Tracking Conflict Worldwide

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CrisisWatch is our global conflict tracker, an early warning tool designed to help prevent deadly violence. It keeps decision-makers up-to-date with developments in over 70 conflicts and crises every month, identifying trends and alerting them to risks of escalation and opportunities to advance peace. In addition, CrisisWatch monitors over 50 situations (“standby monitoring”) to offer timely information if developments indicate a drift toward violence or instability. Entries dating back to 2003 provide easily searchable conflict histories.

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July saw Venezuela’s political turmoil worsen as the government pressed ahead with an election for an all-powerful constituent assembly, prompting fears of further violence and economic collapse. Political tensions rose in the run-up to polls in Kenya as Al-Shabaab intensified attacks. Grievances in the security forces led to more violence in Côte d’Ivoire and Zambia’s president imposed emergency rule. In Yemen, fighting between Huthi rebels and the Saudi-led coalition escalated, raising the risk of worse bloodshed in August, while in both South Sudan and Mali deadly clashes strained fragile peace processes. Talks between Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders to reunify the divided island collapsed. In East Asia, North Korea’s launch of two inter-continental ballistic missiles added to growing regional and international concern over the threat posed by Pyongyang.

CrisisWatch Digests

In Venezuela, President Maduro’s government took a definitive step in replacing the country’s ailing democracy with a full-fledged dictatorship, pushing through a vote on 30 July to elect a constituent assembly with the power to dissolve state institutions – including the opposition-led parliament – and rewrite the constitution. The vote went ahead in the face of intensifying opposition protests, including deadly clashes with security forces and pro-Maduro gunmen, and growing international condemnation. The closing off of options for political opposition has prompted fears of more violence on the streets and accelerating state failure and economic collapse. Crisis Group has advocated that regional states should put in place a contact group to push for a negotiated solution to restore democracy, a move that will require broad international support including from major powers friendly to the Maduro regime such as Russia and China.

Ahead of Kenya’s high-stakes general elections on 8 August, the murder of a high-ranking election official late July electrified an already tense atmosphere, and jihadist group Al-Shabaab stepped up attacks on civilians and security forces. While bloodshed on the scale of the 2007 post-election violence is unlikely, fierce competitions for the presidency and county governorships have worsened clashes in Laikipia county between ranchers and herders and ethnic and border tensions in the north, and could open old wounds in the Rift Valley. To keep the peace, external partners should step up pressure on President Kenyatta and his main challenger Raila Odinga, and election observers should deter vote tampering by deploying heavily in both their strongholds. Tensions that fuelled army mutinies in Côte d’Ivoire in January and May led to new violence, and Zambia’s president imposed emergency rule in response to a string of arson attacks he blamed on the opposition.

More than two years into Yemen’s war, fighting between Huthi rebels and the Saudi-led coalition escalated yet again, especially in Taiz governorate in the south west, portending a more violent month ahead. Heavy fighting for control of Khaled bin Walid military base east of the Red Sea port city of Mokha left at least 40 government soldiers and rebels dead, while a Saudi-led coalition airstrike on Mawza killed over twenty civilians. The Huthis claimed several counter-attacks including on a United Arab Emirates military vessel off Mokha, which they say killed at least a dozen soldiers. They also claim to have launched multiple missiles into Saudi Arabia, including one that flew 930km, the furthest yet. New fighting strained South Sudan’s fragile peace process when Sudan, in response to the U.S. postponing a decision on whether to lift sanctions on it, supported South Sudanese rebels to attack government forces in northern Unity oil field. Mali also suffered a serious setback to the implementation of its June 2015 peace deal, as fighting between signatory parties resumed in the northern region of Kidal.

UN Secretary-General António Guterres announced that negotiations to reunify Cyprus had collapsed on 7 July, as another intense round of talks between Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders came to a close in Switzerland, reportedly unable to reach agreement on the issue of security guarantees. Both sides blamed each other for the collapse in the talks, which had been seen as the best prospect in years to reunify the divided island.

A series of accelerated North Korean missile tests in recent months culminated with the launch of what Pyongyang claimed, and most others including the U.S. agreed, was an inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM) on 4 July, following up with a second reported ICBM test on 28 July. Defying successive UN Security Council resolutions, the tests increase the credibility of North Korea’s threat to the continental U.S., and add to security concerns in the region.

Latest Updates



Campaigning for 23 Aug general elections officially began 23 July. Govt mid-July reportedly said EU election observers welcome but they would not have unrestricted access to all polling stations, as demanded by EU; EU 28 July said it would send small team of experts to assess elections, not Electoral Observation Mission, as govt did not agree to conditions. DRC 13 July sentenced in absentia President Dos Santos’ Congolese son-in-law and Kabila’s fierce critic Sindika Dokolo to one year in prison for real estate fraud (see DRC).

Burkina Faso

Violence likely involving jihadists continued in northern and western areas near Mali border. Gunmen 25 July killed five people wanted by security forces in Soum province in north in apparent score settling among members of jihadist group Ansarul Islam, amid possible infighting for leadership. Ansarul Islam late June posted on Facebook that Jafar Dicko had replaced Malam Ibrahim Dicko as leader, hinting that latter had died. Security forces repelled seven gunmen 12 July who fired shots at them in Doumbala, Kossi province in west; no casualties reported. Inhabitants fought nomadic Fulani herders after cattle damaged field in Doussoula, Sourou province in north west 11 July, one killed. At summit of G5 Sahel (Mali, Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso and Mauritania) in Bamako 1-2 July, members each pledged €10mn to finance 5,000-strong joint military force to counter jihadism in region (see Mali). National Assembly 4 July passed law on workings of High Court of Justice that paves way for resumption of trial of 34 former ministers under former President Compaoré for involvement in repression of Oct 2014 popular uprising. Arrest warrant against François Compaoré (former president’s brother) for his role in 1998 assassination of journalist Norbert Zongo issued early May revealed 28 July. UN working group on arbitrary detention early July said detention of former Foreign Minister Bassolé for alleged involvement in Sept 2015 military coup was arbitrary and that he should not be tried by military court because he was on leave from military at time of coup. Govt 7 July dismissed accusation, saying all civilians involved in coup would face military justice.


