Ayiti apre tranbleman: Pa gen sekirite san relòjman ak devlopman
Ayiti apre tranbleman: Pa gen sekirite san relòjman ak devlopman
Table of Contents
  1. Overview
Briefing 25

Ayiti apre tranbleman: Pa gen sekirite san relòjman ak devlopman

YON REZIMEN

Yon lane ak si mwa apre pi move tranbleman tè nan lemisfè lwès frape Ayiti, 650.000 viktim ap tann kay pèmanan nan pi plis pase 1.000 kan dijans epapiye atravè Potoprens. Premye tanpèt sezon siklonik la gen tan inonde 30 kan, ki fè abitan kan yo blije kouri sove epi ki lakòz 28 moun mouri. Michel Martelly, ki te ranplase René Préval antank prezidan 14 me ane sa, ap konfronte yon kriz imedya fas ak mekontantman viktim k ap viv nan kan yo ak moun ki gen menm bezwen kritik yo k ap viv nan bidonvil potoprens. Deplasman fòse, pafwa vyolan, avèk prezans gang kriminèl nan kan ak nan bidonvil, kreye yon kontèks ki pa stab. Chwazi, kominike epi  kòmanse yon estrateji relòjman, avèk konsey viktim epi kominote lokal, se premye defi kritik rekonstriksyon li pral blije leve pou l sa retabli yon stabilite. Sa pral teste kapasite yon aksyon entènasyonal an komen, ki pa gen a wè ak èd ijans apre ane ki sòt pase,  kote te genyen anpil dezakò enkyetan nan ekip nasyonzini ak lòt bayè sou kesyon estrateji relòjman.

Apre yon elèksyon difisil, Ayiti dwe travay sou priyorite rekonstriksyon nasyonal; relòjman viktim tranbleman, debleye ranblè epi rekonstwi katye. Dezas 2010 lakòz pi plis pase 250.000 moun mouri epi anviwon 1.5 milyon moun blije deplase al viv nan kan. Absans yon politik leta pou relòjman anpeche pwogrè nan desantralizasyon ak relèvman ekonomik, epi kreye difikilte nan diminye danje pou moun ki pi vilnerab nan kominote vil la, kote anpil moun ap viv youn sou lòt. Katye kote moun viktim anpil lane konstriksyon anachik, kote ki pa gen yon kadas ki byen fyab ni okènn planifikasyon, toujou rete vilnerab fas ak risk dezas natirèl. Deplasman fòse – san lajistis san yo pa bay lòt kay – lakòz yon pakèt moun tounen nan kan san sa pa t prevwa, menm nan vil potoprens kote prela ak ti kay ap monte sou ansyen sit kay oswa akote yo, ki kreye yon seri ti kan spontane. Preske mwatye moun ki deplase yo toujou rete nan kan kote yo premye ateri, san yo pa konnen ki sa ki pral rive yo pi devan. Chak jou ki pase yo santi yo pi mal poutèt pi plis vyolans nan kan yo. Pote yon repons pou kan vilnerab sila yo se yon defi rekonstriksyon kritik k ap aji seryèzman sou lapè, stabilite ak sekirite.

Tout aktè politik yo dwe asire altènativ lòjman pi sekiritè epi pi dirab na zònn potoprens ak nan zònn kote tranbleman frape. Pou sa fèt, fòk ta genyen yon pwogram nasyonal desantralize pou rekonstriksyon peyi a tankou sa ki nan Plan Daksyon pou Relèvman ak Devlopman Nasyonal (PARDN), ki te siyen pandan konferans bayè yo nan mwad mas 2010. Sof yon plan pou konstwi yon pak endistriyèl ki poko reyalize nan vil Cap Haïtien, pa genyen anpil lòt siy ki te ka fè kwè Ayiti ap rekonstwi pi byen “building back better” depi lè bayè yo te pwomèt plis pase $5.7 milya nan espas 18 mwa ak $10 milya sou 10 lane, pou finanse rekonstriksyon an. Pou jere efò sila, Ayiti ansanm ak bayè yo negosye yon Komisyon Enterimè pou Rekonstriksyon Ayiti (CIRH) antank yon biwo ki ta sanse akselere apwobasyon pwojè epi koòdonen efò. Jiskaprezan li fasilite bayè yo ansanm avèk gouvènnman pataje plan, men priz desizyon ak dekèsman bayè yo pa rapid ditou, sitou pou nan vil pwovens. Anpil refijye retounen potoprens, ki fè pwoblèm yo vin pi grav nan katye defavorize kapital la, kote pi fò moun nan kan yo pral blije abite lè yo soti nan kan.

