

MINISTA dwe reflechi sou apre stabilizasyon an, epi konsantre’l sou konsolidasyon reyalizasyon li yo nan founi sipò stratejik pou ranfòse enstitisyon eta de dwa pou rekonstriksyon an, pou envestisman prive ak devlopman kapab fleri. Li dwe elabore tou yon fason pou’l travay ki pi efikas, pou’l travay ak enstitisyon leta ki frajil yo, ki kontinye fè pati de leta a, epi ki te enpoze leta a fonk­sysone pandan anpil tan nan lane ki sot pase a. Yon eva­lyasyon kontribisyon MINISTA nan stabilite depi 2004 jiska dat nan zafè rekonstriksyon ak devlop­man nan peyi a trè enpòtan pou konprann opòtinite ki genyen pou yon rediksyon dirab konfli ak vyolans.

Rapò sa a fè evalyasyon enpak MINISTA epi chèche fason li ka amelyore kontribisyon li. Li analize tou opsyon ki disponib yo pou yon posib retrè misyon an nan lòd, kap pèmèt otorite ayisyen yo ak kominote en­tè­nasyonal la pi byen fè fas a yon senaryo aprè depa MINISTA. Rapò a fè rekòmandasyon pou yon ajenda mentyen lapè pou sekirite ki pi bon, eta de dwa ak gou­vènans, tankou sou yon tranzisyon planifye ki elimine nesesite yon misyon lapè Nasyonzini nan fen prezidans Martelly nan lane 2016.

Pòtoprens/Bogota/Briksèl, 2 Dawout 2012

Executive Summary

Haiti is now marking the eighth year of the UN Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Debate about its eventual withdrawal is intensifying under the one year-old administration of President Michel Martelly. Opposition to its presence stems from the country’s nationalistic pride, anger at the cholera epidemic linked to UN peacekeepers and publicity surrounding unacceptable abuses by a small number of peacekeepers. Yet even its critics admit the country’s still limited police force cannot guarantee the security needed to protect citizens, enforce the law and underpin political stability. The real debate is not whether MINUS­TAH should leave but when, and what to change in Haiti and in the mission’s mandate, structure and behaviour to ensure that a phased withdrawal is linked to stronger institutions and progress toward lasting stability and development.

On 8 March 2012, the UN Security Council welcomed progress in Haiti and confirmed a start toward MINUS­TAH’s military drawdown, returning to the levels before the devastating quake that rocked the island in January 2010. Before the October renewal of the peacekeeping mandate, with preliminary discussions already planned for August, consensus needs to be forged between the UN, Latin American nations which provide the bulk of the troops, other international contributors, donors and the Haitian nation. That consensus has to be built on an objective analysis of MINUSTAH’s past performance and priorities for restructuring, Haiti’s continuing political instability, weak institutions and extreme poverty.

Haiti remains ensnared in a deep political, social and economic crisis. Despite the past presence of 12,000 UN military and police and the resumption of significant post-earthquake aid, progress in reconstruction, development and rule of law is disappointing. Haiti needs at least double its current numbers of police, with adequate training and vetting, deployed and capable of protecting its citizens and borders from home-grown and transnational criminal threats. A second five-year national police development plan needs to be adopted and implemented to chart that growth and the police need to be part of a comprehensive and professional justice system securely founded on the rule of law. The Martelly government should put on hold the reconstitution of the army until these goals are met.

Both the Haitian government and the UN Security Council are looking for a way out for MINUSTAH, but it would be foolhardy to rush that process given the serious gaps in consolidating security and justice. Despite the voices advocating for a more rapid exodus, it is unlikely that full departure can or should be accomplished before a third peaceful handover of democratic power takes place at the end of the Martelly presidency, five years from now, which also should correspond to the completion of the second five-year police development plan.

It is neither in Haiti’s nor in the donors’ interest to see a hasty withdrawal of the mission, but MINUSTAH needs rethinking and revamping. Based on other UN-assisted state transitions, like Sierra Leone and Liberia which faced or face comparable challenges, the UN presence in Haiti should see a reconfigured MINUSTAH, with reduced but still capable troop strength and a robust police presence. That transformation would move from a military dominated Chapter VII force to a Security Council sponsored political mission by the end of 2016, which would still be able to coordinate the full range of UN agencies under the special representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) in support of an integrated peacebuilding agenda set with the Haitian government.

MINUSTAH has successfully deterred the potential threat of organised violent actors overthrowing the government by force, which was its fundamental raison d’être. It has improved security in much of the country mostly by reducing armed violence in Cité Soleil and other urban slums. The mission has also provided invaluable contributions to countrywide logistics operations, from assisting with the distribution and retrieval of material in the 2006, 2009 and 2010 elections to supporting disaster relief in the aftermath of the 2008 storms and the 2010 earthquake.

MINUSTAH needs to think beyond stabilisation and focus on consolidating its achievements by providing strategic support to strengthen rule of law institutions so reconstruction, private investment and development can flourish. It must also devise a more effective way to work with fragile state institutions whose continuing partisan composition has denied Haiti a functioning government for most of the past year. An assessment of MINUSTAH’s contribution to stability since 2004 and the current status of reconstruction and development in the country are vital to understand the opportunities for sustained reduction of conflict and violence.

This report assesses MINUSTAH’s impact and explores how its contribution might be improved. It also analyses the options available for an ordered eventual withdrawal of the mission enabling Haitian authorities and the international community to better cope with a post-MI­NUS­TAH scenario. It provides recommendations for a better targeted peacekeeping agenda for security, rule of law and governance, as well as a planned transition that eliminates the need for a UN peacekeeping mission by the end of the Martelly presidency in 2016.

Port-au-Prince/Bogotá/Brussels, 2 August 2012

Haiti: Paths to Stability for a Nation in Shock (Online Event, 19th October 2021)

This roundtable examines the causes of violence and instability in Haiti and explores the ways in which Haitians, with the support of the international community, can take actions to overcome the current crisis.

The assassination in July of Haitian President Jovenel Moïse, perpetrated with no apparent resistance from his elite security detail, and a bout of natural disasters weeks later have further destabilised an already fragile Haiti and intensified its humanitarian crisis at a time of extreme insecurity.

This roundtable examines the causes of violence and instability in Haiti and explores the ways in which Haitians, with the support of the international community, can take actions to overcome the current crisis. 

Welcome remarks by Ivan Briscoe, Program Director for Latin America and the Caribbean, International Crisis Group. 

William O’Neil, lawyer specializing in humanitarian, human rights and refugee law
Monique Clesca, member of the Haiti Think Tank
Leslie Voltaire, member of the Comite du Suivi of the Montana Accord
Jacqueline Charles, Caribbean Correspondent of the Miami Herald

With comments by Ashish Pradhan, Senior UN Analyst, International Crisis Group.
Moderated by Renata Segura, Deputy Program Director Latin America and the Caribbean, International Crisis Group

Virtual Roundtable - Haiti: Paths to Stability for a Nation in Shock

Subscribe to Crisis Group’s Email Updates

Receive the best source of conflict analysis right in your inbox.