New round of talks between govt and opposition in Arusha, announced by office of former Tanzanian President Benjamin Mkapa early July, did not materialise. For first time since May 2015 coup attempt, representatives of regime and opposition coalition CNARED (National Council for the Respect of the Arusha Agreement, Restoration of the Rule of Law) met 31 July in Helsinki. Members of ruling party CNDD-FDD and its Imbonerakure youth militia demonstrated 15 July in Muramvya province in centre in support of fourth term for President Nkurunziza after 2020 elections. Grenade attack reportedly targeting coffee processing company chief at Gatara in Kayanza province in north 9 July killed at least five people, alleged target unhurt. Grenade attack by unidentified assailants targeting policemen 11 July in Bujumbura wounded four, another grenade attack 16 July in same area caused no harm. European Parliament 5 July voted to continue to suspend aid to govt. In first visit abroad since May 2015 coup attempt, Nkurunziza 20 July met Tanzanian President Magufuli in western Tanzania; both urged over 240,000 Burundian refugees living there to return home as, according to Magufuli, “country is in peace”. Interior minister 26-27 July went to DRC capital Kinshasa for govt’s authorisation to step up actions against armed opposition groups in South Kivu, eastern DRC.


Boko Haram (BH) continued to intensify attacks in Far North against civilians and military. BH likely responsible for nine suicide bombings during month close to Nigerian border, notably two women detonated explosives 12 July in Waza, Logone et Chari department killing seventeen civilians. BH militants 5 July kidnapped several people in Karena, Logone et Chari department, 18 July killed civilian in Zeneme, Mayo Tsanaga department, 26 July killed two gendarmes in Sagme, Logone et Chari department. Amnesty International 20 July reported human rights violations including torture by security forces fighting BH. Gendarme killed four fellow gendarmes in Kousseri, Logone et Chari department capital 14 July to protest his alleged mistreatment by squadron commander. Anglophone minority in North West and South West regions kept up general strike in protest against marginalisation by govt. Trial of strike leaders postponed again 27 July, now scheduled for 31 Aug.

Central African Republic

Violence involving armed groups continued, including against humanitarian workers and facilities. Ex-Seleka faction Central African Patriotic Movement (MPC) 1 July clashed with anti-balaka in Kaga Bandoro, Nana-Gribizi province in north, at least ten people killed; unidentified gunmen same day looted UN Refugee Agency office there, threatening staff. MPC and Revolution and Justice (RJ) militants 9 July took control of Ngaoundaye, Ouaham Pende province in far north west. Two gunmen 11 July entered Médecins Sans Frontières-run hospital in Zemio in south east and opened fire at family, killing baby. Christian and Muslim communities clashed again in Bangassou in south east 22-23 July; anti-balaka local defence forces shot dead one Moroccan peacekeeper 22 July and two Moroccan peacekeepers 25 July when they delivered water to displaced Muslims. Following signing of ceasefire and political agreement 19 June, Catholic community Sant’Egidio mid-July visited country in effort to form follow-up committee comprising govt, armed groups, parliament and UN mission (MINUSCA). African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in CAR notably comprising African Union, central African regional bloc ECCAS and regional govts 17 July adopted roadmap for peace; African Union said roadmap only reference for peace process.


Authorities arrested Laoukein Médard, 2016 presidential candidate and mayor of second largest city Moundou in south 2012-June 2017, for embezzlement 13 July; opposition denounced arrest as political. President Déby attended summit of Sahel G5 (Mali, Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso and Mauritania) 2 July in Bamako at which member states each pledged €10mn to finance joint military force to counter jihadism, EU repeated pledge of €50mn and France pledged €8mn and operational and technical assistance; pledges still fall short of estimated €385mn required.

Côte d’Ivoire

Persistent tensions between former rebels and govt, and among security forces led to renewed violence. Demobilised former rebels 9 July blocked entrance to Bouaké in centre demanding FCFA18mn (about $32,000) each; police dispersed them with tear gas. Soldiers 15 July fired shots and clashed with fellow soldiers at two military camps, in Abidjan in south and Korhogo in north after military leaders said they would not receive bonuses, three soldiers killed in Korhogo, six soldiers arrested in total. Demobilised former rebels and active soldiers 19 July raided national police academy in Abidjan’s Cocody neighbourhood, killing police officer and stealing weapons, and attacked security institutions in Yopougon neighbourhood. Same group reportedly attacked gendarmerie post in Azaguié near Abidjan 22 July, no casualties reported. Five people including three soldiers arrested for attacks late July. President Ouattara 19 July reshuffled cabinet as tensions grew within ruling coalition Houphouëtist Rally for Democracy and Peace (RHDP). Govt suspended deputy spokesperson of coalition member Democratic Party of Côte d’Ivoire (PDCI) Jean-Louis Billon 12 July; Ouattara dismissed head of State Inspectorate General and nephew of PDCI President Bédié, Gnamien N’Goran 13 July. Amid tensions within Ouattara’s Rally of Republicans (RDR), govt by presidential decree fired two officials close to former rebel leader Assembly Speaker Guillaume Soro 13 July. Police 3 July searched Abidjan house of Souleymane Kamagaté, Soro’s close associate in whose house in Bouaké weapons cache used by army mutineers was found late May; seized two mobile phones. Gendarmes 14 July interrogated two of Soro’s security detail.

Democratic Republic of Congo

Electoral commission (CENI) 7 July said elections will not take place in Dec 2017 as foreseen in 31 Dec 2016 agreement; Catholic Church (CENCO) 10 July said decision to postpone elections required consultation between govt, CENI and committee overseeing implementation of 31 Dec agreement (CNSA), while Felix Tshisekedi, leader of opposition coalition Rassemblement, 11 July said CENI had “declared war” on people. Govt 22 July appointed CNSA members and named Rassemblement dissident Joseph Olenghankoy as chair; opposition criticised Olenghankoy’s appointment. Rassemblement 22 July released six-month plan for mass mobilisation against Kabila and suggested short transitional period without him if elections do not take place by end-2017. Prime minister 7 July called on donors for financial assistance to ease “economic difficulties”, but IMF 12 July said release of funds conditional upon political environment improving. U.S. 11 July said it would place sanctions on whoever hinders organisation of elections. Govt 13 July sentenced Angolan President Dos Santos’ Congolese son-in-law and Kabila’s fierce critic Sindika Dokolo to one year prison for real estate fraud. UN mission (MONUSCO) 7 July said it would close five bases in N Kivu in east by 31 July. In N Kivu, Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) militia 5 July kidnapped eighteen people in Beni, releasing them five days later; at least nine Mai Mai militiamen, two members of security forces and one civilian killed in clashes 5 and 11 July. Militias 8-11 July launched multiple attacks on army positions in Masisi, Rutshuru, Beni and Lubero territories in N Kivu. In S Kivu, army regained control of Fizi and Ishasa 5 July after five days of combat that killed at least two soldiers, nine Mai Mai and one civilian; in country’s fifth jailbreak in three months, some twenty prisoners escaped in attack on Bukavu’s central prison. In Kasai provinces, UN 4-7 July identified 38 more mass graves, bringing total to 80 in centre; suspected Kamuina Nsapu militiamen 9 July kidnapped 26, mostly civilians, in Lomami province. In south, intercommunity fighting continued.


