Yon Ayiti an Sekirite: Refòm Lajistis
Yon Ayiti an Sekirite: Refòm Lajistis
Table of Contents
  1. Overview
Haiti: Paths to Stability for a Nation in Shock (Online Event, 19th October 2021)
Haiti: Paths to Stability for a Nation in Shock (Online Event, 19th October 2021)

Yon Ayiti an Sekirite: Refòm Lajistis

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YON REZIMEN

Sistèm lajistis an ayiti pa p mache ki kòz demokrasi, sekirite, rekonstriksyon ak devlopman andan peyi a antrave. Gen kèk etap ki franchi avèk lapolis men refòm enstitisyonèl lapolis ap trennen kifè enpinite ak krim kontinye ap menase sekirite sitwayen ayisyen. Malgre senk lane pwomès, pi fò ayisyen rete san yo pa gen aksè ak lajistis epi yo pa fè sistèm jistis la konfyans ditou. Ni Prezidan Martelly, ni Palman dwe travay ansanm san konsiderasyon pati politik pou yon refòm lajistis, ki vle di modènize kòd ak pwosedi penal epi tabli standa pou jij, bay lajistis resous li bezwen epi kreye yon sistèm ki ka garanti bon jan aksè ak lajistis.

Enpak tranbleman 2010 la sou enfrastrikti yon sistèm ki te tou deja chaje epi inefikas lakòz anpil tribinal pa ka fonksyone. Sa ki fonksyonèl manke moun ak resous. Mankman sèvis jiridik pou majorite pèp la ki malere ak yon jesyon ka ki inefikas poutèt pa gen kòb, pa gen materyèl ni staf lakòz prizon yo chaje moun epi dosye yo ap trennen. Kantite moun nan detansyon rive sis fwa kapasite prizon yo dapre standa entènasyonal. Poutèt travay yon jij pa asire, poutèt yo pa jwenn sipèvizyon ni fòmasyon epi yo pa touche ase, komisè gouvènnman ak jij ka koronpi fasil. Poutèt entèferans branch egzekitif ak lejislatif avèk yon refòm ki pap mache ase vit, pèp la pa kwè volonte politik la egziste pou bagay yo sa chanje vreman vre.

Ayiti bezwen yon sistèm lajistis ki mache epi ki ka menen ankèt ki efikas epi jis, kapasite pouswit ak kondanasyon, sitou pou krim grav. Jounen jodiya, se gwo kriminèl yo ki nan lari pandan ti kriminèl yo ap pase mizè nan prizon. Yon revizyon ansyen lejislasyon kle pou mete l nan nivo reyalite 21yèm syèk tanmen an 2009. Men se branch egzekitif gouvènnman ki sipoze finalize refòm ansyen kòd kriminèl ak kòd pwosedi penal epi Palman kapab ratifye yo lè tout aktè finn konsilte. Yon separasyon ant branch egzekitif ak branch jidisyè nesesè, men sa pap posib tout tan yo pa nome 8 manm Konsey Siperyè Pouvwa Jidisyè (CSPJ), ki pase yon tès veting, pou Konsey sila ka kòmanse travay. Li enpòtan tou pou ranfòse kapasite Intite Enspeksyon Jidisyè avèk Lekòl Majistra (EMA) pou kore refòm nan. Komisè, Jij ak Lapolis Nasyonal PNH dwe antann yo pou yo ka menen pi bon ankèt epi mete an èv yon sistèm sekirite ki djanm.

Apre 3 lwa fondamantal te ratifye an 2007 te gen anpil espwa sektè lajistis tap amelyore tout bon vre, men malerèzman branch egzekitif la pat aji. Nouvo administrasyon Martelly gen tan nome kèk manm Kou Kasasyon, men Prezidan rejte yon premye lis moun Sena soumèt. Finalman li sèlman asepte prezidan Kou kasasyon an ak yon lòt jij. Nap esperé konsiltasyon ap fè sa posib pou yon lis nominasyon aseptab kapab soumèt byento pou CSPJ kapab kòmanse fonksyonen. Sa pral yon premye pa pou tabli bon jan standa epi pwoteje endepandans lajistis. Poun asire yon administrasyon ki pa gen pati pri, ki transparan epi efikas, otorite ayisyen ak patnè entènasyonal dwe:

  • ranfòse endepandans lajistis. Bay CSPJ resous imen ak materyèl li bezwen pou l sa fonksyonen touswit;
     
  • asire yon lajistis ki pa kapon epi ki transparan. Asire pwotèksyon moun kap konbat krim grav, tankou komisè, jij ak temwen; amelyore kondisyon travay ak sekirite travay la; swiv pèfòmans kad yo atravè CSPJ ak Intite Enspeksyon Jidisyè;
     
  • finn elabore epi ratifye kòd penal, kòd pwosedi penal ak lòt lejislasyon, dapre standa entènasyonal pou sètènn sijè tankou habeas corpus, apre konsiltasyon avèk sektè nasyonal kle;
     
  • asire yon fòmasyon efikas pou tout aktè lajistis nan yon sistèm modènn, tankou elaji epi akselere fòmasyon pou tout jij nan yon EMA ki fonksyonèl epi tabli standa nasyonal pou kirikilòm ekòl de dwa;
     
