CrisisWatch is our global conflict tracker, a tool designed to help decision-makers prevent deadly violence by keeping them up-to-date with developments in over 70 conflicts and crises, identifying trends and alerting them to risks of escalation and opportunities to advance peace.
Insecurity remained rampant ahead of presidential and parliamentary elections due in February.
Political violence persisted notably in south ahead of general elections. Electoral commission 9 Jan warned that insecurity could derail general elections due 25 Feb and 11 March. Assailants 14 Jan killed uncle of prominent politician in Akokwa town, Imo state. Gunmen next day set electoral commission office on fire in Enugu state, killing policeman, and 20 Jan stormed ruling All Progressives Congress meeting in Ebonyi state, killing two.
Jihadists remained active in North East. In Borno state, clashes between rival jihadist groups persisted, with Boko Haram (BH) 7 Jan reportedly killing 35 Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) fighters near Kukawa town. Jihadist groups also continued to target civilians and security forces in Borno. Notably, Boko Haram 17 Jan raided Makilwe village, killing one farmer and abducting eight others. Govt forces 23 Jan repelled ISWAP ambush near Komala village, killing at least 23 assailants.
Violence continued despite military operations in North West and North Central. Authorities 3 Jan announced arrest of ISWAP commander Abdulmumin Ibrahim Otaru (aka “Abu Mikdad”), said he “operated terrorist cells” in Kogi state. In Kaduna state, unidentified gunmen 9 Jan ambushed security patrol near mining site in Birnin Gwari area, killing 12 security personnel and local vigilantes. Meanwhile, in Benue state, suspected herdsmen 19 Jan killed nine people including displaced persons in Abagena town. Military suspected of mistakenly killing dozens in airstrikes 24 Jan: bomb blast struck group of herders near Rukubi village, Nasarawa state, reportedly leaving 54 dead, and drone strike killed unspecified number of vigilantes near Galadimakogo village, Niger state.
Biafra agitation and other violence persisted in South East. In Imo state, gunmen 2 Jan attacked former state governor’s convoy, killing four police officers near Ehime-Mbano town. In Anambra state, gunmen 9-12 Jan killed at least seven people and set buildings on fire in Ihiala town. Troops 10-13 Jan killed at least seven Indigenous People of Biafra separatists in operations in Imo, Anambra, Abia and Enugu states. Meanwhile in South South, gunmen 7 Jan kidnapped around 20 people at Igueben train station, Edo state; all abductees later rescued.
Insecurity continued to pose major challenge for running and credibility of 2023 general elections; govt faced allegations of human rights violations in counter-insurgency operations.
Political violence continued ahead of 2023 polls. In Rivers state, thugs 8 Dec stormed residence of People’s Democratic Party (PDP) presidential campaign manager, Senator Lee Maeba, and gunmen 14 Dec shot and wounded local PDP youth leader. In Imo state, three attacks on electoral commission premises reported 1-12 Dec, while gunmen 16 Dec killed Labour Party candidate for state parliament, Christopher Eleghu.
Rival jihadists clashed, army’s human rights record under scrutiny in North East. In Borno state’s Sambisa forest, Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) early Dec killed Boko Haram (BH) commander Aboubakar Munzir; in apparent retaliation, BH fighters around 3 Dec ambushed ISWAP militants, killing at least 12, and stormed ISWAP camp, reportedly killing 33 women. Suspected BH militants 24 Dec also killed 17 herders in Mafa area (also Borno). International news agency Reuters 7-12 Dec reported army had killed thousands of children and run forced abortion program as part of counter-insurgency campaign since 2013.
Attacks continued despite military operations in North West and North Central. In Katsina state, gunmen 3 Dec attacked mosque in Funtua area, abducting over a dozen worshippers. In Kaduna state, air force 1 and 4 Dec targeted some groups’ hideouts in Igabi, Birnin Gwari and Giwa areas, inflicting “heavy casualties”. Also in Kaduna, gunmen 15-18 Dec killed around 38 people in Kaura area, and 25 Dec abducted 45 persons in Kajuru area.
Biafra agitation and other violence persisted in South East. Wave of killings and arson reported across South East after Finland-based factional leader and self-declared spokesman of separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra, Simon Ekpa, issued five-day sit-at-home order starting 9 Dec. Notably, gunmen 9-10 Dec killed at least ten people in Anambra, Enugu and Imo states. Meanwhile in Enugu, armed men 8 Dec killed at least 25 people in Isi-Uzo areas; residents blamed Fulani herders and members of Igala ethnic group coming from Kogi state.
Electoral violence continued to disrupt campaign for 2023 polls, while jihadist, criminal and separatist groups demonstrated resilience amid military operations on multiple fronts.
Political violence persisted ahead of early 2023 general elections. Authorities 11 Nov reported 52 cases of electoral violence since campaign started on 28 Sept. Notably, unidentified assailants 8 Nov reportedly attacked convoy of opposition People’s Democratic Party (PDP) presidential candidate, Atiku Abubakar, in Borno state capital Maiduguri, leaving at least one dead and 70 injured; PDP blamed attack on ruling All Progressives Congress.