After Eritrea deployed troops into disputed Doumeira territory on Djibouti-Eritrea border in June, govt 3 July asked African Union to send in observers. Eritrea 4 July said it would only recognise as mediator Qatar, which withdrew ceasefire monitoring mission from Doumeira early June. Eritrea 9 July postponed visit of African Union’s peace and security commissioner to capital Asmara citing “conflicting calendars”. China 23 July said it would consider mediating dispute and sending in peacekeepers if requested; 11 July indicated it had sent warships to Djibouti to set up overseas military base, reportedly to fulfil humanitarian commitments in Gulf. Govt 21 July agreed to bolster security and defence cooperation with Ethiopia.


After govt deployed troops into disputed Doumeira territory on Eritrea-Djibouti border in June, Djibouti 3 July asked African Union to send in observers. Govt 4 July said it would only recognise as mediator Qatar, which withdrew ceasefire monitoring mission from Doumeira early June. Govt 9 July postponed visit of African Union’s peace and security commissioner to capital Asmara citing “conflicting calendars”. China 23 July said it would consider mediating dispute and sending in peacekeepers if requested.


Federal govt’s introduction of law 7 July raising taxes on small businesses triggered protests in several towns in Oromia region; business owners 17 July called for open-ended strikes. Clashes between police and protestors in Ambo, 120km west of Addis Ababa left two protestors dead, allegedly shot by police mid-July. Govt cancelled tax hike 23 July. Govt 21 July agreed to bolster security and defence cooperation with Djibouti.


Opposition led by Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea (UFDG) 16 July demonstrated in Conakry against repeated postponement of local elections, denounced alleged plan by President Condé’s inner circle to amend constitution to allow him to run for third term.


In run-up to 8 Aug elections, Al-Shabaab intensified attacks in Lamu county on coast and political tensions rose amid election-related violence. Some 200 Al-Shabaab militants attacked Pandanguo police station 5 July killing at least three officers; suspected militants beheaded nine civilians in Jima area 8 July; militants ambushed govt convoy in Milihoi on Lamu-Mpeketoni road 13 July killing at least four security officers and one civilian and briefly abducting senior official. Govt 8 July imposed three-month curfew in Lamu, Garissa and Tana River counties. Security forces 10 July said they had launched airstrikes on Al-Shabaab stronghold Boni forest in Lamu county. Some 30 Al-Shabaab militants 18 July made abortive attempt to attack police station in Mokowe, Lamu county; no casualties reported. Court of Appeal 20 July overturned 7 July decision by High Court to cancel award of tender to print ballot papers to Dubai-based firm which opposition said had links to ruling Jubilee party. Police shot dead gunman 30 July eighteen hours after he broke into Deputy President Ruto’s home compound near Eldoret in west, killing one guard and wounding another. Electoral commission’s head of IT, missing since 28 July, found dead 31 July, commission said he had been tortured and murdered.


After electoral commission disqualified several candidates running in Oct presidential and legislative elections based on Code of Conduct, Chief Justice Francis Korkpor 11 July said that only Supreme Court has legal authority to do so. Campaigning started 31 July.


Serious fighting between signatory parties of June 2015 peace agreement resumed in Kidal region in north. Self-Defence Group of Imrad Tuareg and Allies (GATIA), member of pro-national unity Platform coalition, 6 July clashed with separatist rebel alliance Coalition of Azawad Movements (CMA) near Aguelhok, over ten reportedly killed. Clashes erupted again 11 July in Djancheche area, 65km from Kidal city, casualties unknown. In east, ethnic Doosaak linked to CMA splinter group Movement for the Salvation of Azawad (MSA) and Tuaregs linked to GATIA clashed with ethnic Fulani reportedly close to jihadist groups, especially Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa, in Ménaka region 5-10 July. Armed assailants continued to attack Malian, UN and French forces and civilians in several areas. Eight unidentified gunmen 8 July clashed with policemen in Ségou region in centre. IED 11 July hit UN mission (MINUSMA) vehicle near UN camp in Kidal city. Unidentified gunmen same day attacked police vehicle in Timbuktu, wounding two policemen. Malian and French troops 8 July arrested six alleged jihadists in camp near Ber, Timbuktu region in north, including Alhousseini Ag Assaley, close associate of Amadou Koufa, leader of jihadist group Macina Liberation Front. Alleged jihadists ambushed eight govt troops 9 July near Ménaka whose bodies were found 17 July. At summit of G5 Sahel (Mali, Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso and Mauritania) in Bamako 1-2 July, members each pledged €10mn to finance 5,000-strong joint military force to counter jihadism in region, EU repeated pledge of €50mn and France pledged €8mn and operational and technical assistance; pledges still fall short of estimated €385mn required. Civil society and political parties protested in Bamako and in Kayes, Sikasso and Ségou regions 1 July against proposed changes in new draft constitution including those that would strengthen presidential powers; govt announced no new date for referendum, initially planned 9 July.


Govt early July insisted govt forces had withdrawn from eight positions near stronghold of armed opposition Renamo in Gorongosa mountains in Sofala province in centre, as promised by President Nyusi 25 June, after Renamo leader Afonso Dhlakama denied withdrawal. Ceasefire persisted. After 10-19 July mission, IMF decided it would not resume financial assistance to govt this year due to missing “critical information” relating to govt’s use of proceeds from loans, demanded tax rises and spending cuts.


Jihadist activity continued in west along Mali border. Jihadist coalition Group for the Support of Islam and Muslims (GSIM) claimed 5 July ambush on military convoy that killed five soldiers in Midal valley, Tahoua region, supposedly under influence of other jihadist group Islamic State in Greater Sahara (ISGS). Mali-based Tuareg and Doosaak groups reportedly killed seven Fulani herders at Anderaboukhane on Mali-Niger border 11 July. Boko Haram (BH) attacks rose again in Diffa region in south east: alleged BH militants 2 July killed nine civilians and abducted dozens in Ngalewa village, looting food and cattle. Soldiers 6 July killed fourteen unarmed civilians in restricted access area around Abadam village, mistaking them for BH militants. At summit of G5 Sahel (Mali, Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso and Mauritania) in Bamako 1-2 July, members each pledged €10mn to finance 5,000-strong joint military force to counter jihadism in region (see Mali). Authorities increasingly harassed journalists and civil society: journalist Ali Soumana imprisoned and charged 3 July with stealing official documents and “violating the secrecy of the investigation” into case involving govt and Lebanese company.


