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Has Timor-Leste left behind its violent past?
Has Timor-Leste left behind its violent past?
Briefing 116 / Asia

Timor-Leste: Tempu ba ONU atu Hakiduk

Sumáriu

Kontinjente polísiamentu husi Misaun Integradu Nasoens Unidas nian iha Timor-Leste (UNMIT) tenke redús iha númeru ne’ebé boot tebes hodi refleta melloramentu iha seguransa nian desde krize tinan 2006 no mós atu fó apoiu ba estabilidade aban-bainrua nian. Desde tinan 2008 Timoroan sira hatudu ona katak sira determinadu atu trata ameasa interna sira lahó apoiu husi UN nia  misaun polisiamentu ne’ebé boot liu datolu. Forsa lokál nian hatán ona ba iha ninia komandu rasik duké ba polísia UN nian. Durante tinan barak nia laran governu ignora ona UN nia konsellu kona-bá hala’o reforma sira ne’ebé difísil iha sektór seguransa nian ka halo prosesu justisa ba krime sira ne’ebé komete ona. Haree ba katak governu koligasaun nian ida ne’ebé kuaze estável ne’ebé mak eleitu iha tinan 2007 ne’e bele sobrevive husi ninia frakeza sira rasik. Risku reál sira ba iha nasaun ne’e nia estabilidade sei iha nafatin duni – barakliu mak nu’udár rezultadu husi governu ne’e nia fallansu atu trata ho impunidade ba eventu sira iha tinan 2006 nian. Hirak-ne’e sei bele trata di’akliu husi Timor-Leste nia líderansa polítiku duké ho kontinuidade ida husi prezensa polísia UN nian. Bainhira UNMIT nia mandatu renova iha Fevereiru tinan 2011, UN tenke rekoñese kona-bá inefetualidade husi ninia esforsu sira ba reforma sektór seguransa nian iha oin ba dezinterese governu nian.

Maski sira halo ona kontribuisaun importante ida ba iha estabilizasaun imediatu pós-konflitu nian, polísia UN nian nunka preparadu atu hala’o tarefa kona-bá reforma PNTL nian, prosesu ida ne’ebé iha interese polítika aas tebes. Tinan haat resin iha misaun ne’e nia laran, seidauk iha nafatin planu konjuntu ida kona-bá oinsá mak atu fó apoiu ba polísia Timor-Leste nia reforma. Governu la’o ona ho ninia esforsu rasik maski ho kapasidade ne’ebé limitadu. Revizaun komprensivu ida kona-bá estrutura diviza nian ne’ebé hala’o iha tinan 2010 ne’e nu’udár pasu reál ida hodi hakat ba iha profisionalizasaun no independénsia polísia nian. Governu hatudu ona interese uitoan deit ba iha UN nia rekomendasaun sira atu kastigu polísia sira ne’ebé mak ligadu ho distúrbiu tinan 2006 nian no mós kontrola rasik ona prosesu selesaun konjunta ida ne’ebé mak sei atu ramata ho rezultadu sira ne’ebé limitadu. Kazu disiplinár sira iha tinan idu liu ba reforsa ona imajen kona-bá forsa ida ne’ebé lakohi ka labele atu fó kastigu ba hahalok indisipinár. Maski nune’e prosesu entrega hikas responsabilidade ne’ebé halo tuir distritu ida-idak husi UN ba PNTL la’o nafatin, ho presaun balun atu halo transferénsia tomak iha fulan Marsu 2011.

Rekomendasaun prinsipál sira kona-bá reforma sektór justisa no seguransa nian ne’ebé mak orgaun internasionál sira halo depois de krize ne’e kuaze sistemátikamente ignoradu. UN nia Komisaun Inkéritu Independente nia serbisu kuaze estragadu tanba prosesu julgamentu eminente ne’ebé nia propoin ne’e arkivu tiha ona; karik hirak seluk soe sai tiha ona tanba falta iha evidénsia, rezulta ona iha indultu prezidensiál nian ka karik sei iha hela investigasaun depois de liutiha tinan haat. Ninia efeitu mak atu hodi rekuza justisa no estraga estadu de direitu, husik hela nasaun ne’e lahó dezinsentivu ida ne’ebé forte ba violénsia polítika. Ida-ne’e perigozu, maibé sei la resolve liu husi prezensa barabarak polísia internasionál nian.

Misaun UN nian la trata ho di’ak ninia mandatu atu asisti iha reforma sektór seguransa ne’ebé luan liután no governu rekuza  beibeik ona ninia esforsu sira. Revizaun ba sektór seguransa nian (security sector review) ne’ebé ho intensaun atu guia dezenvolvimentu polítika nian ne’e seidauk publika nafatin depois de liutiha tinan haat. Agora ninia publikasaun sai la relevante ona. Timor-Leste nia líder sira rejeita ona UN nia konsellu hodi defini klean liu polísia no militár sira nia knaar keta-ketak hodi konkorda atu tau forsa rua ne’e hamutuk nune’e evita rivalidade. Misaun ne’e nia unidade ba apoiu sektór seguransa nian ne’e tenke taka tiha.