Si pou rekonstriksyon an korije anpil dezekilib ki fè Ayiti souvan viktim dezas, vyolans ak konfli, li enpòtan anpil pou gouvènnman Martelly a devlope yon politik relòjman touswit. Politik sila dwe enplike viktim, konsantre l mwens sou fèmen kan, epi plis sou konstwi kominote ki stab, kote ki gen mwens vyolans epi ki pa sèlman nan kapital la. Plan pilòt pou fèmen 6 kan epi reloje rezidan yo, se yon premye pa enpòtan gouvènnman fè ki merite sipò, men fòk kan ki pi vilnerab yo fè pati plan sa touswit. Pou relòjman sa avanse yon fason ki pi dirab, gouvènman ansanm avèk kominote entènasyonal la dwe:

  • Kreye, devlope epi enplemante yon estrateji konplè ki kanpe deplaseman fòse yo ak deplasman moun ki rete nan kan kote genyen yon akò avèk mèt tè a; ki pran kont lavi miyò “livlihoods”; ki pran kont rekonstriksyon kay avèk pi bon pratik; epi ki entegre debleye ranblè ak retou deplase yo pandan sèvis ap bay ni nan ansyen kominote ni nan nouvo kominote; epi pran desizyon klè sou politik kadas ak aksè;
     
  • Propoze yon lejislasyon pou tabli yon otorite nasyonal lòjman epi, avèk yon dekrè prezidansyèl, kreye yon biwo inik ki responsab planifikasyon, koòdinasyon ak enplemantasyon nouvo politik la atravè yon sekretarya ranfòse andan Komite Entèministeryèl pou Devlopman Teritwa (CIAT) nan ministè Premye Minis la;
     
  • Amelyore sekirite nan katye kote deplase yo pral viv avèk yon polis proksimite atravè sipò Polis Nasyonal (PNH) nan relòjman, avèk sipò Polis Nasyonzini (UNPOL), epi travay nan menm tan sou deplwaman polis kominotè rapidman;
  • Desantralize relòjman pou ni relòjman, ni rekonstriksyon peyi a ka genyen yon apwòch kominotè de baz kote nou ranfòse resous minisipalite yo: moun, finansman ak materyèl;
     
  • Akselere plan envèstisman nan 8 vil prensipal kote ki gen pò avèk nan zònn riral ki antoure yo, pou kreye travay epi kwape migrasyon abitan zònn riral yo vè kapital la;
     
  • Kòmanse planifye tranzisyon CIRH la touswit, si nesesè manda Komisyon an te ka pwolonje pandan 6 mwa apre dat fèmti li ki se oktòb 2011, pou evite eka ak reta nan finansman ak enplemantasyon pwojè;
     
  • Mete Minis kle sou konsey CIRH la pou kreye yon kolaborasyon pi etwat ant CIRH la avèk gouvènnman epi modifye pwosedi Komisyon an pou fè pi plis pwojè apwouve ak yon meyè kominikasyon desizyon, sitou avèk popilasyon deplase a;
     
  • Bay nouvo finansman touswit oswa re-pwograme finansman aktyèl pou apiye relòjman premye 6 kan yo epi ajoute lòt kan firanmezi, sitou pou sa ki plis nan danje inondasyon; epi
     
  • Kreye mekanis ijan pou fè kadas la pi fyab epi pou amelyore regis tè.

 

A year and a half after the Western Hemisphere’s deadliest earthquake devastated Haiti, 650,000 victims still wait for permanent housing in more than 1,000 unstable emergency camps dotting Port-au-Prince. The first storms of the 2011 hurricane season have flooded 30 camps, forcing tent dwellers to flee and killing 28 persons nationally. Michel Martelly, who replaced René Préval as president on 14 May, faces an immediate crisis in the growing frustrations of the victims in the camps and those with near identical unmet basic needs who remain in the urban slums. Forced evictions, some violent, along with the reappearance of criminal gangs in those camps and slums, add to the volatile mix. Adopting, communicating and setting in motion a comprehensive resettlement strategy, with full input from the victims and local communities, is the first critical reconstruction challenge he must meet in order to restore stability. It will also test the capacity for common international action beyond emergency relief after a year of disturbing divisions within the UN country team and among donors over resettlement strategy.