President Buhari remained in UK on ‘‘medical vacation’’ that began 7 May; Acting President Osinbajo and other ruling party leaders who visited him said he was recovering and would return soon. Boko Haram (BH) continued attacks in Borno state in NE killing over 100 during month. BH 25 July ambushed oil exploration team from federal govt-owned Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation and University of Maiduguri, killing some 50 people and abducting unknown number. BH 28 July issued video of abducted university staff, who said they were held by Al-Barnawi faction. BH 3 July attacked military bases in Gulumba Gana, Bama and Dikwa Local Govt Areas (LGA), unknown number of soldiers and insurgents killed. BH 3 July raided Agari and Azir villages, Damboa LGA, killing three. Two male suicide bombers tried to attack university in state capital Maiduguri 6 July, security forces shot dead one, second blew himself up. Multiple suicide attacks (at least one bomber female) 11 July killed at least nineteen in Maiduguri targeting vigilantes working with army. Security forces 16 July killed two female suicide bombers trying to cross security trench in Mammanti on outskirts of Maiduguri. Female suicide bomber 17 July attacked mosque in Maiduguri, killing eight. BH 24 July attacked Kaleri and Alau, Konduga LGA, killing over fifteen people. Two female suicide bombers 28 July struck displaced persons’ camp in Dikwa LGA, killing at least eight people. Suicide bomber 30 July detonated IED in Kosahari village, Gwoza LGA, killing three. Niger Delta leaders and elders under Pan-Niger Delta Forum (PANDEF) 11 July urged federal govt to step up implementation of sixteen demands submitted Nov 2016 to President Buhari. Militant group Niger Delta Revolutionary Crusaders 30 July said it would start attacks 30 Sept as dialogue between govt and PANDEF had yielded no results. Farmer-herder violence continued: Fulani group Miyetti Allah Cattle Breeders Association (MACBAN) 15 July reported youths from Kajuru LGA, Kaduna state in centre killed four Fulani herders; 37 more people killed 16-17 July in clashes between Fulani herders and farming communities in same LGA.


Al-Shabaab continued to attack civilian and military targets in Somalia and Kenya (see Kenya). In Mogadishu area, Al-Shabaab claimed IED explosions that killed two civilians in Elasha district 20km north east of capital 1 July and targeted African Union mission (AMISOM) convoy in Middle Shabelle 18 July; Al-Shabaab claimed car bombing 18 July at checkpoint on Mogadishu-Afgoye highway that left three dead; suspected Al-Shabaab suicide car bomb killed ten, mostly civilians, in Mogadishu 30 July. In south east, militants 30 July ambushed AMISOM convoy in Lower Shabelle’s Bulamareer district, killing at least 23 soldiers. In south west, militants 23 July killed at least four soldiers in IED explosion near Baidoa 250km south west of capital; 24 July ambushed AMISOM convoy in Bardhere, Gedo region but caused no casualties. Al-Shabaab 24 July released seven aid workers it abducted near Baidoa in south west 16 July, reportedly after receiving weapons as ransom. Security forces continued operations against Al-Shabaab, reportedly killing eighteen militants early July in Puntland’s Galgala hills in north; group denied any casualties. Kenyan AMISOM forces 16 July reportedly killed 40 militants in airstrikes near Garbaharey in Gedo in south west and killed senior Al-Shabaab commander Hassan Isaack Ibrahim in joint operation with Jubbaland security force in southern Gelef 19 July. U.S. airstrikes on Al-Shabaab training camp near Sakow in Middle Juba in south 2 July, on Al-Shabaab-held territory 4 July and near Tortoroow in Lower Shabelle in south 29 July killed undisclosed number of militants. U.S. and Somali forces 13 July attacked Al-Shabaab in two locations in Lower Shabelle in south, including Kunya-Barrow where they freed detainees and killed several militants; Al-Shabaab said its fighters foiled attempted attack.


Foreign minister mid-July pledged support to Djibouti amid renewed tensions between Djibouti and Eritrea over disputed Doumeira territory (see Djibouti and Eritrea). Govt 2 July rejected Somalia President Farmajo’s call previous day to unify Somalia and Somaliland. Leaders of Khatumo state, which declared itself autonomous in 2012 but in June signed unity agreement with govt, 10 July criticised upcoming tribal conference in south-eastern Buhoodle for allegedly aiming to disrupt June agreement.

South Sudan

In response to U.S. postponement of decision on whether to lift sanctions on Sudan (see Sudan), Sudan late July supported S Sudanese rebels, Sudan People’s Liberation Army-In Opposition (SPLA-IO), to launch attacks from Sudan against govt forces in northern Unity oil field. Despite govt’s unilateral ceasefire declared in May, govt forces negotiated and fought with SPLA-IO near Pagak, SPLA-IO’s former HQ, in north east during July to secure area for oil refinery project with Ethiopia. SPLA-IO 30 July near DRC border clashed with group who defected from it to join opposing rebel group, National Salvation Front. Troika members (U.S., UK and Norway) and EU 20 July denounced attacks by opposition and govt forces’ “clear violation” of ceasefire. National Dialogue Steering Committee (NDSC) delegation early July went to South Africa to meet rebel leader Riek Machar and invite his input in National Dialogue design. NDSC 3 July said Machar declined to meet. President Kiir 10 July earmarked 2.4bn S Sudanese pounds for NDSC activities.


U.S. President Trump 11 July pushed back by three months 12 July deadline for U.S. to assess whether Sudan has made sufficient progress on five tracks to warrant lifting sanctions; U.S. cited need for more time to make assessment. President Bashir 12 July responded by suspending monthly meetings with U.S. on sanctions. Govt supported S Sudanese rebels, Sudan People’s Liberation Army-In Opposition (SPLA-IO), to launch attacks from Sudan in former Unity state, S Sudan late July (see S Sudan). Bashir 2 July extended unilateral ceasefire in Darfur, South Kordofan and Blue Nile states by four months. Leadership dispute continued within rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N): SPLM-N’s regional political group in Nuba Mountains 5 July endorsed 29 June appointment of former Deputy Chairman Abdelaziz al-Hilu as Chairman, replacing Malik Aggar. Dispute triggered fighting throughout month between supporters of al-Hilu (mostly ethnic Uduk) and Aggar (mostly Ingessana) in Blue Nile state and in refugee camps in S Sudan. In Darfur, clashes between Maaliya and Rizeigat tribes over resources 40km south east of El-Daien 22-23 July reportedly left ten dead.


Police arrested at least 60 opposition supporters 19-20 July protesting reported bid by ruling party National Resistance Movement to amend constitution, lift age limit for presidential candidates and allow President Museveni to run for sixth term in 2021.


Following multiple suspected arson attacks, including on main market in capital Lusaka 4 July, President Lungu 5 July imposed emergency rule, increasing authorities’ powers of detention, to counter “acts of sabotage” he blamed on opposition. Parliament 11 July extended emergency rule for 90 days.


