Tracking Conflict Worldwide

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CrisisWatch is our global conflict tracker, an early warning tool designed to help prevent deadly violence. It keeps decision-makers up-to-date with developments in over 70 conflicts and crises every month, identifying trends and alerting them to risks of escalation and opportunities to advance peace. In addition, CrisisWatch monitors over 50 situations (“standby monitoring”) to offer timely information if developments indicate a drift toward violence or instability. Entries dating back to 2003 provide easily searchable conflict histories.

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Peace talks between Palipehutu-FNL and government suffered major setback. FNL delegation to MCVS (Joint Framework for the Monitoring and Follow-Up) fled Bujumbura 21-24 July and asked to broaden scope of negotiations to include specific guarantees regarding army integration and government positions. FNL reaffirmed commitment to ceasefire agreement but resumption of violence remains possibility from both sides. Political rifts continued: 16 July inauguration of cabinet boycotted by 40 opposition MPs and 17 ruling CNDD-FDD party legislators, claiming cabinet reshuffle not sufficient to overcome institutional crisis over removal of party chairman Hussein Radjabu.


Insecurity in remote North province continued to spill over from CAR. Security forces killed 12 bandits from CAR and Chad 14 July but failed to free 13 children held for ransom. 11 Cameroonian hostages held by unidentified gunmen in CAR freed by CAR military after gun battle 11 July. Ruling CPDM party won large majority in 22 July municipal and legislative polls; opposition claimed massive fraud.

Central African Republic

EU initialised plans 23 July for peacekeeping mission to CAR and Chad to protect refugees in Darfur border region.


EU member states agreed 23 July to start planning for possible 3,000-strong peacekeeping mission as part of broader UN mission. UN peacekeeping chief Jean-Marie Guéhenno said UN would train and support Chadian police while EU would protect civilians, humanitarian workers and UN mission. EU mission will not be deployed without UN Security Council resolution and clear exit strategy. French FM Kouchner said interim EU mission would eventually hand over to UN peacekeeping force. Talks between government and 4 Chadian rebel factions in Tripoli, and between government and Chadian non-armed political opposition in N’Djamena, both stalled.

Comoros Islands

AU-sanctioned talks in Pretoria between federal and Anjouan authorities failed to achieve agreement on new elections. Some AU ministers called for new elections on all islands, while head of Peace and Security Council reminded self-proclaimed Anjouan leader Mohamed Bacar AU retained authority to remove him if deemed obstacle to peaceful resolution. Central bank froze public accounts in Anjouan. Bacar invited federal government for talks; Moroni declined.

Côte d’Ivoire

President Gbagbo visited Forces Nouvelles (FN) stronghold of Bouaké for first time since end of war for 30 July weapon burning ceremony as symbolic start for disarmament process. Tensions had heightened following failed 29 June assassination attempt on PM Guillaume Soro in Bouaké. FN commander publicly accused French and UN peacekeepers of failing to ensure Soro’s safety, while peacekeepers denied responsibility for airport security. UN Security Council extended mandate of UNOCI and French peacekeepers to mid-January 2008. Donors’ conference agreed to €295 million aid package to support peace process.

Democratic Republic of Congo

Risk of escalated conflict in east remained as military and munitions build-up continued in the Kivus. Government operations against insurgent Gen. Laurent Nkunda stalled due to logistical and financial problems. After high-level international delegations, including UN Security Council and EU Development Commissioner, President Kabila indicated 11 July he would exhaust peaceful options but demanded Nkunda leave DRC. Nkunda consolidated control over large areas of North Kivu, coercing communities to join his CNDP movement. Clashes between Banyamulenge insurgents and army in South Kivu mid-July likely to exacerbate situation in North Kivu. Parliament passed law granting opposition leader same status as minister of state. Opposition MLC president Jean-Pierre Bemba’s medical leave from Senate expired 31 July, with no agreement on how to secure his return to Kinshasa.


Thousands of striking public sector workers demanded multi-party democracy, March 2008 elections, bringing Manzini and Mbabane to standstill 25-26 July.


Situation deteriorated in Ogaden region. Government claimed trying to flush out Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) militias while reports of villages burnt and population moved into “protected” areas. WFP warned restrictions on trade and movement of aid due to military operations could cause humanitarian crisis. ICRC given 7 days to leave region 24 July by regional government for allegedly “consorting with rebels”. ONLF claimed ambush on military convoy killed 43 government soldiers 2 July. Opposition members held in detention for 2 years and found guilty in June, released following signing of document admitting guilt - 1 group leader said he signed under duress.


