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Ayiti apre tranbleman: Pa gen sekirite san relòjman ak devlopman
Ayiti apre tranbleman: Pa gen sekirite san relòjman ak devlopman

Ayiti apre tranbleman: Pa gen sekirite san relòjman ak devlopman

YON REZIMEN

Yon lane ak si mwa apre pi move tranbleman tè nan lemisfè lwès frape Ayiti, 650.000 viktim ap tann kay pèmanan nan pi plis pase 1.000 kan dijans epapiye atravè Potoprens. Premye tanpèt sezon siklonik la gen tan inonde 30 kan, ki fè abitan kan yo blije kouri sove epi ki lakòz 28 moun mouri. Michel Martelly, ki te ranplase René Préval antank prezidan 14 me ane sa, ap konfronte yon kriz imedya fas ak mekontantman viktim k ap viv nan kan yo ak moun ki gen menm bezwen kritik yo k ap viv nan bidonvil potoprens. Deplasman fòse, pafwa vyolan, avèk prezans gang kriminèl nan kan ak nan bidonvil, kreye yon kontèks ki pa stab. Chwazi, kominike epi  kòmanse yon estrateji relòjman, avèk konsey viktim epi kominote lokal, se premye defi kritik rekonstriksyon li pral blije leve pou l sa retabli yon stabilite. Sa pral teste kapasite yon aksyon entènasyonal an komen, ki pa gen a wè ak èd ijans apre ane ki sòt pase,  kote te genyen anpil dezakò enkyetan nan ekip nasyonzini ak lòt bayè sou kesyon estrateji relòjman.

Apre yon elèksyon difisil, Ayiti dwe travay sou priyorite rekonstriksyon nasyonal; relòjman viktim tranbleman, debleye ranblè epi rekonstwi katye. Dezas 2010 lakòz pi plis pase 250.000 moun mouri epi anviwon 1.5 milyon moun blije deplase al viv nan kan. Absans yon politik leta pou relòjman anpeche pwogrè nan desantralizasyon ak relèvman ekonomik, epi kreye difikilte nan diminye danje pou moun ki pi vilnerab nan kominote vil la, kote anpil moun ap viv youn sou lòt. Katye kote moun viktim anpil lane konstriksyon anachik, kote ki pa gen yon kadas ki byen fyab ni okènn planifikasyon, toujou rete vilnerab fas ak risk dezas natirèl. Deplasman fòse – san lajistis san yo pa bay lòt kay – lakòz yon pakèt moun tounen nan kan san sa pa t prevwa, menm nan vil potoprens kote prela ak ti kay ap monte sou ansyen sit kay oswa akote yo, ki kreye yon seri ti kan spontane. Preske mwatye moun ki deplase yo toujou rete nan kan kote yo premye ateri, san yo pa konnen ki sa ki pral rive yo pi devan. Chak jou ki pase yo santi yo pi mal poutèt pi plis vyolans nan kan yo. Pote yon repons pou kan vilnerab sila yo se yon defi rekonstriksyon kritik k ap aji seryèzman sou lapè, stabilite ak sekirite.

Tout aktè politik yo dwe asire altènativ lòjman pi sekiritè epi pi dirab na zònn potoprens ak nan zònn kote tranbleman frape. Pou sa fèt, fòk ta genyen yon pwogram nasyonal desantralize pou rekonstriksyon peyi a tankou sa ki nan Plan Daksyon pou Relèvman ak Devlopman Nasyonal (PARDN), ki te siyen pandan konferans bayè yo nan mwad mas 2010. Sof yon plan pou konstwi yon pak endistriyèl ki poko reyalize nan vil Cap Haïtien, pa genyen anpil lòt siy ki te ka fè kwè Ayiti ap rekonstwi pi byen “building back better” depi lè bayè yo te pwomèt plis pase $5.7 milya nan espas 18 mwa ak $10 milya sou 10 lane, pou finanse rekonstriksyon an. Pou jere efò sila, Ayiti ansanm ak bayè yo negosye yon Komisyon Enterimè pou Rekonstriksyon Ayiti (CIRH) antank yon biwo ki ta sanse akselere apwobasyon pwojè epi koòdonen efò. Jiskaprezan li fasilite bayè yo ansanm avèk gouvènnman pataje plan, men priz desizyon ak dekèsman bayè yo pa rapid ditou, sitou pou nan vil pwovens. Anpil refijye retounen potoprens, ki fè pwoblèm yo vin pi grav nan katye defavorize kapital la, kote pi fò moun nan kan yo pral blije abite lè yo soti nan kan.

Si pou rekonstriksyon an korije anpil dezekilib ki fè Ayiti souvan viktim dezas, vyolans ak konfli, li enpòtan anpil pou gouvènnman Martelly a devlope yon politik relòjman touswit. Politik sila dwe enplike viktim, konsantre l mwens sou fèmen kan, epi plis sou konstwi kominote ki stab, kote ki gen mwens vyolans epi ki pa sèlman nan kapital la. Plan pilòt pou fèmen 6 kan epi reloje rezidan yo, se yon premye pa enpòtan gouvènnman fè ki merite sipò, men fòk kan ki pi vilnerab yo fè pati plan sa touswit. Pou relòjman sa avanse yon fason ki pi dirab, gouvènman ansanm avèk kominote entènasyonal la dwe:

  • Kreye, devlope epi enplemante yon estrateji konplè ki kanpe deplaseman fòse yo ak deplasman moun ki rete nan kan kote genyen yon akò avèk mèt tè a; ki pran kont lavi miyò “livlihoods”; ki pran kont rekonstriksyon kay avèk pi bon pratik; epi ki entegre debleye ranblè ak retou deplase yo pandan sèvis ap bay ni nan ansyen kominote ni nan nouvo kominote; epi pran desizyon klè sou politik kadas ak aksè;
     
