icon caret Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Line Camera icon set icon set Ellipsis icon set Facebook Favorite Globe Hamburger List Mail Map Marker Map Microphone Minus PDF Play Print RSS Search Share Trash Crisiswatch Alerts and Trends Box - 1080/761 Copy Twitter Video Camera  copyview Whatsapp Youtube
Has Timor-Leste left behind its violent past?
Has Timor-Leste left behind its violent past?
Briefing 104 / Asia

Timor-Leste: Oecusse no Fronteira Indonezía nian

Rezumu

Repúblika Indonezía no Timor-Leste halo buat barak ona hodi normaliza sira nia relasaun iha tinan sanulu liubá, antes ukun Indonezía nian remata, maibé laran-kmanek ne’e entre nasaun rua seidauk hetan nivel kooperasaun hanesan iha fronteira. Problema ida ne’e mak todan liu iha Oecusse, distritu izooladu Timor-Leste nian iha Timor Barat, Indonezía. Negosiasaun sei falla hodi hetan akordu kona-bá segmentu rua iha fronteira Oecusse, ne’ebé loke risku katak disputu lokál no ki’ik bele sai politiku liu no eskala ba konflitu boot. Ho faltasaun lina fronteira finál, inisiativu hodi hadia manejamentu fronteira ne’ebe iha kuak (jalan tikus) barak falla. Inisiativu sira ne’ebé bele promove interasaun no hamenus izolamentu distritu nian seidauk implementa. Hanesan ligasaun entre nasaun rua ne’e hametin hela, nasaun sira ne’e tenke fo prioridade ba assuntu ida ne’e ne’ebé seidauk hetan resolusaun. Se la resolve ida ne’e, bele promove krime, korupsaun no risku konflitu.

Ameasa seguranza nian ba Oecusse no ema nain 67,000 ne’ebé hela ne’ebá hamenus lalais antes independensia. Enkuantu parte fronteira ne’ebé seidauk hetan resolusaun sei mak katalizadór ba tensaun ruma, violensia la mosu resentemente. Resolusaun assuntu fronteira rekere resposta iha nivel nasional no mos lokál. Governu tenke servisu ho urjénsia hodi resolve segmentu ne’ebé sei disputadu. Konfigurasaun fronteira labele satisfás ema hotu-hotu. Hodi hamenus problema ida ne’e, tenke promove sistema lokál hodi fasilita atividade tranz-fronteira. Se falta fleksibilidade, disputu lokál ne’ebé kria problema kleur ona sei sai aat liu no bele sai ba konflitu aktivu.

Iha ameasa seguranza nia li’ur, nasaun rua ne’e enfrenta dezafiu maneja fronteira hanesan movimentu ema no sasan. Maski distritu ida ne’e sei iha identidade politiku ketak durante tinan atus liu, ligasaun entre familia ne’ebé fronteira fahe sei mak forte. Ema sira ba mai ho regularidade ba seremonia enterru no kazamentu. Ema balun halo toos iha rai li’ur. Izoladu husi parte Timor-Leste boot liu, sidadaun sira ne’e depende ba produtu baratu husi Indonezía.

Akordu informal ruma fasilita ona movimentu sasan no ema maibé falta sistema sustentavel ne’ebé bele promove, laos kriminaliza, movimentu lokál, maibé akordu sira ne’e dala barak mak atraza bainhira tensaun iha fronteira hasa’e, no aumenta vulnerabilidade Oecusse nian. Nasaun rua ne’e estabelese hela agensia sivil hodi maneja fronteira ne’ebé bele hatán ba interese lokál sira, maibé presija fulan-fulan ka tinan ruma to’o programa sira ne’e sai prontu. Isu oioin ne’ebé seidauk resolve kona-bá akontabilidade ba violensia iha referendum 1999 no kona-bá ema ne’ebé halai no hakat ba fronteira, ne’e kria dezafiu ne’ebé politiku karik, laos kona-bá seguranza. Resolusaun isu sira ne’e mak kondisaun ba distritu ne’e nia stabilidade iha tempu naruk.

