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Picturing Islam in Kyrgyzstan
Picturing Islam in Kyrgyzstan
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Muslim girls chat at the top of Mount Suleyman Too in Osh, Kyrgyzstan, in March 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy
Briefing 83 / Europe & Central Asia

吉尔吉斯斯坦:国家脆弱和宗教极端化

对伊斯兰教义的另类解释正在快速崛起,而这些解释往往与国家倡导的传统意识形态相左。政府的腐败无能则加剧了这些异见的蔓延。吉尔吉斯斯坦应停止对特定群体经济边缘化的行为,并改善机构缺陷。否则,这不仅将威胁其国内稳定,还将重演种族关系紧张的状况。

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概述

吉尔吉斯虽以中亚唯一的议会民主制国家自居,但其国家稳定则受胁于诸多挑战。吉尔吉斯斯坦在民族上分为吉尔吉斯族人和乌兹别克族人,从地域上则分为南北。其政府腐败之至,在司法和执法方面尤为严重,其甚至无力提供最基本的服务。国家政治机构亦面临重负:2015年10月举行的议会选举虽看似得体,但实则被泛滥于政党和各级行政机构之间的系统性贪污所侵蚀。而吉尔吉斯斯坦计划于2017年举行的总统选举则将会考验其政府的凝聚力。2016年8月31日,中国驻比什凯克大使馆遭到一起自杀式汽车爆炸袭击;这更是凸显了吉尔吉斯斯坦安全设施之羸弱。政府应采取——包括加强制度的可信度,容纳不推崇暴力的伊斯兰教徒等——措施,以此预防并应对日益壮大的极端主义对其造成的威胁。

由于缺乏多元化政治、可靠的政府和谋生机会,越来越多的公民求助于宗教。伊斯兰教已经成为后苏联时代人民生活的核心。1990年迄今,清真寺的数目已经从39个扩大到2300余个。自2000年来,伊斯兰公民社会组织的数量亦是增长一倍有余。这些组织逐渐地取代了政府机构来为民众提供服务。他们推广多种对于伊斯兰教义的诠释:一些是宽容的,一些则不然。虽然他们在一定程度上补充了因国家无能和腐败而造成的空缺,但他们专注于宗教和社会事务,在政治方面少有参与。然而,由于国家的不稳定和宗教极端化的加剧,伊斯兰教与国家政治日益交错。这并非是某一政治伊斯兰形态的崛起;而是人口中的不同群体将信仰与身份联系起来的一些方式加剧了政治的两极化,或是在政府机构无力提供帮助时,一些人选择了从伊斯兰中寻求答案。如此一来,这或会致使吉尔吉斯斯坦境内出现一些更激进的伊斯兰教派,或在某些情况下产生暴力极端主义。

许多吉尔吉斯族人被民族主义吸引,并把宗教当成其民族身份的一部分。当局所支持的伊斯兰派是基于广传中亚的温和派哈乃斐,其将沙拉菲派视为威胁。然而,一些受经济或社会孤立的吉尔吉斯族人则更为激进,并被从国外传入或受外埠资助的伊斯兰形式所吸引,而这则是由于他们往往被政府离弃、或渴望得到精神支持。落后的教育体制使更多民众被所谓的非传统伊斯兰教导所利用,而高失业率则加深了民众的不满。之于吉尔吉斯斯坦境内的许多乌兹别克族公民而言,情况亦是如此。他们往往难以融入社会,在政治上、社会服务、和安全机关中都缺乏代表,而他们通常更是受到了这些机构的歧视。

吉尔吉斯族和乌兹别克族常为制度严格的伊斯兰教派所吸引。他们甚至会出于个人和社会的因素考虑前往叙利亚,但他们鲜少夹带国内政治意图。这两个种族中均有一些妇女还面临着更大的社会或经济劣势、以及家庭虐待。因此随着她们的宗教意识的增强,希望去叙利亚的女性人数亦在增加。

吉尔吉斯民族主义者声称,乌兹别克族人之所以转向极端伊斯兰主义,是出于政治因素以及为报复2010年时发生的种族暴力冲突——其导致了400余人丧命,且以乌兹别克族人为主。但越来越多的证据表明,吉尔吉斯族人和乌兹别克族人均有求助于更激进的伊斯兰教派。两个民族里也都有很多人被吸引到非暴力的伊斯兰组织,如被禁的伊斯兰解放党(Hizb ut-Tahrir),但也有些则被更暴力的意识形态和组织所吸引。

吉尔吉斯斯坦政府称其已有数百名公民与伊斯兰国(IS)或叙利亚的圣战者结盟作战。社工和社区活动分子亦纷纷举出很多案例显示乌兹别克族妇女和年轻人前往参加或计划前往(其中部分已被拘禁)。正如众多线上宣传所示,伊斯兰国和其同盟乌兹别克斯坦伊斯兰运动(IMU)将吉尔吉斯斯坦视为新兵征募之地。

伊斯兰国至今尚未宣称对发生在吉尔吉斯斯坦的任何事件负责。中国大使馆受到的袭击与维吾尔分裂主义者以及叙利亚的某——隶属于al-Nusra的乌兹别克执导组织相关。国家安全机构时不时声称其挫败了伊斯兰国的一些阴谋,而情报机构则称乌兹别克族分裂主义者与伊斯兰解放党勾结同谋。但是这些断言时则毫无依据,其更似是为侵扰已被边缘化的社会群体而制造理由。安全部门在许多行动中多采用致命射杀的手段,因此其并未收集到真正的情报。然而,警方刑讯逼供的现象——尤其是在南方诸省——反倒有据可查的。