Criminal and other violence ran high in North West and North Central zones. Kidnapping for ransom remained widespread, notably in Zamfara state: gunmen 7 Nov kidnapped 50 people in Bukkuyum area; 20 Nov raided four villages in Zurmi and Maradun areas, reportedly abducting over 100; 23 Nov kidnapped at least 60 people in Kaura Namoda area. Govt forces throughout Nov continued land and air operations, notably carrying out aerial assaults on armed groups’ enclaves in Birnin Gwari, Chikun and Giwa areas of Kaduna state. Meanwhile, intercommunal violence 7-9 Nov killed at least 28 people in Addo area, Benue state; farmer-herder clashes 14 Nov killed dozen people in Bokkos area, Plateau state.
Jihadists launched deadly attacks in North East zone despite security operations. In Borno state, Boko Haram (BH) operatives 10-12 Nov reportedly killed at least 26 women accused of witchcraft near Gwoza town; suspected Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) combatants overnight 18-19 Nov launched complex attack on Malam Fatori town and army base, killing 11 security forces and unconfirmed number of civilians. Large-scale counter-insurgency operations continued in Borno: army airstrike 5 Nov reportedly killed 15 ISWAP combatants in Bolowa village, 16-17 Nov killed about 16 BH fighters near Banki town.
Biafra separatist agitation and criminal violence persisted in South East. Notably, gunmen 12 Nov attacked military checkpoint at Isuofia town in Aguata area of Anambra state, killing two soldiers; 19 Nov killed three policemen in Agbani town, Nkanu West area of Enugu state. In Imo state, troops allegedly searching for Biafra separatists 3 Nov raided Amangwu town in Ohafia area; locals alleged soldiers killed about ten people.
U.S. warned of terror risk in federal capital Abuja amid rampant violence in North West and Centre North; electoral violence flared four months away from general elections.
Insecurity remained high across country, especially in North West and North Central zones. U.S. 23 Oct warned of “elevated risk of terror attacks” in Abuja, and 25 Oct authorised departure of non-emergency govt staff. Elsewhere in North West and North Central zones, criminal and jihadist violence ran high despite security operations. In Zamfara state, armed group raid 5 Oct left at least 30 civilians dead in Birnin Waje village in Bukkuyum area. Govt forces 29 Oct repelled suspected Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) attack on Wawa military base in Niger state, where nearly 1,700 jihadists are being held, killing eight assailants. Meanwhile, in Benue state, suspected herdsmen 19 Oct killed at least 36 people in Gbeji village. In North East, security forces largely contained jihadists. Notably, in Borno state, govt forces 11 Oct repulsed ambushes by Boko Haram JAS faction or ISWAP near Gala Kura village in Bama area and along Gamboru-Dikwa road in Ngala area, killing over 40 insurgents. Explosive device attacks on Maiduguri-Damboa-Chibok road 3 Oct however left several dead.
Court ordered release of Biafra separatist leader as unrest persisted in South East. Appeal Court in Abuja 13 Oct dropped all remaining charges against separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) leader Nnamdi Kanu, citing procedural flaws including illegal arrest abroad and extradition; govt 18 Oct appealed judgment and Kanu remained in custody. Meanwhile, IPOB or criminal groups continued to target security operatives and facilities. Notably, raid on police divisional headquarters in Inyi town, Enugu state, 8 Oct left two people dead.
Electoral violence turned deadly. During electoral campaign for 2023 general elections, supporters of ruling All Progressives Congress (APC) and main opposition Peoples’ Democratic Party (PDP) 15 Oct clashed in Zamfara state, leaving one dead and 18 injured. Unidentified gunmen same day killed APC local youth leader in Ebonyi state.
In other important developments. Govt 16 Oct said floods had killed over 600 people and displaced over 1.3mn countrywide since early summer, while also devastating farmlands, raising risk of heightened tensions over access to resources.
Violence continued to rage across country months away from 2023 general elections.Authorities’ offensive in North East put jihadists under pressure. In Borno state, soldiers and local self-defence militias 1-2 Sept attacked Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) in Bama area, with govt airstrikes reportedly killing over 200 militants, including high-ranking commanders. Also in Borno, airstrikes 9 Sept killed 26 ISWAP fighters in Ngala area, and air force 20 Sept struck several ISWAP hideouts in Marte area, reportedly leaving “scores” dead. Clashes between ISWAP and Boko Haram (JAS) continued. Notably, fierce battle along border between Dikwa and Bama areas 15 Sept left at least eight jihadists dead; ISWAP 16-17 Sept attacked JAS enclave at Gaizuwa village in Bama, with up to 30 killed.Armed groups continued to defy security operations in North West and North Central zones. Security forces 7 Sept invaded armed group hideouts in Kachia and Birnin Gwari areas in Kaduna state, as well as in Rafi area of Niger state, killing over 30 militiamen and arresting 15 informants; govt airstrikes against armed group hideout in Niger’s Shiroro area next day killed at least 20. In Zamfara state, air force 17, 22 Sept bombed armed group camps in Zurmi and Birnin Magaji/Kiyaw areas, killing dozens of combatants. Defying military operations, gunmen 12-13 Sept abducted about 60 people in and around Kasuwan Magani town in Kajuru area (Kaduna). In Katsina state, gunmen 16 Sept abducted at least 50 civilians in Bakiyawa village, Batagarawa area. Gunmen 23 Sept killed at least 18 people in attack on mosque in Bukkuyum area, Zamfara.South East zone saw Biafra separatist agitation and criminal violence. Attacks on security personnel, politicians and other citizens continued in Sept particularly in Anambra, Abia and Imo states. Notably, in Anambra, gunmen 11 Sept ambushed convoy of Senator Patrick Ifeanyi Uba at Enugwu-Ukwu town in Njikoka area, killing at least six people; 28 Sept reportedly killed five soldiers in Orumba South area.Election campaign kicked off. Campaign for general elections set for Feb 2023 started 28 Sept; presidential candidates next day signed accord committing to peaceful campaign.