Enkuantu ema balun iha duvidas kona-bá Oecusse nia viabilidade iha tinan depois independensia – liu-liu hosi observadores internasional – preokupasaun hanesan sira ne’e la fo folin di’ak ba sensu forte ba identidade Timor-oan iha Oecusse no hanoin katak ameasa husi ema ne’ebé tama milísia iha tempu Indonezía no hela iha fronteira mak aas liu duke tuir realide. Investimentu hosi governu sentral aumenta, no ida ne’e hatudu governu nia dedikasaun ba distritu ne’e. Maski membru komunidade sira simu esforsu sira ne’e, esforsu hanesan ne’e tenke hari’i husi fundasaun badak de’it. Infraestrutura sei ladi’ak, asesu informasaun sei limitadu no abilidade fahe benefisiu governu sei menus. Inisiativu desentralizasaun iha nasaun tomak atu hodi fo distritu autonomia hodi determina isu isu fronteira nia rasik, maibé prosesu la lao iha nivel nasional. Lideranza Timor-Leste tenke konsidera silu ligasaun entre dezenvolvimentu regional Oecusse nian no prosesu luan liu, nomos buka dalan ida hodi fahe abilidade no fundus hodi promove kooperasaun tranz-fronteira.

Enkuantu Indonezía no Timor-Leste koko sai viziñu di’ak liu, sira tenke hare’e ba asaun konkretu ne’ebé hadia ema nia moris no hamenus risku konflitu iha komunidade sira ne’ebé besik fronteira. Maski doktrina Indonezía nian katak diminuiasaun iha forsas armadas (TNI) besik fronteira, ida ne’e laos provavel iha tempu badak, no demilitarizasaun iha fronteira tenke sai parte programa nafatin hanesan alvu ba tempu naruk ne’ebé bele refleta loos relasaun baibain. Pasu ba oin intermediamente ne’ebe tenke realiza inklui:

  • Finaliza determinasaun fronteira hanesan prioridade;
  • Formaliza sistema ba komunikasaun efisiente entre governu no forsa seguranza iha nasaun rua ne’e iha nivel hotu-hotu hodi loke dalan ba esforsu hodi prevene eskalasaun insidente iha futuru;
  • Aumenta kooperasaun entre nasuan nain rua nia militár no polisia, ne’ebé inkliu formasaun no visita hosi ofisial sira;
  • Estabelese sistema kartaun-hakat ba fronteira ne’ebé konsidera ona ba sidadaun iha nasuan rua ne’e no implementa inisiativu ba merkadu konjuntu iha fronteira ne’ebé bele fasilita interasaun komersiál no kulturál; no
  • Hadia formasaun, ekipamentu, no fasilidade sira ba Timor-Leste nia Unidade de Patrulhamento das Fronteiras (UPF).
Commentary / Asia

Has Timor-Leste left behind its violent past?

Timor-Leste seems to have passed the test. With last Saturday’s parliamentary poll, it has now held three elections this year without significant violence. This will allow for the withdrawal of a UN peacekeeping mission whose 1,100-strong police component has long seemed out of synch with local realities. Its violent recent past may increasingly look like history, although the poor country that celebrated only the 10th anniversary of the restoration of its independence in May still faces numerous challenges.

Concerns that the formation of a new coalition government might give rise to violence, as occurred following the 2007 elections, now look misplaced as provisional results show only four parties due to take seats in parliament (official results are due next week). A look at the seat results shows that the CNRT (National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction) has increased its share from 18 to 30 seats, and looks likely to form another government with former coalition partner Partido Democrático (eight seats) and maybe Frenti-Mudança (two seats).This is good for stability in the short term, but it also carries risks. A stronger government composed of fewer parties may be able to pursue clearer legislative objectives, but it will put great pressure on FRETILIN as perhaps the only party in opposition. As a young country only ten years on from independence, Timor-Leste’s parliament continues to consider questions of fundamental importance to the country’s future on which there is much debate, such as how to spend the billions in its Petroleum Fund, or how to structure land administration. Chosen from party lists and not constituencies, giving them little incentive to engage with communities, Timor-Leste’s parliamentarians to date have struggled to provide either an effective check on the executive or a constructive partner by initiating their own legislation. CNRT’s dominance will mean less active scrutiny and will further erode its role as an instrument of accountability.

The elections were not violence-free. There were some minor incidents of stone throwing and a report of three houses being burnt in Viqueque district in the last few days. But even in this volatile part of Timor-Leste, it was much less than the hundreds burnt around the 2007 polls. When we visited the district in May and asked why, the answer from the police, local government, chefes de suco, and civil society workers alike was unanimous – the threats from heads of the police and army had worked. Their blunt warnings that troublemakers would be shot were backed up with high-profile joint patrols and those contemplating violence got the message. It was a victory for “conflict prevention” that raised new questions about how the country will be governed in the future.