UNSG Ban Ki-moon’s 18 July report noted significant Eritrean troop buildup inside, and Ethiopian troop build-up adjacent to, Temporary Security Zone (TSZ). Both sides also placed further restrictions on UNMEE. Boundary commission planned meeting for early September after receiving positive signals from both sides, but Ethiopia suggested would attend only if minimum conditions - Eritrean withdrawal from TSZ - met by time of meeting.


Civil society groups and 2 trade unions issued statements 3 July criticising PM Lansana Kouyaté for lack of progress on key issues, including corruption and electoral process. Union leaders pledged continued support for Kouyaté 10 July after he promised to respect previous agreements.


UNSC expressed concern 10 July over increase in organised crime, drug trafficking, proliferation of small arms. President Vieira announced 1-year postponement of 2008 legislative elections due to financial constraints.


3 Lesotho Defense Forces officers and 2 civilians charged with high treason in Magistrate’s Court 10 July following June political unrest in capital. Botswana President Ketumile Masire flew to Maseru with mandate from SADC to break stalemate over allocation of government seats.


Rival security forces clashed 9 July, first in presidency of Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf: nearly 50 wounded during confrontation between national police force and police unit in charge of security at Monrovia port. Incident sparked by national police force’s attempts to investigate alleged fuel theft; UN troops intervened. Presidential investigation committee concluded Police Chief Col. Munah Sieh bore responsibility. Retd. Gen. Charles Julu among 5, including former Speaker of the House George Koukou, arrested in connection with alleged coup plot; Julu and Koukou charged with treason 20 July. Hundreds of ex-combatants protested inadequate DDR programs at UNDP Monrovia offices 16 July.


President Marc Ravalomanana dissolved national assembly 6 months early 26 July, claimed no longer reflected national representation under new April constitution. Elections due within 60 days. Opposition politician and Fianarantsoa Mayor Pety Rakotoniaina arrested 24 July on theft charges 8 months after supporting attempted coup.


Legislative elections held 1 July. Voting peaceful but turnout barely over 20%. President Amadou Toumani Touré’s Alliance for Democracy won 125 of 147 seats; main opposition Front for Democracy in Mali only 15.


Northern conflict between government and Mouvement des Nigériens pour la Justice (MNJ) Tuareg rebel group continued. MNJ claimed responsibility for deaths of 10 soldiers 23 July and 4 July attack on electricity company for uranium mines; later released Chinese hostage and 3 soldiers, but called on mining companies to withdraw expatriate staff “for their own safety”. 4 soldiers reportedly killed by MNJ landmine near Agadez 31 July. Nigerian military made first public statement on MNJ 10 July, claiming they benefit from external support. Government warned journalists against focusing on MNJ attacks. RFI local broadcasts suspended for month following 18 July interview with former army officer-turned-rebel Kindo Zada who announced joining MNJ. Burkina Faso FM Djibril Bassolet said Ouagadougou willing to mediate though Niamey has ruled out negotiations.


Political stalemate and Niger Delta insecurity continued. President Yar’Adua named 39-member Government of National Unity 26 July. All Nigeria People’s Party endorsed government despite opposition by presidential candidate, Muhammadu Buhari. Action Congress rejected participation and presidential candidate Atiku Abubakar refused 2 ministerial posts and continued petition challenging Yar’Adua presidential victory. Electoral court ordered Yar’Adua to respond to Abubakar’s petition within 14 days 19 July. Clashes between Benue State ethnic Tiv and Kuteb communities over land dispute killed dozens and displaced thousands. Clashes between Niger Delta militants and security forces continued with apparent new kidnapping tactic targeting children. NDPVF militia leader Dokubo-Asari conveyed ceasefire conditions 19 July, including release of impeached Bayelsa State governor Diepereye Alamieyeseigha (sentenced to 2-year jail term 26 July) and general amnesty. Gunman shot dead Sunni cleric in north western city of Sokoto 18 July, sparking Sunni-Shiite clashes that left at least 1 dead. Police charged 112 Shiites in connection with unrest, trial to continue 9 August. President Yar’Adua ordered retirement of 40 top military generals, including 5 service chiefs.