Authorities beefed up security in federal capital Abuja and economic capital Lagos as jihadist, criminal and separatist violence continued in several regions. In North East, govt forces continued operations against Boko Haram (BH) and Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP). Notably, in Borno state, airstrike 3 Aug killed key ISWAP commander, Alhaji Modu, in Gwoza area; military operations 11-25 Aug reportedly killed about 50 insurgents, including two senior BH and ISWAP commanders, in Sambisa forest and Lake Chad area. Military said 3,407 insurgents and their families 28 July-25 Aug surrendered to govt forces. ISWAP 8 Aug however attacked Auno security checkpoint, 24km from Borno capital Maiduguri, renewing fears that units may still be lurking around city. In Taraba state (also North East zone), unidentified gunmen 12 Aug invaded Karekuka village; fight with residents left at least 19 dead. Govt forces stepped up operations in North West and North Central zones amid violence by criminal groups and jihadists. Notably in North West, air force 6 Aug struck armed groups’ enclaves in Katsina state’s Safana area, killing prominent group leader. Military 13-18 Aug raided armed groups’ camps in Katsina, Zamfara, Sokoto and Kaduna states, killing unspecified number, including wanted group leader, Sojan Madagwal, in Zamfara. In North Central zone, air force 13-18 Aug bombed armed groups’ camps in Shiroro area of Niger state, reportedly killing alleged BH leader Aminu Duniya. Following attacks in Federal Capital Territory (FCT) in July, FCT administration early Aug firmed up security in Abuja and troops 13 Aug raided armed group camps in Dei-Dei and Gwagwalada areas, arresting eight. In South West, Lagos police late July-early Aug placed city’s units on high alert amid fear of attacks by jihadist groups. Insecurity in South East, which security forces blame on secessionist group Indigenous People of Biafra’s armed wing, continued. In Imo state, gunmen 1 Aug killed seven security guards at Orogwe town in Owerri West area, and 5 Aug attacked Agwa police station in Oguta area, killing four police. Explosive device 21 Aug killed army major in Ihiala area, Anambra state. Security forces 15-21 Aug raided armed groups’ camps in Abia, Anambra and Ebonyi states.
Jihadists launched attacks within Federal Capital Territory, confirming ability to strike targets far beyond decade-old heartlands in North East; elsewhere, levels of violence remained high notably in North West. In Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) overnight 5-6 July stormed prison in Kuje area, freeing 69 jailed group members along with over 700 others. Suspected jihadists 24 July ambushed Presidential Guard elite unit on patrol along Bwari-Kubwa road in FCT, killing at least three soldiers. Fears of further attacks 27 July forced closure of schools in federal capital Abuja and adjoining Nasarawa state. Meanwhile in North East, suspected jihadists 18 July killed five vigilantes in Gubio area of Borno state; military said troops fought back, killing “many”. In North West and North Central zones, armed groups continued deadly attacks and kidnappings, targeting farmers, highway travellers and clerics despite govt forces’ air and ground operations. In Kaduna state, gunmen 4 and 15 July kidnapped three Catholic priests in Kauru and Lere area, killed at least one of them. In Sokoto state, armed groups 17-18 July killed four farmers with 70 others abducted or missing in villages of Sabon Birni area; 25 July kidnapped Catholic priest in Tambuwal town. In Katsina state, armed groups 5 July ambushed presidential advance team near President Buhari’s hometown of Daura; 19-20 July killed at least 11 people including five policemen in Faskari and Kankara areas. In Zamfara state, gunmen 10 July killed 18 villagers in Maru area. In Taraba state, armed groups 14-20 July killed at least 30 people in Takum and Ussa areas, leaving over 20,000 displaced. In Kogi state, unidentified gunmen 30 July ambushed and killed eight security officers in Ajaokuta area. In South East, suspected members of separatist group, Indigenous People of Biafra, and its armed wing, Eastern Security Network, continued attacks on govt’s security personnel and facilities. Notably, electoral commission mid-July suspended ward-level voter registration in Igboeze North area, Enugu state, following 3 and 13 July attacks on its office and officials. Opposition lawmakers 27 July threatened to impeach Buhari over failure to curb insecurity.