  • Propoze yon lejislasyon pou tabli yon otorite nasyonal lòjman epi, avèk yon dekrè prezidansyèl, kreye yon biwo inik ki responsab planifikasyon, koòdinasyon ak enplemantasyon nouvo politik la atravè yon sekretarya ranfòse andan Komite Entèministeryèl pou Devlopman Teritwa (CIAT) nan ministè Premye Minis la;
     
  • Amelyore sekirite nan katye kote deplase yo pral viv avèk yon polis proksimite atravè sipò Polis Nasyonal (PNH) nan relòjman, avèk sipò Polis Nasyonzini (UNPOL), epi travay nan menm tan sou deplwaman polis kominotè rapidman;
  • Desantralize relòjman pou ni relòjman, ni rekonstriksyon peyi a ka genyen yon apwòch kominotè de baz kote nou ranfòse resous minisipalite yo: moun, finansman ak materyèl;
     
  • Akselere plan envèstisman nan 8 vil prensipal kote ki gen pò avèk nan zònn riral ki antoure yo, pou kreye travay epi kwape migrasyon abitan zònn riral yo vè kapital la;
     
  • Kòmanse planifye tranzisyon CIRH la touswit, si nesesè manda Komisyon an te ka pwolonje pandan 6 mwa apre dat fèmti li ki se oktòb 2011, pou evite eka ak reta nan finansman ak enplemantasyon pwojè;
     
  • Mete Minis kle sou konsey CIRH la pou kreye yon kolaborasyon pi etwat ant CIRH la avèk gouvènnman epi modifye pwosedi Komisyon an pou fè pi plis pwojè apwouve ak yon meyè kominikasyon desizyon, sitou avèk popilasyon deplase a;
     
  • Bay nouvo finansman touswit oswa re-pwograme finansman aktyèl pou apiye relòjman premye 6 kan yo epi ajoute lòt kan firanmezi, sitou pou sa ki plis nan danje inondasyon; epi
     
  • Kreye mekanis ijan pou fè kadas la pi fyab epi pou amelyore regis tè.

 

Haiti Déjà Vu

Originally published in Huffington Post

Borrowing from Yogi Berra, when it comes to elections in Haiti, it is déjà vu all over again. The country's political elite is embroiled once more in a controversy that has delayed parliamentary elections for three years, still arguing over the composition of its electoral council (CEP) and the content of an electoral law.

Secretary of State John Kerry just pulled off a compromise to save Afghanistan's elections from yielding widespread violence. He might considering doing the same in Haiti. Here's why.

The terms of one third of the 30-member Senate were up three years ago and the Senate has been crippled ever since. The second ten Senators' terms will end by the end of this year. So too the terms of the 99-member Chamber of Deputies as well as the 142 mayors and members of local councils. The latter are functioning extra-constitutionally because they should have faced election more than three years ago.
As Crisis Group warned a year ago in its report, Haiti is now facing the specter of an elected president ruling by decree next January because everyone else's terms will have ended. That would not be very democratic and donors will argue that their funds cannot flow to Haiti if that situation occurs.

Who is to blame? The political and economic elite bear a share of the blame. They are the ones who either lead parties, finance candidates, hold office or call the shots from behind the scenes. They have declined to carry out commitments made in more than one church-sponsored dialogue for a compromise CEP and a required electoral law. Some of the current parliamentarians may rightfully fear that they will lose their seats once elections are held.

But they are by no means alone. President Martelly has not been willing to make the compromises required to ensure an election occurs. Some of his coterie seem to be relishing the thought of ruling by decree come next January. The business elite, which finally seems to be coming together to do more than lament the current situation, has allowed the situation to fester.

In the absence of parliament passing an electoral law, President Michel Martelly has gone ahead and set the election date for 26 October by executive decree and the still not fully constituted CEP has set dates for parties and candidates to register. But four of the country's major political movements with perhaps the largest number of supporters refuse to participate arguing that the agreement on a consensus CEP has not been met. They charge that new members named by the President to the CEP have not been the product of a political consensus.

The international community supports a 10-year old UN peacekeeping force and still finances substantial earthquake reconstruction aid for Haiti whose economy and government institutions were fragile even before the earth opened on January 12, 2010. Yet it has failed to harness its political resources to convince Haiti's leaders to hold the required elections.

A civil society and church-managed negotiation -- or more accurately the most recent such effort -- achieved a breakthrough on 19 March when an agreement was reached between President Martelly and a portion of the opposition. However, the agreement did not include the signatures of key opposition parties including Inite, the party of former President Rene Preval; Lavalas, the party of former President Jean Bertrande Aristide; or the traditional opposition parties of OPL and Fusion.

A key point of the El Rancho agreement was the formation of a balanced CEP and its absence is now being argued by the opposition as the justification for abstention. Yet, those parties also seem committed to an illusion that the international community will move to oust Martelly if the opposition does not participate in the elections. That is not going to happen.

High-level US, UN, French, Canadian, and Brazilian leaders, public and private, need to come together again to urge the president and the opposition to agree now on a consensus, balanced CEP and an electoral law. And Secretary of State John Kerry might carry that same message on a visit to Port-au-Prince, which thankfully is a lot closer than Kabul.

Otherwise, there will be no elections in 2014, a president will be ruling by decree in January, street protests and violence will follow, and for the long-suffering people of Haiti, it will be déjà vu all over again.