Police fired tear gas and water cannon to disperse youth supporters of opposition Movement for Democratic Change-Tsvangirai (MDC-T) in Harare 12 July demanding electoral commission implement reforms ahead of 2018 general elections. Electoral commission said it needed $274mn to finance vote and that new voter register would be completed by Dec. Parliament 25 July amended 2013 constitution to return to President Mugabe the power to appoint three most senior judges (chief justice, his deputy and judge president of High Court) which he held before 2013. First Lady Grace Mugabe 27 July told Mugabe to name preferred successor to end factionalism within ruling ZANU-PF party.



Taliban attacks continued throughout country, including 22-23 July capture of Kohistan district (Faryab province in N), and Taywara district (Ghor province in centre). At least 38 killed in Taliban-claimed suicide attack on bus carrying govt employees in Kabul 24 July. Pentagon 14 July said U.S. forces killed Abu Sayed, leader of Islamic State-Khorasan (IS-K) in strike on group’s HQ in Kunar province. At least four Islamic State (ISIS) fighters attacked Iraqi embassy 31 July, killing two. UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan mid-year report documented over 1,660 civilian deaths and 3,580 injuries in first six months of 2017, similar to same period in 2016 but with marked increase in casualties among women and children; Kabul still worst-affected city. Creation of two new political groupings, one from within govt ranks and one from opposition, accentuated challenges facing President Ghani’s National Unity Government (NUG). Three influential ex-Northern Alliance leaders, Balkh Governor Atta Mohammad Noor, first VP and leader of Junbish-e Milli Islami Abdul Rashid Dostum, and Hezb-e-Wahdat Islami leader Mohammad Mohaqeq, 30 June announced formation of “coalition for the salvation of Afghanistan”, in Turkish capital Ankara; joined by acting Foreign Minister Salahuddin Rabbani. Coalition’s declared aim is to “prevent the collapse of the system and political chaos” due to security situation, “illegal process of govt operations”; accused Ghani of monopolising power and violating law, pressed for decentralisation of budgeting control to provinces and ministries, reiterated call for “systematic reforms” of security services. Several former officials under ex-President Karzai 16 July launched new opposition party Mehwar-e-Mardom-e-Afghanistan, whose 74-member leadership council includes former Head of National Directorate of Security Rahmatullah Nabil and former National Security Council Advisor Rangin Dadfar Spanta.


Opposition intellectual and commentator Farhad Mazhar disappeared for eighteen hours 3 July, provoking a strong public reaction, with many holding security agencies responsible. Police, who ostensibly found Mazhar on bus several hundred kilometres outside Dhaka, denied involvement or that Mazhar had been kidnapped at all. Human Rights Watch 6 July published report calling on govt to end enforced disappearances and secret detentions, accusing security agencies of illegally detaining hundreds of people, including some 90 in 2016. Supreme Court 3 July declared sixteenth amendment to constitution, passed in Sept 2014 to give parliament power to impeach Supreme Court judges, illegal, concluding prolonged executive-judiciary clash over judicial independence. Ruling seen as significant defeat for PM Sheikh Hasina’s Awami League (AL) govt. AL parliamentarians, ignoring parliamentary rules prohibiting discussion of judiciary, condemned decision. Police and paramilitary Rapid Action Battalion continued anti-militancy operations, arresting several alleged Jamaat ul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) militants and seizing arms and ammunitions from Gazipur on outskirts of Dhaka, Rajshahi, and elsewhere. Police 8 July arrested Sohel Mahfuz (aka Hatkata Mizan), leading militant wanted in both Bangladesh and India, allegedly involved in militancy for over a decade and wanted in connection with July 2016 café attack in Dhaka and Oct 2014 Burdwan bombing in India’s West Bengal. Govt-opposition tensions continued, including 6 July suspension of Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP)-backed Gazipur mayor, only eighteen days after he assumed office, over corruption charges (high court later put three-month stay on order); and 9 July indictment of BNP Sec Gen Mirza Fakhrul Alamgir. Dhaka court 27 July issued arrest warrants against 39 BNP leaders and activists, 30 July asked BNP chair Khaleda Zia to appear before court in Sept in eleven cases.


Chinese President Xi and Japanese PM Abe held cordial meeting 8 July on sidelines of G20 summit, reaffirmed importance of improving bilateral relations as their countries marked 45 years of diplomatic relations. Building on recent supportive statements, Abe reportedly called China’s Belt and Road Initiative “vision with potential”; Xi welcomed Japan’s participation. Xinhua news agency reported Xi said Japan should honour words on historical issues (i.e. apologies related to World War II) and Taiwan, improve situation in East China Sea, stay out of disputes in South China Sea, and remove all “distractions” in bilateral relations. Abe invited Xi to make what would be his first official visit to Japan in 2018. Planned trilateral China, Japan and South Korea summit postponed.

India-Pakistan (Kashmir)

Indian security forces clashed with demonstrators marking one-year anniversary 8 July of killing of Kashmiri militant commander Burhan Wani by Indian security forces; protests took place despite heavy security restrictions in place. Officials in Pakistan-administered Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK)’s Poonch district claimed five civilians killed in cross-Line of Control (LOC) firing same day; India claimed two people killed by Pakistani fire. Pakistani military officials 9 July claimed to have killed four Indian soldiers in retaliatory firing. Seven Hindu pilgrims reported killed in crossfire during militant attack in Indian-administered Kashmir 10 July. Pakistani officials announced suspension of Poonch-Rawalkot cross-LOC bus service. Pakistani military spokesman 16 July accused India of violating LOC ceasefire 580 times so far in 2017, compared to 382 in 2016. Four Pakistani soldiers reported killed same day in Indian army cross-border firing; India next day reported soldier and civilian killed by Pakistani firing. India’s counter-terrorism agency 24 July arrested seven members of separatist umbrella group All Parties Hurriyat Conference charged with receiving fund from Pakistani militant groups to prepare attacks. Al-Qaeda 27 July announced Kashmiri militant leader Zakir Musa as head of newly-created cell in Kashmir, Ansar Ghawzat-ul-Hind. Pakistani foreign advisor Sartaj Aziz 3 July told Kashmiri journalists Pakistan not obliged to follow recent U.S. sanctions on Kashmiri militant Hizbul Mujahideen leader Syed Salahuddin. India’s foreign ministry 13 July rebuffed Chinese offer to mediate with Pakistan, saying any dialogue would be bilateral.


Following months of sectarian protests and tensions, President “Jokowi” Widodo 10 July signed decree allowing authorities to disband organisations considered to pose threat to national unity, by amending existing law regulating mass organisations and allowing govt to circumvent lengthy court processes to implement bans. Moderate Islamic groups supported move, however human rights groups criticised amendments. Using new decree, govt 19 July revoked legal status of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia, which advocates establishment of Islamic caliphate and Sharia law in Indonesia. Govt 14 July blocked web versions of encrypted Telegram instant messaging app, said it would ban app completely if it continues to be forum for propaganda and calls for violence.