Armed groups continued attacks on farming communities, kidnap for ransom and cattle rustling in North West states; security situation remained dire in North East and South East. In Kaduna state, gunmen 5 June raided several villages in Kajuru area, killing at least 32 residents; 19 June killed eight people and kidnapped 38 others in raids on two churches in same area. In Zamfara state, gunmen 6-7 June abducted former state electoral commissioner, Sanusi Wanzamai Sanusi, and killed at least five villagers in attacks in Tsafe area; 11 June abducted about 50 people after ambushing them along Sokoto-Gusau highway. In Kebbi state, about 200 armed men around 14 June reportedly attacked a dozen villages in Danko-Wasagu area, killing at least five and rustling at least 2,000 cows. Gunmen around 22 June abducted 22 people within Federal Capital Territory. In Borno state in North East, security forces continued battling Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) and Boko Haram (BH). Notably, army 7 June said it had killed over a dozen BH fighters in Konduga area. Both groups however continued attacks on military and civilians. Notably, ISWAP claimed killing four soldiers in 7 June attack on military barracks in Banki town (Bama area) near Cameroonian border; suspected ISWAP combatants 8 June reportedly killed at least 23 civilians in Dikwa area; BH or ISWAP 16 June fired mortar bombs into internally displaced persons camp in Bama area, killing at least 11. ISWAP also continued spreading its operations beyond North East. Notably, group 4 June claimed 2 June bomb attack that killed one in Okene area of Kogi state (North Central). Meanwhile in South West, 5 June attack on Catholic church in Owo town, Ondo state, killed at least 40 people; federal govt blamed ISWAP, which state govt disputed. Separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra’s armed wing, Eastern Security Network (ESN), continued almost daily attacks on govt forces in South East despite latter’s efforts to subdue them: in Enugu state, gunmen 2 June killed two policemen in Igbo Eze North area; in Anambra state, joint security operation around 25 June destroyed ESN camps in Nnewi South area.
Armed groups’ violence continued in North West; jihadist group launched attacks outside core areas of operation; and separatists targeted security personnel and high-profile individuals in South East. In North West, criminal violence continued amid apparent lull in security forces operations. In Zamfara state, armed groups 6-18 May killed at least 75 people across Bakura, Maradun, Maru and Bukkuyum areas; armed group 30 May killed about 30 members of local vigilante group in Bungudu area; gunfight between rival armed groups 30-31 May killed about 44 in Shinkafi area. In Kaduna state, gunmen 17 May abducted about 30 people near Katari village on Abuja-Kaduna highway. In Kano state, gunmen same day killed six people at Karfi village in Takai area. In Katsina state, armed group 24 May killed at least 15 farmers at Gakurdi village in Jibia area. Meanwhile, in north-eastern Borno state, govt forces 14 May killed top Boko Haram commander, Abubakar Sarki, in Konduga area, and jihadist attacks persisted. Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) 3 May killed at least nine villagers in Chibok area; 21-22 May killed at least 32 people in Mudu village, Dikwa area. ISWAP also continued new campaign outside core areas of operation. Suspected ISWAP insurgents 10 May killed at least six soldiers and unconfirmed number of civilians in Takum area, Taraba state. In Niger state, ISWAP claimed 12 May ambush that killed four including three police in Suleja town near federal capital Abuja. In South East, deadly attacks, which authorities blamed on separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), continued. In Anambra state, gunmen overnight 15-16 May killed two soldiers near Onitsha city; 16 May killed four vigilantes in state capital Awka; 21 May beheaded Anambra state lawmaker Okechukwu Okoye; next day killed pregnant woman, her four children, and six others, all from northern states, in Orumba North area, heightening ethnic tensions; 30 May attacked state-owned radio station in Onitsha city. In Imo state, security forces 16 May repelled attack on house of traditional rulers’ council chairman, Emmanuel Okeke, killing six assailants. In Ebonyi state, gunmen 17 May attacked house of chairman of Ikwo area, Steve Orogwu, killing four.
Kaduna state remained epicentre of violence in North West and large-scale attacks left over 150 killed and thousands displaced in neighbouring Plateau state; Islamic State claimed expansion into central states, and separatists stepped up attacks in South East. Federal govt 13 April blamed “bandits” together with “Boko Haram insurgents” for late-March attack on Abuja-Kaduna train line in North West; operations continued to rescue dozens of abductees. Also in Kaduna, gunmen 4 April abducted 22 civilians on Abuja-Kaduna highway; same day attacked Polwire military base in Birnin Gwari area, killing at least a dozen soldiers. In Zamfara state, bandits 1 April reportedly attacked Daki Takwas village in Gummi area, killing at least 20 civilians. Troops 1 April engaged suspected bandits near Suleja town, Niger state; three bandits and 14 soldiers reportedly killed. Military next day said 83 suspected bandits killed in airstrikes in Zamfara and Kaduna states. Meanwhile, unidentified gunmen around 10 April reportedly killed around 154 people in Kanam area of Plateau state; about 4,800 people reportedly displaced by violence. In Borno state in North East, Boko Haram faction known as JAS around 31 March-1 April ambushed and killed about 50 fighters from rival group Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) in Abadam area; renewed clashes in Sambisa forest 22 April left 32 killed on both sides. ISWAP allegedly expanded operations to new areas: group claimed 19 April bomb attack which killed at least three in Iware town, Taraba state, and overnight 22-23 April reportedly killed five policemen in first ISWAP attack in Kogi state. Herder-farmer violence continued. Suspected herders 4 April killed 12 people in Plateau’s Bassa area and 12 April killed at least 23 villagers in Guma and Tarka areas of Benue state. In south, suspected members of separatist Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB)’s armed wing Eastern Security Network launched almost daily attacks on local authorities and security forces, particularly in Anambra state: at least six people killed 3-7 April in Aguata area; four police officers killed 13 April in Ogbaru area. Federal High Court in Abuja 8 April dropped eight of 15 charges against IPOB leader Nnamdi Kanu.