Belgian court sentenced former general Bernard Ntuyahaga to 20 years’ prison for 1994 murder of 10 peacekeepers. Relations between France and Rwanda warmed as Kigali publicly welcomed Paris’s decision to arrest 2 men indicted by ICTR.


Fighting continued in Casamance region between rebel factions and government soldiers. Attack by suspected MFDC fighters on Casamance highway wounded regional administrator and Chinese citizen.

Sierra Leone

Police reported upward trend in campaign violence before 11 August presidential and parliamentary election; announced tougher measures, but admitted insufficient resources. 10 July campaign start marred by several incidents. PMDC accused SLPP supporters of attacking its Freetown offices 10 July, denied by SLPP. UN’s Sierra Leone Peace Building Fund approved 4 new projects 12 July targeting judicial sector, National Election Commission, armed forces and security sector. Former Liberian President Charles Taylor appeared in The Hague before Special Court for first time 3 July. UK agreed to imprison him if found guilty. Special Court announced first sentences 19 July: 3 rebel leaders convicted of using child soldiers, enslavement, rape and murder; sentenced to 45-50 years each.


National Reconciliation Congress began 15 July in Mogadishu. Security worsened there after congress started - UN reported 10,000 fled city. Chairman of Reconciliation Committee invited opposition based in Asmara, but chairman of ICU Sheikh Sharif rejected clan-based process. AU Peace and Security Council extended AMISOM mandate for 6 months; still to be approved by UN. UNSC unanimously adopted resolution 1766 23 July extending mandate of group of experts monitoring flow of arms by 6 months. Group issued report stating Eritrea had sent weapons to the Shabaab insurgents during monitoring period; denied by Eritrea.


Authorities announced no representatives from Somaliland would attend National Reconciliation Congress in Mogadishu. Interior Minister said anyone attending would face charges of “national treason”. 3 opposition politicians arrested for forming party; only 3 parties allowed by law.


UN Security Council voted unanimously 31 July to begin sending joint UN/AU force of 26,000 troops and police to Darfur. Resolution 1769 includes Chapter VII mandate to justify use of force to protect civilians and gives command and control to UN; new UNAMID force to take command of region from 7,000-strong AU mission (AMIS) by end of year “at the latest”. But conflict threatens in north as hydro-electric dams displace communities and local resistance to projects becomes increasingly militant: Merowe dam contested mostly by Manassir tribe; Kajbar dam by Nubian community. Several violent clashes between Nubians and government reported. Merowe reservoir to be flooded in August which could displace as many as 70,000 who refuse to leave. Tripoli meeting on Darfur chaired by UN and AU 15 July agreed second phase of AU/UN road map to begin: pre- negotiation phase to create necessary conditions for full negotiations. AU/UN called for talks amongst Darfur rebels to start in Arusha 3 August. New movement, United Front for Liberation and Development (UFLD) consisting of 2 SLM factions, RDFF, NMRD and SFDA, announced intention to join. SLM faction leader Abdul Wahid refused to attend. CPA implementation fell further behind as 9 July deadline missed for all Sudanese SAF units to be redeployed from South and SPLA redeployed from North, save those operating in Joint-Integrated Units.


Peace talks between Ugandan government and Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) staggered forward. Following 29 June agreement on reconciliation and accountability parties recessed to prepare for negotiations over possible mechanisms. Security in South Sudan improved after 800-1,000 LRA combatants moved from Eastern Equatoria to LRA’s base west of Garamba National Park in DRC. MONUC plans to monitor and deter possible LRA infiltration into DRC territory. But Uganda and Sudan failed to attend meeting of new joint mechanism established to coordinate efforts against LRA.


President Mugabe announced legislative plans 24 July to consolidate presidential and parliamentary elections; require only parliamentary vote to replace president who resigns between elections; and require all businesses to be at least 51% Zimbabwean-owned. Acute food, gasoline shortages followed late-June government order to halve prices: at least 3,000 businesspeople arrested, many imprisoned, for non-compliance. SADC-backed mediation between ruling ZANU-PF and opposition MDC stalled in Pretoria as ZANU-PF representatives hardened stance against new constitution, failed to attend scheduled meetings. South African mediators denied rumours of process collapse. MDC still divided as Morgan Tsvangirai faction announced it would launch campaign in September; faction led by Arthur Mutambara withdrew from Save Zimbabwe coalition.