Agora mak negosiasaun kona-bá polisia internasional nain hira mak presiza iha tinan rua oin mai nia laran antes sira nia retirada kompletu iha fulan Dezembru 2012. Klaru katak misaun boot hanesan ne’e iha daudaun ne’e la adaptadu ba nasaun ne’e nia nesesidade sira. Tanba haree ba ninia knaar ezekutivu polisiamentu nian ne’ebé sei atu ramata iha prinsípiu tinan 2011 nian hamutuk ho konkluzaun ba transferénsia nian, kontinjente polísia nian tenke redús to’o pelumenus metade. Planu atuál sira ba redusaun ida ne’ebé limitadu uitoan sei husik hela kontinjente polísia nian ida ho númeru boot liu resik ne’ebé mak sei subar tiha defisiénsia operasionál no lojístika nian ne’ebé iha PNTL nia laran. Governu no komandu PNTL nian tenke involve polísia UN sira ne’ebé sei iha hela hodi haree ba oinsá mak atu responde ba defisiénsia hirak-ne’e ho tempu ne’ebé limitadu ona.     

Iha adisaun, prioridade imediata sira ba diskusaun sira ne’ebé sei hala’o hela entre governu no misaun UN nian kona-bá UNMIT nia futuru tenke inklui:

  • Kompromete ho governu kona-bá kolesaun limitadu husi prioridade sira ba formasaun no apoiu ba funsaun prinsipál sira PNTL nian husi polísia UN nian hirak ne’ebé sei iha hela, inklui mekanizmu sira investigasaun no disiplinár nian.
  • Klarifikasaun kona-bá kondisaun ruma kona-bá transferénsia ba sasán ruma husi misaun UN nian.
  • Apoiu ba avalisaun independente ida ba iha PNTL nia nesesidade no kapaside, ne’ebé mak governu husu tiha ona, hodi nune’e sei bele serbí hanesan instrumentu ida atu hodi halo planu ba formasaun doméstika no bilaterál sira iha aban-bainrua nian.
  • Diskusaun ho Forsa Estabilizasaun Internasionál Australia/Nova Zelándia kona-bá momentu ne’ebé di’ak ba saída husi seguransa internasionál nia prezensa iha Timor-Leste (ISF no UNPOL).
  • Diskusaun kona-bá knaar polítika nian ida ba UN hodi fó apoiu ba eleisaun sira tinan 2012 nian nune’e mós iha monitorizasaun ba polítika no direitus umanus nian depois de UNMIT nia retirada tomak.

UN sei husik hela serbisu barak ne’ebé mak seidauk kompleta hodi harii polísia Timor-Leste nia kapasidade, maibé violénsia tinan 2006 nian ne’e hamosu barakliu tanba fallansu ida atu rezolve problema polítika nian sira duké frakeza téknika ne’ebé mak iha nasaun ne’e servisu seguransa sira nia laran. Dalan ne’ebé di’ak liuhotu atu mantein estabilidade durante eleisaun sira iha tinan 2012 nian mak kompromisu ida ne’ebé forte husi Timor-Leste nia líder sira ba iha kompetisaun polítika ne’ebé pasífiku.

15 Dezembru 2010

Commentary / Asia

Has Timor-Leste left behind its violent past?

Timor-Leste seems to have passed the test. With last Saturday’s parliamentary poll, it has now held three elections this year without significant violence. This will allow for the withdrawal of a UN peacekeeping mission whose 1,100-strong police component has long seemed out of synch with local realities. Its violent recent past may increasingly look like history, although the poor country that celebrated only the 10th anniversary of the restoration of its independence in May still faces numerous challenges.

Concerns that the formation of a new coalition government might give rise to violence, as occurred following the 2007 elections, now look misplaced as provisional results show only four parties due to take seats in parliament (official results are due next week). A look at the seat results shows that the CNRT (National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction) has increased its share from 18 to 30 seats, and looks likely to form another government with former coalition partner Partido Democrático (eight seats) and maybe Frenti-Mudança (two seats).This is good for stability in the short term, but it also carries risks. A stronger government composed of fewer parties may be able to pursue clearer legislative objectives, but it will put great pressure on FRETILIN as perhaps the only party in opposition. As a young country only ten years on from independence, Timor-Leste’s parliament continues to consider questions of fundamental importance to the country’s future on which there is much debate, such as how to spend the billions in its Petroleum Fund, or how to structure land administration. Chosen from party lists and not constituencies, giving them little incentive to engage with communities, Timor-Leste’s parliamentarians to date have struggled to provide either an effective check on the executive or a constructive partner by initiating their own legislation. CNRT’s dominance will mean less active scrutiny and will further erode its role as an instrument of accountability.

The elections were not violence-free. There were some minor incidents of stone throwing and a report of three houses being burnt in Viqueque district in the last few days. But even in this volatile part of Timor-Leste, it was much less than the hundreds burnt around the 2007 polls. When we visited the district in May and asked why, the answer from the police, local government, chefes de suco, and civil society workers alike was unanimous – the threats from heads of the police and army had worked. Their blunt warnings that troublemakers would be shot were backed up with high-profile joint patrols and those contemplating violence got the message. It was a victory for “conflict prevention” that raised new questions about how the country will be governed in the future.