Surge in armed group violence left hundreds dead in North West and adjoining Niger state, disrupting air and train services to Kaduna city. In Kebbi state, armed groups 6-8 March killed 63 vigilantes and eight soldiers in Sakaba area; 8 March ambushed Kebbi Deputy Governor Samaila Yombe’s convoy in Wasagu-Danko area, killing 19 security forces. In Kaduna state, gunmen 15-20 March killed 42 people and kidnapped over 80 in Birnin Gwari, Kachia and Kaura areas; 24-29 March killed about 90 people, abducted others in Giwa area. Abuja-Kaduna train services and some airlines’ flights to Kaduna indefinitely suspended following two incidents: armed groups 26 March killed one guard at Kaduna airport before being repelled, leaving 12 assailants killed; 28 March attacked Abuja-Kaduna train, killed at least eight people and abducted unconfirmed number. In Zamfara state, gunmen 20 March killed at least 24 people in Bukkuyum area. In Niger state, armed groups 9-28 March attacked villages in Munya and Paikoro areas, killing unknown number and abducting about 65 including Catholic priest; ambush 28 March killed six soldiers in Suleja area; at least 23 persons 30 March drowned while fleeing attack in Munya area. Military 24 Feb-10 March reportedly killed 90 gunmen across Katsina, Kebbi and Zamfara states; 16 March killed another 100 in Niger’s Bangi town. Meanwhile in Borno state (North East), military 3-9 March killed scores of jihadists in encounters and airstrikes in Damboa area. Clashes between Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) and Boko Haram in Dikwa and Mobbar areas 5 and 8 March reportedly left about 40 insurgents killed. In South East, attacks widely blamed on separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB)’s armed wing, Eastern Security Network (ESN), 15 March killed four in Ntezi town, Ebonyi state, and 19 March killed two police in Imo state’s Owerri West area. Gunmen 19 March raided home of prominent Igbo figure George Obiozor in Imo’s Oru East area. Troops 29 March overran IPOB/ESN camp in Ihiala area, Anambra state. Herder-farmer violence killed 26 in Donga area, Taraba state, 7 March; 12 in Benue state’s Guma area 8-9 March; and six in Guri area, Jigawa state, 18 March.
Bandits displaced by airstrikes in North West could pose new threats elsewhere, and jihadists established stronger presence in Niger state. In North West, govt airstrikes 2 and 16 Feb killed at least 83 suspected gunmen including three local kingpins in Katsina state. Deadly attacks on civilians however continued. In Kaduna state, armed groups killed 11 people in Kaura area 4 Feb, ten in Zangon Kataf area 9 and 15 Feb and at least ten in Birnin Gwari area 26 Feb. In Katsina, bandits 4 and 8 Feb killed at least 16 people and kidnapped scores in Jibiya and Bakori areas. In Zamfara state, bandits 3-6 Feb killed about 30 civilians in Tsafe and Bungudu areas; 18-19 Feb killed at least 18 in Anka area. Violence raged in Niger state adjoining North West: armed groups 7 and 18-19 Feb killed at least 52 and kidnapped 42 villagers in Shiroro and Munya areas; 26 Feb killed at least 17 in Mashegu, Lavun and Wushishi areas. Meanwhile, local think-tank SB Morgen Intelligence 8 Feb said bandits from Zamfara had moved into Kwara state (south of Niger state) to escape military. Boko Haram or Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) launched attacks in Niger state, killing 37 people, mainly civilians, in Shiroro area 5 and 20-21 Feb. Both groups remained active in North East’s Borno state despite suffering major losses. Explosive device attack 4 Feb killed around 20 soldiers in Abadam area; ISWAP 25-26 Feb killed at least 25 people in Chibok, Damboa and Biu areas. Govt airstrikes 3-4 Feb killed 45 suspected jihadists in Monguno and Marte areas, 13 Feb killed ISWAP commander Mallam Buba Danfulani in Kukawa area. Troops and vigilantes 10 Feb killed around 20 jihadists in Gubio area. In South East, gunmen 11-12 Feb killed seven policemen in Enugu state capital; 15 Feb killed at least eight civilians in Abia state’s Ukwa West area; 20 Feb killed four policemen in Imo and Anambra states; police blamed attacks on Biafra separatist group’s armed wing Eastern Security Network. In Anambra, gunmen 26 Feb killed 20 in Awka North area, reportedly due to cult rivalry.
