Briefing 133 / Asia

印度尼西亚:安汶谨慎的平静

I. 概述

在基督徒和穆斯林之间的暴力发生的数月之后,安汶看似平静。2011年9月11日发生的冲突起源于在一个基督教地区发生的一名穆斯林摩托出租车司机的死亡。地方当局从中汲取了教训。例如,在宗教打斗发生后,安全部队能够更快地抵达现场。虽然不是所有的流离失所者都已返回家园,一些创新性的努力正在通过重建家园来蕴育和解。政府正愈加认识到需要与电话公司合作,在冲突事件发生时通过短信来广泛地传播信息。然而,许多问题还没有得到解决。这些问题包括基督教社区和穆斯林社区之间物理上的隔离和相互间的不信任,警察能力的不足,以及对重要事件的调查缺乏透明。安汶将在6月中旬举办全国性的古兰经阅读比赛(Musabaqah Tilawatil Quran, MTQ),地方当局认为这是一个展示该城市的和谐关系和作为投资的理想场所的一次机会。基督教和穆斯林的领导人都希望看到比赛成功,成为当地的骄傲。比赛的开始时间也非正式的成为了消除所有关于9月暴力事件的实物提醒的截止日期。

另一起在12月中旬爆发的暴力事件则证明紧张局势还在持续。这次暴力事件的导火索是一名基督教公共交通司机不明原因的死亡。安汶这个城市仍保持着宗教划分,两教派之间存在高度怀疑,最琐碎的事情也能引发频繁的暴力。警务工作的根本缺点没有得到矫正,而对重要事件缺乏严肃的调查使得社区保持极化,并导致阴谋论的散布。当对事件进行调查时,就像触发9月暴力事件的摩托出租车司机死亡后的调查一样,结果并不公开,引发了人们对警方掩盖事实的指控。极端分子活跃在安汶,而他们带倾向性言论的网站表明他们在故意煽动公开的敌视火焰本文接受采访的人士指出可能的近期热点事件是:2012年3月27日举行的中央马鲁古(Central Maluku)的区长选举;4月25日的已经不存在了的独立运动-南摩鹿加群岛共和国(Republik Maluku Selatan, RMS)-的周年纪念日;以及6月9日至19日的古兰经阅读比赛。但是安汶的主教在1月的采访中说:“我不担心这些大日子。危险发生在没有任何人关注的平凡日子。”

雅加达/布鲁塞尔,2012年2月13日

I. Overview

Months after an outbreak of Christian-Muslim violence in Ambon, the city seems quiet. Local authorities learned some lessons from the clashes on 11 September 2011, sparked by the death of a Muslim motorcycle taxi (ojek) driver in a Christian area. Security forces, for example, have been quicker to arrive on the scene in fights that break out along religious lines. While not all those displaced have returned home, some innovative efforts have been initiated to use reconstruction to foster reconciliation. The government is much more conscious of the need to work with the telephone company to get mass text messages out when trouble occurs. Many issues remain unresolved, however, including physical segregation and mutual distrust between Christian and Muslim communities, inadequate police capacity and lack of transparency in investigations into high-profile incidents. Ambon is hosting a national Quran reading contest (Musabaqah Tilawatil Quran, MTQ) in mid-June, and local authorities see it as an opportunity to showcase the city as a model of harmonious relations and a desirable place to invest. Christian and Muslim leaders alike want the contest to succeed as a matter of local pride, and its starting date has become an informal deadline by which all physical reminders of the September violence are to be removed.

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Another eruption of violence in mid-December, this time triggered by the unexplained death of a Christian public transport driver, was evidence of ongoing tensions. The city remains segregated, mutual suspicions run high and violence frequently flares from the most trivial of causes. Basic flaws in policing have not been fixed, and the absence of any serious investigations into high-profile incidents keeps the communities polarised and gives rise to conspiracy theories. When investigations do take place, as happened after the death of the motorcycle driver that triggered the September violence, the results are not made public, leading to allegations of cover-ups. Radical elements are active in Ambon, and their tendentious websites suggest a deliberate effort to fan communal flames.

Everyone interviewed could point to possible flashpoints ahead: elections for Central Maluku district head on 27 March 2012; the anniversary of the defunct independence movement, Republic of the South Moluccas (Republik Maluku Selatan, RMS) on 25 April; and the MTQ from 9 to 19 June. But as Ambon’s bishop said in an interview in January, “I’m not worried about the big days. The danger is on the ordinary days when no one’s paying attention”.

Jakarta/Brussels, 13 February 2012

Podcast / Asia

Update from Ambon

The city of Ambon, Indonesia, is in some ways showing impressive spirit and innovative ideas in addressing the threat of renewed violence, but the slightest spark could still all too easily set off another round of Christian-Muslim bloodshed.

indonesia-23jan12
As they head back to the airport at the end of a research trip to Ambon, Senior Adviser Sidney Jones speaks with Communications Director Andrew Stroehlein about her impressions after meeting with community leaders, journalists and local officials. CRISIS GROUP

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