但至少趋势是令人担忧的。伊斯兰组织作为民众服务提供者而崛起,这反映了政府在解决基本民生问题上的无能。诸多吉尔吉斯族人、乌兹别克族人以及政府通常将信仰问题、政治忠诚和身份结合在一起。这种做法不仅加剧了宗教争论的风险;还会将这些分歧跟种族摩擦搅成一团,或是被政府用作向乌孜别克族人施加强压的借口。政府的不作为与种族冲突两者相结合,这可能会将被边缘化了的民众推向被禁止的组织。

当局不仅应停止遮掩其在地域和民族上的分歧,还应鼓励对敏感问题展开公开辩论。拒绝与宗教团体对话、仅认可少数国家批准的伊斯兰信仰、并将其它教派信徒视为非法之徒——如此做法目光短浅。政府应与宗教领袖、男性和女性,乌兹别克族和吉尔吉斯族都建立密切关系,以此减少分歧并防止极端化;应摒弃对乌兹别克族人——其极端化行为相较于吉尔吉斯族人更为恶劣——的偏见。当局还应拒绝任何会损害妇女、少数民族和儿童权益的要求。

奥什/比什凯克/布鲁塞尔,2016年10月3日

Bazaar in Jalalabad, April 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

Picturing Islam in Kyrgyzstan

Crisis Group’s Publications Officer Julie David de Lossy, formerly a freelance photographer of Central Asia, travels to Kyrgyzstan to take a look through her camera lens at the context of our conflict-prevention work.

Returning to Kyrgyzstan after five years away, I found a country that still mixes open-eyed charm, bureaucratic frustrations and decaying Soviet-era infrastructures – all part of a slow, uncertain transition that its population wishes could go faster even if the ultimate destination remains obscure.

Taking pictures that tell a real story in post-Soviet states is always a challenge. Especially in Central Asia. I have to overcome the country’s big empty spaces, the absence of public information and a decades-old culture of suspicion. Then a door opens, I turn a corner, or a new friend helps. Suddenly I get my chance.

View of Osh from the Suleyman-Too, March 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

I want to give a feeling for the context of Islamic radicalisation in Kyrgyzstan. But photography means winning people’s trust, and that’s hard. The people of Kyrgyzstan are used to keeping silent to please their parents, keep their jobs, or avoid harassment. Public spaces are one place I can begin to make contact with ordinary folk.

Osh park, March 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

Tamerlane, a great Central Asian conqueror of the fourteenth century, was the first of his clan to convert to Islam. His people followed him. Violently repressed in 20th century Soviet times, Islam has now returned to public life in the region. Regular folk long for outsiders to see their religion as they do: a mainstay of a moral life.

Man holds a Quran in a mosque in an Uzbek mahalla (neighbourhood) of Osh, March 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

Visiting a mosque, as a Western female, is not particularly complicated. However, pulling a camera out usually means that people just quietly move away. Most Central Asians share a deep instinct to avoid getting into any kind of trouble. Just in case.

Mosque in an Uzbek mahalla, March 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

Youth in Kyrgyzstan has little faith in the future due to rampant corruption, decaying infrastructure, and the country’s lack of bankable natural resources.

Osh park, March 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

I attend a madrasa lesson to mingle in a class attended by serene young women in matching purple headscarves. But they did not let me take a camera in. Each day as I set out to portray a new facet of Islam in Central Asia – for instance, the small minority that might be tempted by transnational jihadism – I know I will face many obstacles along my way.

Pass to the north between the Hindu Kush and the Tian Shan mountain ranges, April 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

Unlike other parts of the former Soviet Union, statues of Lenin still stand in Kyrgyzstan. It’s not that anybody particularly wants communism back, or that they took it seriously in the first place. But most Kyrgyz cities didn’t exist as such before the Soviets came. And some in the secular Kyrgyz elite hanker for a bulwark against any back-sliding to fundamentalist religious doctrines.

Lenin statue in Batken, March 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

Drinking over-sweet Nescafé in a lost chaikhana (teahouse), I worry that the whole idea of photographing religious change is a terrible mistake. Then somebody comes to practice his English. Perhaps this is someone with a fresh lead, someone who will take me where I want to go.

Batken, March 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

Weddings in Kyrgyzstan are major social events. No problem with photos here: this is how most Central Asian photographers earn their living. Loving bridal images are taken in front of war memorials, municipal monuments, romantic park benches, or all of the above. Even water reservoirs. For small, mountainous Kyrgyzstan, abundant water is one of its only levers against big, powerful neighbours.

Tortgul reservoir, near Tajik border, Batken, March 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, new national symbols were needed in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan chose Manas, hero of the national epic poem, which tells the story of the Kyrgyz Turkic peoples’ struggles to establish their country against Mongols and other neighbours. Islamist puritans, of course, would have things otherwise.

Manas monument, Batken, March 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

Long-distance travel in Kyrgyzstan means driving for hours on roads filled with potholes, dust, rivers of water and apparently indestructible Lada cars. The country may be small compared to its neighbours, but journeys between cities are physical challenges that can seem to stretch toward infinity.

Jalalabad, April 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

Thanks to the many rivers running through the country, especially in the Ferghana valley, agriculture is a significant part of the economy and fills Kyrgyz markets with fresh produce. As any traveller in Central Asia quickly finds, street markets are also fertile hunting grounds for photographers.

Bazaar in Jalalabad, April 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy
Mutakallim School in Bishkek, April 2016. CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy

View as Slideshow

SLIDESHOW | Picturing Islam in Kyrgyzstan CRISIS GROUP/Julie David de Lossy