Korean Peninsula

North Korea 4 July launched what it claimed, and most others including U.S. agreed, was inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM), landing 500 miles away in Sea of Japan; followed up with second confirmed test of Hwasong-14 ICBM 28 July. In UN Security Council deliberations following first test, Russia denied launch was ICBM, calling it an intermediate range rocket and vetoing draft joint statement that would have paved way for punitive sanctions. North Korea’s UN ambassador 10 July circulated letter claiming launch was defensive act, asserting North Korea more transparent about pursuit of ICBM capability than other states and criticising U.S. hostility. Senior U.S. military official 18 July said North Korea lacks ability to launch accurate missile strike on U.S.; while Pentagon intelligence agency reportedly assessed Pyongyang will be able to field nuclear-capable ICBM in 2018. Responding to second test, South Korea and U.S. conducted joint military drill 29 July, and South Korean military said it and U.S. would deploy “strategic assets”. China continued to press for all parties to accept its “dual-track”, “suspension for suspension” proposal, reiterated in 4 July China-Russia joint statement. U.S. 11 July announced successful test of Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) anti-missile system. Seoul 17 July proposed military talks with Pyongyang for 21 July to discuss ways to ease border tensions, and humanitarian talks for 1 Aug to arrange family reunions. North Korea did not respond to proposal, which comes ahead of U.S.-South Korean military drills planned for Aug. North Korean team late June joined Taekwondo demonstration in South Korea; North Korea’s International Olympic Committee member Chang Ung reacted negatively to proposal by President Moon for unified Korean team at 2018 Winter Olympics, telling South Korean media “politics lies above sports”.


Media 21 July reported Malaysian Islamic State (ISIS) leader Muhammad Fudhail Omar killed in airstrike in Raqqa, Syria. Defence minister 23 July announced govt would send assistance to help Philippines fight ISIS militants in Marawi City (see Philippines).


Security forces 24 July locked down parliament, reportedly on orders of President Yameen in attempt to block scheduled no-confidence vote against speaker, drawing condemnation from Western diplomats; opposition MPs clashed with police preventing them from entering parliament. UN Secretary-General Guterres 27 July expressed concern over “gradual erosion of basic democratic norms and principles” in country, urged govt to uphold rights of speech and assembly.


In northern Rakhine state, Buddhist mob 5 July attacked group of seven Muslims from IDP camp near state capital Sittwe, killing one and injuring six, despite them being escorted by policeman. Security forces in area around Maungdaw remain on high alert following late June attack on Buddhist civilians. Sporadic killings of villagers in northern Rakhine continued, blamed on Rohingya insurgents. Govt maintained refusal to admit fact-finding mission established by UN Human Rights Council (HRC) to look into allegations of crimes against humanity committed by military in northern Rakhine state, despite international pressure and strong criticism from human rights groups; HRC 27 July announced new chair of mission, Indonesia’s Marzuki Darusman, after Indira Jaising resigned amid claims of bias. Visiting mid-month, UN Special Rapporteur for Human Rights Yanghee Lee urged govt to allow mission, also complained of restrictions on her access and criticised state surveillance of activists and journalists. UN High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi visited Myanmar 1-6 July, travelling to Rakhine state and meeting Aung San Suu Kyi and several ministers in Naypyitaw; called for greater efforts to address statelessness and protracted displacement. Myanmar’s National Security Adviser visited Bangladesh 2-4 July, meeting PM in visit aimed at easing tensions fuelled by exodus of some 75,000 Rohingya to Bangladesh since Oct 2016. Amid uncertainty in ethnic peace process, two groups – Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO) and Wa National Organisation – quit United Nationalities Federal Council armed group umbrella organisation late June. Further clashes broke out 8-9 July in Kachin state’s Tanai township between govt forces and KIO, with several civilians reported killed or injured by govt artillery fire. Clashes between Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA) and govt forces in northern Shan continued, and broke out between TNLA and Shan State Army-South; several hundred civilians reportedly fled fighting during month.


With ruling coalition preoccupied with negotiating cabinet expansion for most of July, talks with dissenting Madhesi parties failed to progress. Ruling Nepali Congress (NC) 24 July decided to put constitution amendment proposal to vote in parliament before 18 Sept third and final phase of local elections. Amendment seen as unlikely to pass as opposition UML party – second largest in parliament – continues to block it; NC leaders claimed an unsuccessful amendment vote would draw criticism toward UML in the eight Tarai districts where third phase of local elections being held. Madhesi parties struggling to map out common strategy including on participation in third phase amid growing internal divisions following boycott of first two phases (May and June), which enjoyed high turnout. Madhesi parties also weighing ruling coalition offer to address some second-tier demands in exchange for election participation. Mainstream parties shifting focus to provincial and general elections needed to be held by Jan 2018; voter registration began 16 July; Constituency Delineation Commission formed 20 July, due to present report to govt on new electoral constituencies for both elections. Fringe parties criticised UML – which performed strongly in local elections – for demanding higher threshold of votes needed to win parliamentary seats in general election.


Supreme Court (SC) 28 July disqualified PM Nawaz Sharif as member of parliament for failing to disclose unclaimed salary in United Arab Emirates-based company in nomination papers for 2013 elections. Controversial Islamic provision used to oust PM, instead of corruption charges filed after Panama papers leak about his and family’s offshore assets. SC asked National Accountability Bureau (NAB) to investigate corruption cases against PM, sons and daughter within six months. SC-mandated Joint Investigation Team investigating PM Sharif and his family’s offshore assets had submitted adverse report 10 July finding “significant gap/disparity” between known and declared sources of income and wealth. Sharif’s party 29 July endorsed nomination of his brother, Punjab Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif, as PM to serve last ten months of govt, and former Federal Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi as interim PM till parliament elects Shahbaz. Nawaz Sharif said he will file review petition in SC against disqualification. Financial Action Task Force, international terror financing watchdog, 26 June expressed concerns Islamabad still not fully complying with curbs against entities blacklisted under UN Security Council Resolution 1267. U.S. 21 July said it would withhold $50mn in military reimbursements to Pakistan because it has not taken sufficient action against Haqqani Network. Militant attacks continued amid tightened security following large-scale June attacks in Balochistan (west) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA, north west). At least two Frontier Corps (FC) personnel killed 10 July in bombing in FATA’s Kurram Agency; Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan’s (TTP) claimed responsibility. Military 16 July announced new operation in FATA’s Khyber Agency against TTP splinter groups and ISIS-linked militants. Three FC personnel killed 17 July in TTP-claimed suicide attack in Peshawar. Several security personnel and civilians killed in attacks in Balochistan, including four police killed in Quetta 13 July and four members of Shia Hazara family killed in Mastung district 19 July. At least 25 killed in TTP-claimed suicide bomb in Lahore (east) 24 July.