  • amelyore aksè a lajistis epi promouvwa rezolisyon pasifik konfli nan kominote riral ak nan bidonvil kote ki genyen anpil ensekirite atravè yon pi gwo rezo jistis mobil ak pi plis asistans legal;
     
  • diminye detansyon prevantif atravè yon pi bon jesyon ka, aplikasyon pwosedi rapid pou deli epi fini refòm penitansye ak prizon;
     
  • amelyore koòdinasyon ant gouvènman ak bayè yo sou pwojè refòm pou devlope yon lidèship ayisyen nan yon pwosesis kote genyen menm objektif ak estrateji; epi
     
  • ogmante sèvis pou popilasyon an avèk edikasyon pèp là sou dwa yo avèk elaborasyon ak ratifikasyon nouvo lejislasyon statitè pou ranfòse Ofis pwoteksyon sitwayen (OPC) epi ogmante patisipasyon sosyete sivil, tankou òganizasyon kominotè de baz.

Potoprens/Brussels, 27 oktòb 2011

 

I. Overview

Haiti’s justice system remains dysfunctional and continues to pose significant obstacles to its democratic process, security, reconstruction and development. While some steps have begun with regard to the police, institutional reform in the sector has lagged, allowing further impunity and persistent criminal threats to citizen safety. Despite five years of pledges, the majority of Haitians still have limited access to justice, and mistrust of the formal judicial system is widespread. President Michel Martelly and parliament must work in a non-partisan manner to at last produce reform, including by modernising the 174 year-old criminal code and procedures and setting standards for judges, giving the judiciary adequate resources and creating efficient mechanisms that guarantee proper access to justice.

The impact of the 2010 earthquake on the infrastructure of an already overcrowded and inefficient system rendered a large number of courts inoperable. Those that have remained functional are understaffed and under-resourced. The lack of proper legal services for the poor majority and inefficient case management fuelled by financial, material and human resource constraints continue to generate extensive case backlog and overcrowded prisons. The number of detainees exceeds by a factor of six the prison capacity allowable by international standards. Lack of job security, supervision, adequate training and low salaries leave judges, prosecutors and other court personnel vulnerable to corruption. Executive and legislative interference, coupled with the sluggish pace of reform, has done little to convince the population that the political will exists for transformative change.

Haiti desperately needs a functioning justice system with effective and fair investigation, prosecution and conviction capabilities, particularly with respect to serious crimes. At present, serious criminals often go free, while petty offenders languish in prison. Revision of outdated key legislation to bring the archaic system into line with 21st century reality began in 2009. But proposed reforms of penal and criminal procedure codes need to be finalised by the executive, submitted to parliament and passed into law, all after wide consultation. Necessary separation of the executive and judiciary branches awaits the appointment of eight vetted members of the Superior Judiciary Council (Conseil supérieure du pouvoir judiciaire, CSPJ) and the launch of its work. Strengthening the Judicial Inspection Unit (JIU) and the Academy for the Training of Judges (Ecole de la magistrature, EMA) is essential to sustain reform efforts. Friction between prosecutors, judges and the Haitian National Police (HNP) must be ended to improve investigations and build a more cohesive security system.

Hopes for steady justice sector improvement were kindled in 2007 with the passage of three fundamental laws but were quashed by subsequent executive inaction. The new Martelly administration took initial actions to appoint some members of the Supreme Court (Cour de cassation). However, the president partially rejected a first slate of high court nominees submitted by the Senate, finally naming only the chief justice and one other justice. Early consultation will hopefully result in additional acceptable nominees so that the Court can be filled and the CSPJ made operational as the starting point for establishing and monitoring standards and safeguarding judicial independence. Moreover, to ensure a non-biased, transparent and efficient administration of the justice system, the Haitian authorities, with the support of their international partners, must also:

  • strengthen the independence of the judiciary by providing the CSPJ with the human and material resources required for its immediate functioning;
     
  • ensure a transparent and fearless justice system by giving special protection to those dealing with serious crimes, including prosecutors, judges and witnesses; improving work conditions and job security; and monitoring performance through the CSPJ and the JIU;
     
  • complete drafting and passage of revised Penal and Criminal Procedure Codes and accompanying legislation, in accordance with international standards including on such matters as habeas corpus, and after consultation with key national sectors;
     
  • ensure effective training of all justice actors in the modernised system, including by expanding and speeding up training for all judges by making the EMA fully functional and setting national standards for law school curriculums;
     
  • improve access to justice and promote peaceful resolution of conflicts in rural communities and violence-prone slum communities by expanding mobile justice services and increasing legal aid;
     
  • reduce lengthy pre-trial detention by improving case-management, applying fast-track procedures for minor offences and completing prison reform;
     
  • improve co-ordination between the government and donors on reform projects, so as to develop Haitian leadership and ownership of a process with common goals and strategies; and
     
  • increase services available to the population as well as public education on legal rights by drafting and passing statutory legislation to strengthen the office of the ombudsman and enhancing participation of civil society, including grassroots and community-based organisations, in that task.

 

Port-au-Prince/Bogotá/Brussels, 27 October 2011

 

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