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Following a gruelling election, Haiti must turn to the priority of national reconstruction: resettling quake victims, removing rubble and rebuilding neighbourhoods. The 2010 disaster killed over 250,000 and forced an estimated 1.5 million into camps, while the absence of a uniform resettlement policy has stymied promised progress on decentralisation, economic renewal and reducing overcrowded urban communities’ vulnerability. Neighbourhoods victimised by decades of anarchic construction and weak to non-existent land titles and zoning remain highly vulnerable to natural disaster. Evictions – without due process or tenable housing alternatives – have forced massive unplanned returns, including to Port-au-Prince slums where tents and shacks have been set up on or near old residences and new, spontaneous camps created. Close to half the displaced have remained in the original camps, with no clear understanding of the future and rising unhappiness at increased violence. Responding to those vulnerable tent camps is a core reconstruction challenge, with serious implications for peace, stability and security.

All political actors need to make housing alternatives safer and more sustainable in Port-au-Prince and adjoining quake-hit areas. That requires a decentralised national reconstruction program such as is enshrined in the government’s Action Plan for National Recovery and Development (PARDN) and was endorsed at the March 2010 donors conference. Beyond a planned but not yet built industrial park in Cap Haïtien, however, there are few signs that Haiti is building back better since donors pledged to contribute more than $5.7 billion over eighteen months and $10 billion over ten years to finance recovery. To manage this effort, Haiti and donors negotiated an Interim Haitian Recovery Commission (IHRC) as a hybrid body to speed approval of projects and coordinate efforts. It has enabled donors and government officials to exchange plans, but decision-making and donor disbursement have been mostly slow, particularly outside the capital. Many refugees have returned to Port-au-Prince exacerbating problems in the capital’s poor neighbourhoods, where the bulk of those living in tent cities ultimately must resettle.

  • If reconstruction is to right the many imbalances that have made Haiti poor and prone to disasters, violence and conflict, it is paramount that the Martelly government set out a resettlement policy rapidly that engages the victims and is less about closing the camps, more about building stable, less violent communities and not only in the capital. The pilot plan for closing six camps and resettling their residents his administration has put forward is an important first step that deserves support, but the most vulnerable camps should be added to it quickly. To move resettlement forward in a more sustainable fashion, the government and international community must then:
     
  • design, develop and implement a comprehensive strategy that includes a moratorium on evictions and time-bound agreements with camp site owners; addresses livelihoods; promotes housing reconstruction based on improved practices; and integrates rubble removal with return of the displaced, while providing services in both old and new communities, in parallel with clear decisions and policies on land tenure and access;
     
  • propose legislation to establish a national housing authority and in the interim establish immediately, by decree, a one-stop shop for planning, coordinating and implementing the new policy through a strengthened secretariat of the Inter-ministerial Committee for Territorial Development (CIAT) under the prime minister;
     
  • enhance security in the neighbourhoods to which the displaced return by providing proximity policing through inclusion of the Haitian National Police (HNP) in resettlement programs, supported by the UN police (UNPOL), while working to deploy community policing as soon as that is feasible;
     
  • decentralise resettlement to give it and reconstruction a more grassroots approach by strengthening the human, financial and material resources of the municipalities;
     
  • speed up investment plans in the eight major port cities and surrounding agricultural areas, in order to generate employment and stem the flow of rural migrants to Port-au-Prince;
     
  • begin immediately planning the IHRC transition, if necessary by extending its mandate for six months beyond the October 2011 sunset date, to avoid gaps and delays in funding and project execution;
     
  • bridge the gap between IHRC work and the government’s by putting key ministers on the IHRC board and modifying its procedures to stimulate more rapid project approval and broader communication of decisions, particularly to the displaced population;
     
  • provide at once new donor funds or re-program existing funding to support resettlement of the first six camps and add other camps progressively, particularly those most vulnerable to flooding; and
     
  • create mechanisms urgently to make land tenure more secure and improve land registries.