Papua New Guinea

Voting in general election closed 8 July amid ongoing reports of irregularities and violence in some areas. PM O’Neill’s Ruling National Congress party won move votes but no outright majority; O’Neill invited late month to try and form coalition govt.


Ongoing battle in Marawi City between govt troops and Islamic State (ISIS)-linked militants from Abu Sayyaf and Maute Group, which began 23 May, reported to have claimed 630 casualties (mostly militants) and, as of 20 July, 466,000 displaced. Military 28 July estimated 60 extremists remain, limited to two barangays (districts) in Marawi City. Surviving military described fighters as “well-equipped” and employing fighting style seen in Iraq. Police 5 July arrested Monaliza “Monay” Romato, niece of Maute matriarch and suspected financier and logistics supporter of ISIS-linked militants. Jakarta-based Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict 21 July reported ISIS has funnelled money and recruits to help local militants seize territory. Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Chairman Al Haj Murad Ebrahim 18 July refused any talks with Maute group. Local Muslim leader 17 July alleged that Marawi City siege co-leader Abdullah Maute is still alive, Abu Sayyaf leader Isnilon Hapilon escaped Marawi end-May. Congress 22 July agreed to extend martial law in Mindanao until end 2017. Suspected Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters 29 July fired on helicopter carrying Maguindanao governor, who was left unscathed. President Duterte 19 July again cancelled peace talks with Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), National Democratic Front (NDF) and New People’s Army (NPA), which had been set to resume in Aug, after members of Presidential Security Group were wounded in encounter with NPA in North Cotabato. Duterte 21 July declared he would order offensive against NPA after Marawi Battle is won. Firefights between govt forces and NPA raged in provinces of Negros Oriental, Sorsogon, Pangasinan, Agusan Del Sur following breakdown of talks. Bangsamoro Transition Commission 17 July submitted first draft of Bangsamoro Basic Law (BBL) to president. Institute for Autonomy and Governance based in Cotabato said delays in BBL’s passage a driver for extremist recruitment.

South China Sea

U.S. continued displays of force, with Freedom of Navigation Operation (FONOP) 2 July sailing within 12 nautical miles of Chinese-controlled Triton Island in disputed Paracel (Xisha) archipelago; China accused U.S. of trespassing with “serious political and military provocation”. Two U.S. B-1B bombers 6 July flew training mission with Japanese fighters over East China Sea and South China Sea (SCS). China’s naval expansion and modernisation continued: navy 28 June launched first of eighteen new guided-missile destroyers; Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative 29 June released imagery showing China had progressed in building military outposts on artificial islands in Spratly archipelago. Cambodian defence minister 19 July met with Chinese officials to discuss prospects of military-to-military cooperation, amid perceived Cambodian pivot away from West. Indonesia 14 July renamed northern area of its exclusive economic zone in SCS, where it has expanded naval presence, as North Natuna Sea, in move seen by observers as assertion of sovereignty. Japan expanded military engagement with South East Asian countries. Amid ongoing rapprochement with China, Philippine Navy 1 July conducted joint patrol with U.S. in Sulu Sea focusing on anti-piracy and counter-terrorism, despite previous statements by President Duterte that joint patrols in SCS would cease. Manila 12 July issued statement marking first anniversary landmark ruling by International Tribunal on Law of the Sea in favour of Philippines, playing down its significance. Philippines 12 July said drilling for oil and natural gas on Reed (Recto) Bank may resume before year’s end. Vietnam early July extended Indian oil company’s exploration rights in block 128 of disputed waters, sparking objection by China; 15 July reportedly ordered halt to agreed drilling activities by Spanish company in separate block 136-03 gas field after China reportedly threatened to attack its bases in Spratly Islands. China 25 July expressed support for joint development with Philippines, called for halt to unilateral oil drilling in disputed territory.

Sri Lanka

President Sirisena 20 July signed into law Office on Missing Persons – first of four promised transitional justice mechanisms, although more steps needed for office to be operational – as protests by northern families of persons forcibly disappeared during civil war continued into sixth month. Sirisena early July appointed two senior officials known as supportive of reform, naming Austin Fernando as presidential secretary and Major General Mahesh Senanayaka as army commander. Group of senior monks 4 July announced opposition to new constitution, resolving that prominence accorded to Buddhism and unitary character of country should be retained along with executive powers of president. Sirisena 6 July issued assurance that they and other religious leaders would be allowed to review any draft constitution before it is presented to parliament, and saying country’s unitary state and special status for Buddhism would be preserved. PM 7 July said process to draft new constitution cannot stop, part of govt’s electoral mandate. Monks also called for delay in parliament’s consideration of bill to incorporate in domestic law international convention against enforced disappearances, claiming it could lead to prosecuting military personnel; govt postponed parliamentary debate on bill, officials said it will outlaw only future disappearances. Following 11-14 July visit, UN Special Rapporteur for Counter-terrorism and Human Rights Ben Emmerson issued statement characterising torture in Sri Lanka as “endemic and routine”, called Prevention of Terrorism Act “flagrant denial of justice” and said draft “Counter Terrorism Act” would still lead to violation of human rights. Justice Minister Wijeyadasa Rajapakshe accused Emmerson of making factually inaccurate claims. Policeman shot and killed in Jaffna 22 July in apparent assassination attempt against High Court judge hearing high-profile rape and murder case. Despite months of opposition-backed protests and strikes by trade unions, govt 29 July signed $1.1bn debt-equity swap giving Chinese govt-owned corporation 70% stake in strategic Hambantota port and development zone.

Taiwan Strait

Following late June U.S. announcement of sale of $1.42bn arms package to Taiwan, China’s ambassador to U.S. 13 July warned that “troubling developments” could “derail” bilateral relationship. U.S. Congress 14 July passed defence bill including proposed expansion of training and exercises with Taiwan; China said it had lodged complaint. Taipei reported China flew several fighter and reconnaissance aircraft drills near Taiwan during month, 25 July said it would “not back down in the face of threats”, was prepared to defend itself against China if necessary.