Authorities intensified air strikes on armed groups notably in Zamfara state, as criminal violence across North West and in North Central zone killed hundreds. Military stepped up air and ground operations against armed groups in North West, notably killing over 100 suspected bandits including two of their leaders in air strikes in Gusami forest and West Tsamre village, Zamfara state, 3 Jan. Bold armed group attacks meanwhile killed hundreds across region. In Zamfara, gunmen allegedly fleeing govt airstrikes around 9 Jan killed between 58 and 200 people mainly in Bukkuyum and Anka areas; over 10,000 displaced. In Kebbi state, armed group 14 Jan attacked Dankade village in Danko Wasagu area; at least 16 and up to 50 killed. Niger state authorities 18 Jan said armed groups 1-17 Jan killed 220 people and kidnapped another 200 across Niger state; another 31 including 11 security agents reportedly killed 29 Jan in Niger’s Shiroro area. Criminal violence also spread further to North Central zone. Notably, in Taraba state, gunmen 2 and 12 Jan killed 30 vigilantes and six other people in Gassol area. Federal govt 5 Jan designated armed groups in North West as “terrorists”, clearing way to apply fuller range of weaponry against them. In north-eastern Borno state, military operations deterred large-scale jihadist attacks, but state authorities 12 Jan said Guzamala and Abadam areas fully under Boko Haram or Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) control. ISWAP 10 Jan reportedly killed ten soldiers in Buratai village in Biu area. As skirmishes between security forces and separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB)’s armed wing continued in South East, Imo state residents 5 Jan accused security forces of killing 25 civilians in operation starting 30 Dec. President Buhari 5 Jan said he would not seek negotiated settlement to IPOB leader Nnamdi Kanu’s legal case; closure of political option could fuel more violence. Meanwhile, herder-farmer violence persisted at low level, notably killing eight in Ondo state 3-11 Jan. Ethnic violence between Fulani and Irigwe groups flared in Plateau state, leaving 20 dead in Bassa area 2 and 13 Jan.
Rampant insecurity persisted in North West; herder-farmer violence killed dozens; lull in violence recorded in North East and South East. In North West, armed groups continued killings and kidnappings. In Kaduna state, armed groups 1-18 Dec killed at least 25 people and abducted over 127 in several attacks; 19 Dec launched multiple raids in Giwa area, leaving 38 dead; 22 Dec reportedly abducted over 70 in Chikun area. In Zamfara state, suspected bandits 25-26 Dec attacked communities near state capital Gusau, killing seven and abducting 33. In Niger state, armed group 8 Dec killed between nine and 16 worshippers at mosque in Mashegu area. In Sokoto state, armed men reportedly loyal to prominent bandit Bello Turji 7 Dec burnt down bus in Sabon Birni area, killing at least 30 civilians; gunmen 10-11 Dec killed three and abducted at least 11 including local imam in same area. Youths 14 Dec gathered in federal capital Abuja and most north-western states to protest insecurity. In north-eastern Borno state, security operations kept Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) and Boko Haram attacks at lower level. Military early Dec claimed air and ground operations 5 Dec killed ISWAP commander Abou Sufyan and “scores” of his fighters in Marte area. ISWAP militants 2 Dec abducted 15 including NGO local staff in Damboa area; 10 Dec attacked Civilian Joint Task Force base in Kaga area, killing two. Explosions 23 Dec left five dead in state capital Maiduguri hours before President Buhari’s visit in Borno. Herder-farmer violence continued to run high in several states. Notably, clash between ethnic Tiv farmers and Fulani herders in Gassol area of Taraba state (east) 2 Dec killed about 11 people and prompted others to flee; armed Fulani herders 17-20 Dec attacked Tiv villagers in alleged reprisal attacks in Nasarawa state (centre), reportedly leaving 45 dead. South East recorded lesser violence than in previous months. Soldiers 6 Dec clashed with separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB)’s armed wing Eastern Security Network, which was allegedly using force to implement lockdown in Oru East area of Imo state to demand release of IPOB leader Nnamdi Kanu.
Violence continued unabated in North West, North Central and North East zones, herder-farmer violence persisted, and gunmen attacked oil facilities in Niger Delta. In North West and North Central zones, armed groups continued deadly attacks. In Katsina state, armed groups 9-12 Nov killed at least 20 civilians, abducted at least 28. In Kaduna state, gunmen 5 Nov killed at least 20 in several attacks in Zangon Kataf area; 9 Nov killed retired air force general in Igabi area; 21-24 and 29 Nov repeatedly attacked travellers on Abuja-Kaduna highway, killing three and kidnapping dozens; suspected bandits also held on to 66 parishioners kidnapped late-Oct in Chikun area, demanded ransom. In Sokoto state, armed attacks 14-16 Nov killed at least 57. In Niger state (North Central zone), unidentified armed groups 18 Nov abducted 22 girls for forced marriage at Kurebe village in Shiroro area; 21-27 Nov attacked communities in Munya and Shiroro areas, leaving five dead, at least 63 abducted and over 30 women sexually assaulted; senior state official 23 Nov said Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) had set up camp near Kainji National Park in Borgu area along border with Benin Republic, and other extremist elements were settling into communities in Shiroro area. Military 25 Nov said troops killed 128 armed elements across North West and North Central zones 11-25 Nov. Federal High Court 26 Nov declared North West armed groups “terrorists”. In North East, ISWAP 13 Nov killed army general and three soldiers in Borno state; in response, army killed about 50 insurgents. Farmer-herder violence persisted. Notably, armed attacks 10-12 Nov killed at least 23 in farming villages in Taraba and Kaduna states, 26 Nov killed at least ten in Plateau state. In Niger Delta, new militant group, Bayan-Men, 23 and 27 Nov blew up Nigeria Agip Oil Company’s facilities in Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni area, Rivers state. In Plateau state capital Jos, gunmen 28 Nov stormed prison, enabled 262 inmates to escape; incident left 11 dead.