Robust military offensive continued in south while insurgent suicide attacks and kidnappings with increasing violence occurred in provinces surrounding Kabul. 23 South Korean Christians kidnapped in Ghazni province by Taliban, who demanded 8 militants held by Kabul; 2 hostages killed by end month. Also in Ghazni, 4 judges from neighbouring Paktita kidnapped; bodies found 31 July. 2 Germans with 5 Afghan colleagues seized in neighbouring Wardak. Chancellor Merkel pledged Germany would “intensify its engagement” despite kidnappings. 4 July bombing killed 6 Canadian troops in Kandahar. Reports of civilian casualties in airstrikes by international forces continued; NATO said considering using smaller bombs. Suicide attacks by militants continued in Uruzgan and Helmand in south and in Faizabad in north.


Government moved against heads of country’s 2 leading parties. Awami League’s Sheikh Hasina arrested 16 July, charged with extortion 24 July. BNP’s Khaleda Zia, PM until October 2006, due in court 26 August on charges of tax evasion. Election Commission published roadmap for elections by end 2008; state of emergency continues.


24 policemen killed in 9 July clash with Maoist fighters in Chhattisgarh. 31 July Nagaland talks with Delhi saw indefinite extension of ceasefire by National Socialist Council of Nagaland separatists, subject to progress in new round of peace talks.

India-Pakistan (Kashmir)

Little progress at security talks between India and Pakistan cut short 4 July by violence at Islamabad Red Mosque. Summer increase in low-level violence included several attacks by suspected separatist militants on Hindu pilgrims. Indian Defence Secretary Shekhar Dutt recommended relocation of 20,000 troops from private and civic property in Jammu & Kashmir. Proposal would maintain current levels of troops involved in counter- militancy efforts along Line of Control.


Former members of Aceh’s separatist rebel movement GAM established local political party under GAM negotiator Tengku Nazaruddin 7 July. Constitutional Court struck down 2 Dutch-era articles in penal code prohibiting public expressions of “hostility, hatred or contempt for the government” 17 July.

Korean Peninsula

Progress made towards denuclearisation; IAEA confirmed closure of Yongbyon nuclear reactor 16 July and 4 other nuclear sites 18 July. 6-party talks held 18- 20 July failed to yield deadline for disarmament; subsequent NK demand for lightweight nuclear reactors may complicate talks. 3-day high-level military talks between North and South broke down 26 July over disputed western sea border. South Korea dispatched last in series of heavy fuel oil shipments under disarmament deal to NK 29 July.


Final session of Constitutional Convention to draw up constitutional guidelines opened 18 July; expected to run for 6 weeks. U.S. Senate extended sanctions against Myanmar for further year on basis of poor human rights record 24 July. Philippines appealed to government for release of opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi by ASEAN November summit.


Coalition government partners including Maoists insist 22 November constituent assembly elections will go ahead. But confused messages continue, with UN verification of Maoist combatants stalled as they demand progress in other parts of peace deal, including security sector reform. Budget passed with cuts to royal allowances; economic growth targets revised down. Home Minister Krishna Prasad Sitaula threatened security crackdown in Tarai plains but preliminary talks with some groups underway.


Seizure of Lal Masjid (Red Mosque) by security forces sparked waves of retaliatory violence across border regions, as political and security crisis worsened further. Pakistani army commenced week-long siege of Red Mosque to end 6-month standoff with barricaded radical clerics and student followers 3 July. At least 16 killed first day of confrontation; thousands of militants surrendered 4-5 July whilst hundreds remained. Army stormed mosque 10 July following failed negotiations with mosque leaders; over 70 militants killed, including leader Abdul Rashid. Islamist backlash ensued with intensified attacks on security forces killing at least 180. Attacks coincided with 15 July announcement by militant leaders in North Waziristan they had suspended September peace agreement with Islamabad in response to increased troop deployment in area; government forces claimed 18 deaths in late-month fighting near Miranshah. Bomb attack killed 15 in anti-government rally in Islamabad 17 July; PPP workers likely target. Further suicide bombing in Islamabad 27 July targeted police and killed 14 near Red Mosque. President Musharraf suffered further blow with Supreme Court decision to reinstate suspended Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry 20 July. Musharraf met former PM Benazir Bhutto in Abu Dhabi talks 27 July that could foster power-sharing deal; Bhutto publicly reiterated calls for Musharraf to step down as military chief.