Appointed legislature 16 July passed legislation giving control of Crown Property Bureau, which reportedly controls assets of some $40bn and was previously administered by finance ministry, to King MahaVajiralongkorn (Rama X), giving him “sole authority over royal assets”. Amid contradictory statements from officials over whether future govts will be compelled to implement twenty-year reform plan, seen by critics as bid to extend military influence over civilian govts, PM Prayuth 7 July said that anyone who believes National Council for Peace and Order wishes to cling to power should not be considered Thai. Prayuth 17 July approved “social contract for unity and reconciliation” emphasising “clean” government and including ban on govts using executive powers for political gain. Govt continued efforts to weaken exiled former PM Thaksin Shinawatra and family, enacting new law 13 July that would sustain old cases against him by suspending statutes of limitations in certain cases (applying retroactively) and approving use of trials in absentia. Criminal case for dereliction of duty against former PM Yingluck Shinawatra due to end with verdict 25 Aug; amid govt fears that it could provide rallying point for growing discontent with military rule, Prayuth warned her supporters against protesting. Yingluck 27 July said govt has seized twelve of her bank accounts, although injunction against asset seizure is still pending; state-appointed committee Sept 2015 recommended Yingluck pay 35.7bn baht ($1bn) fine as compensation for losses incurred by her govt’s rice subsidy. As southern insurgency continued to inflict casualties, several suspected militants killed during month allegedly while resisting arrest, including two suspects in May shopping centre bombing in Pattani. Deputy defence minister 28 June told reporters govt is looking into whether it has the “right dialogue partners” in peace dialogue process, leading to speculation it may reconsider possibility of engaging with main insurgent group Barisan Revolusi Nasional.

Europe & Central Asia


Russian President Putin 27 July approved law creating Russian-Armenian joint military units. Israeli minister of regional cooperation 25-27 July visited Armenia in first high-level visit in years, marking attempts to improve bilateral relations and see opportunities for arms sales.

Armenian-Azerbaijani Conflict

Regular exchange of fire during month with intensified activity in southern part of Line of Contact (LoC), including 4 July attack in Azerbaijan’s Alkhanli village which killed woman and her two-year-old granddaughter, prompting outcry in Baku. Armenia said shelling was response to Azerbaijani rockets originating from civilian-populated area. Azerbaijani army put on alarm 6 July, Armenian side also declared its readiness for large-scale escalation. Armenian side reported at least one soldier killed and three wounded 7 July; both sides reported regular use of mortars and grenade-launchers, and use of drones and rockets in southern part of LoC; Azerbaijan 30 July reported military casualty. OSCE Minsk Group mediators 5 July called for restraint, made additional efforts to bring sides together for high-level talks, helping stem escalation. Azerbaijan’s President Aliyev 10 July met U.S. Sec State Rex Tillerson in Istanbul; Armenian and Azerbaijani foreign ministers met Russian counterpart in Vienna 11 July, participated in detailed talks same day in Brussels with Minsk Group co-chairs. Russian President Putin held unplanned meeting with Aliyev 21 July. Aliyev in 12 July speech said he expected Armenia to make concessions leading to “restoration of territorial integrity” of Azerbaijan, excluded corresponding steps from his side; President Sargsyan 16 July ruled out any unilateral concessions, again called on Azerbaijan to implement agreements reached at 2016 summits in Vienna and St. Petersburg. Azerbaijani authorities handed keys of 50 houses in renovated village Jojug Marjanli near LoC to internally displaced persons during month; village returned to Baku’s full control in April 2016 after Azerbaijani army seized Lalatapa height in south of LoC. N-K de facto parliamentarians 19 July voted in Bako Sahakyan as de facto president for three-year transition period until new constitution comes into force; Sahakyan already in charge of de facto entity for ten years; Baku protested vote. Baku court 20 July sentenced Aleksandr Lapshin, Russian-language blogger and citizen of Israel, Russia and Ukraine, to three years’ prison for charges related to his travel to N-K, first such sentence of its kind; Lapshin requested extradition to Israel.


Baku court 24 July jailed opposition politician Faiq Amirli to three years for inciting religious hatred and violating rights of citizens; Amirli pleaded not guilty.

Bosnia And Herzegovina

Constitutional Court (CC) 6 July rejected appeal from Republika Srpska (RS) legislature which claimed that state public holidays violate constitution since they are not recognised by RS, in move prompted by CC’s rejection of RS’s own national day celebration. Having previously reiterated threat of RS secession if CC rejected appeal, RS President Dodik criticised CC decision, saying it violated ethnic Serb interests; called on Serb representatives to withdraw from court. CC also removed parts of election law which it had previously ruled violated constitution, after deadline for state parliament to amend law expired. Ruling coalition of two leading Bosniak political parties broke up 21 July, following months of tensions.


UN Secretary-General Guterres 7 July announced that reunification talks had collapsed, following intense round of talks between Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot leaders joined by guarantor powers in Switzerland 28 June-7 July. Sides blamed each other for collapse, with main disagreements over issue of security guarantees. President Erdoğan 10 July blamed failure of talks on “negative attitude” of Greek Cypriot side. Greek Cypriot govt spokesperson 7 July blamed collapse on Turkey’s refusal to relinquish intervention rights and presence of troops on island. Turkish FM Çavuşoğlu 18 July announced Ankara would work with Turkish Cypriot leadership to get support for recognition of “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” (TRNC) as separate state, called for lifting of embargoes and restrictions on “TRNC”. Spat over drilling for potential offshore hydrocarbon sources immediately resumed after collapse of talks; tensions increased with reports 12 July of exploration activities by two companies off Greek side of island, and Turkish naval forces patrolling. Ankara 10-11 July said unilateral drilling and exploration unacceptable, resources belong to both sides of island.


Amid ongoing concerns about continued borderisation along South Ossetian administrative boundary line (ABL) with rest of Georgia, group of Georgians demonstrated near ABL 9 and 14 July after Russian forces reportedly moved “border signs” further into Georgian territory in June near Bershueti village, Gori municipality. Group of Georgians patrolling near village during daytime since 25 July “to prevent new arrests” of Georgian citizens by Russian forces. Criminal incidents against Russian tourists in Abkhazia, including fatal stabbing, raised questions in Abkhazia and Russia about ability of local law-enforcement agencies to sustain order and seek accountability. Ukrainian President Poroshenko visited Georgia 17-19 July; presidents signed agreement pledging to work together on goals including EU and NATO accession. Poroshenko 26 July revoked former Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili’s Ukrainian citizenship; Saakashvili lost his Georgian passport in 2015 when he took Ukrainian citizenship to take up governor post there. U.S. VP Pence 31 July visited Georgia to demonstrate continued support, as Georgia began hosting joint military exercise involving troops from U.S., UK, Germany and several neighbouring states.


President Nazarbayev 11 July signed new law enabling removal of citizenship for those convicted of crimes of genocide, separatist activities, and creation, management, or participation in extremist group. Addressing security services in Astana several days later, Nazarbayev said hybrid wars, religious radicalisation, cyber security are priority areas.


Discussions to form coalition govt following 11 June snap general elections continued. Several leading Kosovo politicians including foreign minister welcomed call in 24 July article by Serbian President Vučić for Serbia to “stop burying its head in sand” on Kosovo and start “internal dialogue”, be “realistic” and “not expect to receive what we have lost long ago”.