Amid sustained violence in north, local authorities warned of jihadist expansion into Middle Belt; trial of Biafra separatist leader sparked lockdowns in south. Amid persistent jihadist violence in north east, notably Borno state, military 14 Oct announced death of Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) leader Abu Musab al-Barnawi without providing further details; 28 Oct said it had killed ISWAP’s new leader Malam Bako earlier this month. In Niger state (Middle Belt), local govt official 3 Oct said Boko Haram (BH) had taken over multiple villages; Niger’s information commission later confirmed militants’ inroads in state, which borders Federal Capital Territory. Also in Niger state, unidentified gunmen 25 Oct killed at least 18 worshippers and reportedly abducted another 11 at mosque in Mashegu area. Meanwhile, criminal violence continued unabated in north west. In Sokoto state, suspected vigilante group 7 Oct killed 11 Fulani herders in Gwadabawa area; unidentified gunmen next day raided market in Sabon Birni area, leaving at least 20 dead, and 17 Oct reportedly killed at least 49 people in Goronyo area. In Zamfara state, gunmen 5 Oct killed at least 19 in Kuryan Madaro village. Security forces 7 Oct rescued around 190 civilians held captive by armed bandits in Zamfara forest; operation part of weeks-long military offensive in north-western states. Trial of Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) leader Nnamdi Kanu on charges of terrorism and treason 21 Oct resumed, was immediately adjourned to Nov; Umuahia and Aba cities in Kanu’s home state of Abia same day on total lockdown as part of months-long “sit-at-home” protest movement in south east calling for Kanu’s unconditional release. In third such attack this year, gunmen 22 Oct stormed jail in Oyo state (south west), reportedly freed all inmates. One year after massive #EndSARS protests against police brutality, notably at hands of now-disbanded Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS), Lagos State Judicial Panel of Inquiry on brutality and human rights abuses committed by police 18 Oct concluded investigation, granting compensation to 70 victims; thousands around 20 Oct demonstrated across country to commemorate victims of brutal repression against #EndSARS movement.
Armed group attacks on villages and military left over 100 dead in north west, and jihadist violence persisted in north east. In north west, security operations early Sept killed scores of armed group members in Zamfara and Katsina states’ forests, and angry residents 18 Sept lynched 13 armed group members detained at police facility in Tangaza area of Sokoto state; groups however continued attacks, killing over 100. In Sokoto, gunmen 24 or 25 Sept attacked military base in Sabon Birni area, killing 17 soldiers, police and civil defence corps: military blamed attack on “suspected ISWAP terrorists and bandits”; 28 Sept killed at least 20 people in same area. In Kaduna state, gunmen 26-27 Sept killed at least 51 people in attacks on villages in Kaura and Zangon Kataf areas. In Niger state, gunmen 28 Sept killed over 30 in three villages in Munyan area. Meanwhile in Borno state (north east), troops 1 Sept repelled insurgents’ attack on military base in Rann town; 17 including aid worker reportedly killed. Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) 16 Sept ambushed military convoy in Monguno town, killing unconfirmed number. In neighbouring Yobe state, airstrike on village in Yunusari area 15 Sept killed scores including civilians; ISWAP had reportedly used location as hideout. Militants mostly from embattled Boko Haram (BH) faction of late Abubakar Shekau (JAS) continued to surrender: military 2 Sept said 6,000 combatants had laid down arms in recent weeks. Intelligence agency 14 Sept warned JAS elements were relocating to and setting up camps in Kaduna state. Military 19 Sept reported ISWAP had started mass recruitment drive, apparently in preparation for major offensives in coming months. In Middle Belt, armed group 12-13 Sept stormed prison in Kabba town, Kogi state, freeing about 240 inmates, but state govt 27 Sept said 132 escapees rearrested; attack reportedly meant to free incarcerated BH/ISWAP commander. In south east, violence persisted between security forces and outlawed separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB). Notably, police blamed IPOB for 19 Sept attack on police post in Idemili North area of Anambra state, which left three dead.
Hundreds of jihadists surrendered amid continued attacks in north east, while criminal, intercommunal and separatist violence persisted in other regions. In Borno state (north east), Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) killed at least six troops in three attacks 7-14 Aug; 30 Aug attacked Rann and Ajiri towns leaving at least 17 people dead. Army 10 Aug said 1,000 jihadists had recently laid down their arms; series of surrenders likely resulting from May killing of Boko Haram faction (JAS) leader Abubakar Shekau and subsequent clashes between ISWAP and remaining JAS elements when latter refused to join ISWAP. Armed groups continued to launch attacks in north west. In Zamfara state, armed group 15 Aug stormed public college in Bakura town, killing three and kidnapping 19; armed group same day attacked Randa village in Maru area, killing 13 and abducting over 30. In Kaduna state, armed groups 3 Aug killed 25 in four villages in Kauru area, 22 Aug killed at least nine in Zangon Kataf area. In Sokoto state, armed group 14 Aug killed nine in three villages in Goronyo area. Military reported over 200 armed group members killed 2-15 Aug in air and ground operations in Niger and Zamfara states. Intercommunal and herder-farmer violence flared in north central zone, notably Plateau state. Attacks by suspected herder-aligned gunmen on ethnic Irigwe villages in Bassa area 31 July-1 Aug killed at least 17; suspected Irigwe militia 14 Aug killed at least 22 Fulani Muslims near state capital Jos; gunmen 22 Aug killed at least 44 people in Yelwa Zangam village, Plateau state, and Guma area, Benue state. In south east, violence pitting security forces against suspected members of outlawed separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) rose again. In Imo state, gunmen 5 and 13 Aug attacked police stations in Orlu and Izombe towns, killing at least three officers; 16 Aug ambushed convoy transporting petroleum industry workers, killing seven; police blamed separatists, but IPOB denied involvement. NGO Amnesty International 5 Aug reported security forces carried out numerous abuses, including unlawful killings, arbitrary arrests and torture, in their response to violence in south east in Jan-June.
