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Libya

Implementation of the UN-mediated 2015 political deal that established the Presidency Council and Tripoli-based interim government has been hindered by claims of illegitimacy by rival political forces. Although the framework of the deal is the only viable path to resolving the Libyan conflict, Crisis Group encourages all parties to negotiate a new government with nationwide legitimacy. Important steps were taken in July 2017, when rivals President al-Serraj and General Haftar agreed to a ceasefire agreement and to hold elections in 2018. Yet Libya remains deeply divided and failure to implement the agreement could adversely affect regional security as well as increase migrant flows into the European Union. Crisis Group aims to inform the international community, as well as national and regional actors, about the importance prioritising economic development and basic political consensus as  the main stepping stones for sustainable peace.

CrisisWatch Libya

Unchanged Situation

Armed groups aligned with UN-backed Govt of National Accord (GNA) clashed in Tripoli around Maitiga airport 15 Jan, at least twenty people killed and flights cancelled for five days; GNA subsequently said it would dissolve armed group known as 33rd Infantry Brigade, which attacked Maitiga. Unidentified attackers carried out double car bombing outside mosque in Benghazi in east 23 Jan killing at least 35. Next day video footage released appearing to show Libyan National Army (LNA) commander Mahmoud Warfalli (under International Criminal Court arrest warrant since Aug 2017) outside same mosque executing ten people dressed in blue prisoner uniforms. Unidentified attackers 3 Jan killed local education official who had declared interest in running in parliamentary elections in eastern town of al-Abiyar. Member of influential Awaghir tribe in eastern town of Suluq escaped targeted car bomb 6 Jan. Election commission 10 Jan said over 1.9mn people had registered to vote in elections planned for 2018. Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar, LNA head and de facto ruler in east, 7 Jan said Libya was not ready for democracy, and that he would “take action” if elections failed and if wider UN process did not deliver.

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Reports & Briefings

In The News

4 Jan 2018
It’s a sign the Qaddafists are mobilizing, trying to have their say [for the first time since 2011]. Libya’s getting more complicated. A breakthrough doesn’t seem imminent. Bloomberg

Issandr El Amrani

Project Director, North Africa
20 Dec 2017
[Libyan military strongman Khalifa Haftar does not have] sufficient strength or support [to take power in Libya]. He faces particularly strong opposition from (rivals in) the west, especially in Misrata. AFP

Issandr El Amrani

Project Director, North Africa
24 Sep 2017
[A U.S. military] strike [against ISIS positions in Libya] seems to indicate Libya is mainly an anti-terrorism file and only subsequently a political file [for the U.S. government]. The Washington Post

Claudia Gazzini

Former Senior Analyst, Libya
19 Sep 2017
Now the problem is that those [political] factions [across Libya] have fragmented internally. It's even more difficult to solicit representative views. Reuters

Claudia Gazzini

Former Senior Analyst, Libya
9 Sep 2017
The smuggling business [in Libya] is a business. It’s all about money. The Economist

Claudia Gazzini

Former Senior Analyst, Libya
27 Jul 2017
Several members [of the Libyan Presidency Council] think [Faiez al-Serraj] is not fit to lead–that he does not have the knowledge, charisma or decision-making capability. The Economist

Claudia Gazzini

Former Senior Analyst, Libya

Latest Updates

Tackling the MENA Region’s Intersecting Conflicts

How can the dizzying changes, intersecting crises and multiplying conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa since the 2011 Arab uprisings be best understood, let alone responded to? This long-form commentary by MENA Program Director Joost Hiltermann and our team steps back for a better look and proposes new approaches.

It’s Not a Sprint

The fraught history of the military intervention shows that EU engagement in Libya should first and foremost be guided by strategic vision.

Originally published in Körber-Stiftung

Fixing Libya's Economy Essential to Curb Migrant Flows

A recent dramatic decrease in migrants reaching Europe may be partly explained by payoffs to armed groups in Libya. In this video, Crisis Group’s Senior Analyst for Libya, Claudia Gazzini, warns of the risks associated with short-term solutions to the flow of migrants reaching Europe through Libya.

Traversing the Tribal Patchwork of Libya’s South West

Our Senior Analyst Claudia Gazzini travels to southern Libya and finds neglect, smugglers, a gold rush, and simmering tensions among a patchwork of ethnic, tribal and militia actors on the edge of the Sahara Desert. She also discovers much longing for a united, well-governed Libya.

Libya: No Political Deal Yet

On 2 May 2017, the head of Libya’s internationally recognised government, Faiez al-Serraj, and his major military opponent, General Khalifa Haftar, met for the first time in over a year. Crisis Group’s Libya Senior Analyst Claudia Gazzini says talk of a deal is premature.