Ceasefire between government and Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) increasingly strained by further violence. Up to 30 insurgents and 14 Marines killed in 10 July ambush by MILF forces on Basilan island; 10 were beheaded. MILF said government forces had breached ceasefire protocols, admitted involvement in ambush but denied role in beheadings. MILF announced “maximum restraint” policy to avoid escalation of clashes, launched pleas to Manila and donor governments to prevent Philippine army “punitive actions”. Giancarlo Bossi, Italian priest held hostage 1 month in Mindanao by gunmen he says were members of Abu Sayyaf, freed 19 July.

Sri Lanka

Fall of former LTTE stronghold Thoppigala 11 July marked government forces’ dominance over eastern part of country. LTTE forces continue to hold large parts of north, where new attacks on army forces continued in Mannar district and Jaffna. Apparent close of eastern front may prompt increased use of guerrilla attacks by LTTE on strategic targets. Karuna faction announced it had no intention to disarm, despite plans to compete in local government elections scheduled for eastern province in coming months.

Taiwan Strait

UN rejected Taiwan’s application for UN membership under its own name 24 July, citing adherence to 1971 resolution recognizing Taiwan as part of China. President Chen Shui-bian plans to hold referendum on joining UN despite rejection and opposition from U.S., Beijing. Taiwanese army said looking to buy 30 Boeing Apache attack helicopters from U.S. in deal worth $1.5bn, subject to approval of U.S. government and Taiwanese legislature.


Communal relations remained tense in south. Government stepped up arrests and foot patrols in response to June violence. Military-backed commission approved draft constitution 6 July, will submit to national referendum 19 August. Supreme Court agreed to hear corruption and abuse of power charges against former PM Thaksin Shinawatra 14 August; he refused to return to Bangkok for trial and government froze additional $16.4 million assets believed to be controlled by him. National Legislative Assembly began debate 16 July on controversial internal security bill that would institutionalise role of military in politics, but bill withdrawn for further revision same day. Ban on formation of new political parties lifted 18 July. Anti-coup protests continued: several thousand Thaksin supporters clashed with police 22 July.


Period since 30 June parliamentary elections characterised by political uncertainty and sporadic violence. Vote proved inconclusive: Fretilin, led by former PM Mari Alkatiri, received most votes with 29%; CNRT, under former President Xanana Gusmao, won 24%. Gusmao is seeking to form government in coalition with other parties (ASDT/PSD and PD), while Fretilin insists on constitutional right to form minority government and former PM Mari Alkatiri announced intention to run for PM 1 August. New parliament inaugurated 30 July. President Ramos-Horta now has to decide who has constitutional right to form government.

Europe & Central Asia


Deputy leader of ruling Democratic Party, Bamir Topi, sworn in as president 24 July after parliament elected him in fourth round of voting; vowed to stay above party politics.


Law restricting re-broadcasting of foreign media failed in parliament after opponents boycotted voting.

Armenian-Azerbaijani Conflict

Bako Sahakian, former de facto security service head, supported by all major parties, won 85% of votes in 19 July de facto presidential election; main contender, former deputy FM Masis Maylian, got 12%. International community dismissed poll as illegitimate. Minsk Group Chairmen urged Armenian and Azerbaijani presidents to agree basic settlement principles before 2008 presidential elections in both countries.


Opposition Bizim Yol newspaper editor Musfiq Huseynov arrested on bribery charges. Yasamal district court dismissed defamation charges against chief editor of opposition Azadliq Ganimat Zahid 17 July; OSCE praised ruling. Authorities compensated Democratic Party of Azerbaijan chairman for mistreatment after 2003 arrest, in line with European Court of Human Rights ruling, 12 July.

Basque Country (Spain)

French police arrested Juan Cruz Maiza Artola, suspected logistics chief of ETA, and 2 others near Toulouse 26 July. ETA claimed responsibility for 2 bomb explosions along Spanish section of Tour de France cycle route 25 July.


Opposition-organised Sovereignty Day events 27 July led to arrests, detention of activists and politicians. President Lukashenka dismissed KGB Chairman Stepan Sukhorenko and First Deputy Head Vasily Dementey 17 July; appointed presidential security service chief Yury Zhadobin.