 

Port-au-Prince/Brussels, 28 June 2011

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Haiti's Displaced

A year and a half after the 2010 earthquake, hundreds of thousands continue to subsist in Haiti's displaced persons camps, where they remain vulnerable both to rising crime rates and to the 2011 storm season. Mark Schneider, Crisis Group's Senior Vice President and Special Adviser on Latin America, looks at why the greatest challenge facing Haiti's new president, Michel Martelly, may be resettling the country's displaced. 

haiti-27jun11
In this podcast, Mark Schneider looks at why the greatest challenge facing Haiti's new president, Michel Martelly, may be resettling the country's displaced.  CRISIS GROUP

You can find below a transcript of this podcast.

Welcome to this podcast from the International Crisis Group. I'm Kimberly Abbott, Communications Director for North America. A year and a half ago, Haiti was hit with the Western Hemisphere's deadliest earthquake. Over 250,000 people died, and an estimated 1.5 million were forced from their homes. Today, 650,000 victims are still waiting for permanent housing in the unstable emergency camps around Port-au-Prince. In the camps, forced evictions and the resurgence of criminal gangs have put pressure on the new Haitian president, Michel Martelly, as he faces the challenge of setting up a comprehensive and sustainable resettlement strategy. I spoke earlier with Mark Schneider, Crisis Group's Senior Vice President and Special Advisor on Latin America, about the challenges of resettlement in post-earthquake Haiti. Crisis Group has a new briefing on the subject.

As the hurricane season begins, what are the most pressing issues for Haiti's new president?

I think that the most pressing issue is to find ways to move 650,000 earthquake victims who remain in tents all across the country, but mainly in Port-au-Prince, from those most vulnerable camps into more secure housing. You've already had 28 people die as a result of the first storms and 30 camps had to be evacuated, and those people were moved into emergency camps. There needs to be a national resettlement policy adopted by the government and funded by the international community.

That's been the most pressing issue now for a year and a half since the earthquake. Why has it taken so long? With all of the international aid that's pouring into the country, why aren't people being resettled?

I think that both the government of Haiti under former President Preval and the international community bear responsibility for the failure to come together to adopt a single, combined, fully endorsed national resettlement strategy. The reality is that internal debates within the United Nations community and internal debates among the various donors failed to produce a single, uniform international proposal to the government of Haiti. At the same time, it's clear that the government of Haiti was unwilling to make some of the key decisions about where new land was going to be provided, about whether they felt the initial answer needed to be to provide the victims of the earthquake with repaired homes, with the opportunity to rebuild some of the homes that had been damaged, or whether they were going to try and essentially rebuild the communities, including the houses of those who had suffered from the earthquake.

Has President Martelly inherited those same political sticking points? We saw just last week that his choice for prime minister was rejected. What are the political risks that he's facing in moving forward with this reconstruction now?

Unfortunately, the political risks are the failure of political leadership in Haiti across the board to recognize that this is a moment of truth for the country, and that therefore the partisan political divisions needed to be put into the background and the national interest of Haiti in reconstruction needed to be the primary priority. Unfortunately, he faces the same kinds of divisions, as we've seen in the rejection of his prime minister designee. He has to decide that this is the most urgent priority for his administration, and put everything else to one side until he gets agreement on a plan to move forward on resettling the internally displaced from those camps to decent housing. It's not going to happen overnight. But what needs to happen is for both sides—that is the government and the international community—to agree on a strategy, to announce that strategy, to ensure that  people understand that it's going to be implemented, and at some point the individual families will receive the benefits of those programs.

So that's the first step. What, then, does the UN need to do and what do donors need to do?

I think that the donors and the United Nations need to agree that President Martelly's task force proposal to take the first six camps and to move the displaced from those camps to temporary, and ultimately permanent, housing represents a significant decision, and they should support it.

There have been a lot of reports about violence in the camps increasing in recent months. How will President Martelly tackle this problem, and how does that play into the wider plan for reconstruction and permanent housing?

That really is one of the fundamental reasons why this is so urgent. There has been an increase in violence in the camps, and some of the gangs who escaped from prison have put down new roots into those camps and are intimidating people and to some degree, as we've heard, increasing violence against women in those camps. President Martelly has recognized that, and that's one of the reasons that he's made a priority of resettling the people from the camps. The United Nations police and the Haitian National Police need to increase their presence in the camps while those camps are still being maintained, and at the same time increase their presence in the communities where the people will be resettled so that there's a greater degree of security when they return to those neighborhoods.

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