Bosnia And Herzegovina

Slovak diplomat Miroslav Lajcak became new High Representative 2 July. In first major decision, sacked senior police official, suspended 35 police officers and ordered their passports confiscated along with those of 57 others suspected of involvement in 1995 Srebrenica massacre. Lajcak reportedly warned would invoke Bonn powers to impose police reform if no agreement reached by September. State and entity PMs agreed on public administration reform 12 July.

Chechnya (Russia)

Interior Ministry units put on alert after rebels launched attacks in Vedeno district early July, reportedly killing 4 soldiers.


Largest party in parliament, Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL), withdrew from governing coalition 10 July, after deciding to field candidate, Demetris Christofias, for February 2008 presidential elections. President Papadopoulos said would seek second term 23 July. Papadopoulos invited Turkish Cypriot leader Talat to discuss stalled 8 July process; Talat delayed setting meeting date after Greek Cypriot blocking of friendly football match between Turkish Cypriot and English club teams. Remains of 28 missing victims, 15 Greek Cypriot and 13 Turkish Cypriot, of 1974 conflict identified by UN Committee for Missing Persons buried in north and south 12 July.


In South Ossetia, standoff between Tbilisi and Tskhinvali further entrenched, security situation more tense, with increase in exchanges of fire and concentrations of unauthorised armed personnel from both sides. Joint Control Commission (JCC) did not meet after disagreement over venue; Russian, South Ossetian and North Ossetian co-chairs met without Tbilisi 13 July. August meeting planned in Tbilisi. Also 13 July, Tbilisi established state commission, headed by PM Nogaideli, to draw up autonomy plan for region. Tskhinvali refused to participate. In Abkhazia, UN Observer Mission issued report on March 2007 rocket-firing incident in upper Kodori: joint fact-finding mission with members from all sides reached no conclusion on blame; Tbilisi called for UN observation point in gorge. Secessionist PM Alexander Ankvab survived assassination attempt 9 July. Breakaway authorities announced launch of new TV channel aiming at integration of predominantly Georgian Gali district into Abkhazia. In Tbilisi, parliament adopted law on repatriation of Meskhetian Turks, deported in 1944. David Bakradze replaced Merab Antadze as State Minister for Conflict Resolution Issues 19 July.


Campaigning began for 18 August local and parliamentary elections. President Nazarbayev’s daughter Darigha Nazarbayeva dismissed from deputy chairmanship of his Nur Otan party and excluded from party’s electoral candidate list.


International deadlock over status continued as 1-2 July U.S.-Russia summit in Kennebunkport produced no agreement. Moscow rejected watered-down U.S. and EU draft resolution; latter suspended UNSC consultations 20 July. U.S. official told BBC 16 July U.S. to recognize Kosovo within 2007, but Sec. State Rice, meeting Pristina’s Unity Team 23 July, said U.S. to recognize after Contact Group-sponsored talks process. Contact Group met 25 July in Vienna to discuss plans for new round of Belgrade-Pristina talks to last at least 4 months: decided U.S., EU and Russia should mediate, but no start date, deadline or agenda agreed. Brussels appointed German diplomat Wolfgang Ischinger EU mediator. UNSG Ban Ki-moon warned against further delays. UNMIK head Joachim Rucker called for clear roadmap on status; local and general elections now due November. Demands grew in Pristina for independence date; Unity Team split between PM Ceku and opposition politician Surroi, who want to set date, and President Sejdiu and opposition leader Thaci, content to wait for U.S. and EU decision. Remarks by French FM Kouchner, later corrected, caused Pristina to fear West may relax opposition to partition. Bus carrying villagers of Albanian enclave north of Mitrovica set off grenade 27 July.


Internal security stepped up ahead of 16 August Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Bishkek Summit. Deputy Governor of Osh arrested on aid embezzlement charges 20 July; local supporters threatened to block roads. State Agency for Religious Affairs announced drafting laws to tighten restrictions on religious activity.


European Parliament adopted nonbinding resolution 12 July condemning “severe and widespread” rights violations by Transdniestrian authorities. Appeals court overturned former defence minister Valeriu Pasat’s January 2006 conviction over sale of 21 fighter planes to U.S., releasing him from prison.

North Macedonia

Ethnic Albanian opposition Democratic Union for Integration briefly left parliament, accusing government of altering agreed terms for changes in parliamentary procedures ensuring minority safeguards, before parliamentary business resumed. Government and opposition leaders agreed to reform of prosecution office, one of contentious issues in judicial reform, 1 July.

Northern Ireland (UK)