Violence continued unabated in north west, while jihadist and separatist attacks ebbed in north east and south east respectively. Armed group violence left dozens dead and scores kidnapped in north west, notably in Zamfara state: 49 killed in Maradun area 8 July; 20 farmers kidnapped in Bakura area 16 July; 150 villagers kidnapped in Shinkafi area 16-17 July; and at least 13 police killed in Bungudu area 18 July. Air force Alpha jet same day crashed after coming “under intense enemy fire” in Zamfara, leaving no casualties; unprecedented incident confirms armed groups acquiring anti-aircraft capabilities. In Katsina state, armed group 4-5 July killed at least 20 in three villages in Batsari area. In Kaduna state, gunmen 5 July abducted 121 students near state capital; armed groups 8-13 July killed 33 in Zangon Kataf area. North east saw lull in Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) attacks in Borno state as group reportedly reshuffled its leadership as directed by Islamic State (ISIS); ISWAP notably reinstated Abbah Gana as leader of so-called Islamic Caliphate of Africa straddling Nigeria, Chad, Niger and Cameroon. Suspected Boko Haram (BH) militants 7 July killed at least 18 civilians in neighbouring Adamawa state. Security forces 16-28 July reportedly killed 16 ISWAP or BH combatants, arrested 29, and rescued 40 civilians in north east. Violence between govt forces and separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra and its armed wing Eastern Security Network ebbed in south east; at least ten policemen however killed in five states throughout month. In south west, state security forces 1 July raided home of ethnic Yoruba separatist agitator, Sunday Igboho, killed two aides and arrested 13, and declared him “wanted”; Igboho arrested in Benin 19 July. Meanwhile, gunmen 15 July killed army Major General Hassan Ahmed just outside Federal Capital Territory, Abuja; 18 July killed at least ten including two humanitarian workers in Guma area, Benue state; residents blamed attack on herders. Court 28 July acquitted Ibrahim Zakzaky, leader of outlawed Shiite group Islamic Movement in Nigeria, of all eight criminal charges against him; Zakzaky had been detained since 2015.
Govt shut down social media platform Twitter citing security concerns as country’s multiple violent conflicts continued. Federal govt 4 June ordered Internet providers to block access to social media platform Twitter; move came after Twitter suspended President Buhari’s account and removed post in which he vowed to “treat [Biafra secessionist groups] in the language they understand”. Numerous human rights groups protested shutdown as attempt to stifle free speech. In north west, armed groups continued attacks and mass abductions, killing over 250 and displacing thousands. In Kebbi state, 88 killed in Danko-Wasagu area 3 June and 102 kidnapped in Birnin Yauri town 17 June. In Zamfara state, at least 137 killed and over 100 abducted in Zurmi and Maru areas 6-10 June. In north east, Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) 6 June confirmed Boko Haram faction (JAS) leader Abubakar Shekau had killed himself in May, 26 June issued video of rival ISWAP and JAS fighters jointly pledging allegiance to Islamic State. ISWAP continued attacks in Borno state, notably on military base in Damboa area 15 June. Military 8 and 20 June repelled ISWAP attacks on Dikwa and Kumshe towns, killing at least six insurgents, 20 June killed over 20 others in Lambua forest. Herder-farmer-related violence flared in several states. Notably, gunmen 5-6 June killed at least 15 people in Igangan town in Oyo state, 6 June killed 27 in Agatu area of Benue state and 13 June killed 12 in Jos South area of Plateau state; residents and local authorities blamed attacks on herders. In south east, amid govt crackdown on outlawed separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) and its armed wing Eastern Security Network (ESN), govt 6 June reported killing IPOB/ESN’s “Number 1 killer-squad commander”, Dragon; 26 June reported destroying three ESN camps in Imo state. Attorney general late June said IPOB leader Nnamdi Kanu was arrested abroad 27 June and brought back to Nigeria to face trial. In Niger Delta, armed group Niger Delta Avengers, dormant since 2017, 26 June announced it would resume attacks on petroleum installations.
Overall security situation deteriorated further notably due to violent escalation in South East. In South East, suspected members of Eastern Security Network, armed wing of outlawed separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra 6-30 May killed at least 25 security personnel, mostly police officers, in Ebonyi, Anambra, Rivers, Akwa Ibom and Abia states; 30 May allegedly assassinated prominent northern politician, Ahmed Gulak, in Imo state. Herder-farmer violence displaced thousands in several states and left about 60 people killed in Bali area of Taraba state 13-16 May; at least 14 killed in Jos South area of Plateau state 23 May; and about 55 killed in Katsina-Ala and Ado areas of Benue state 27 and 30 May. Attacks and abductions continued in North West. In Kaduna state, gunmen 19 May attacked two villages, killing 11. In Katsina state, gunmen 8 May killed 11 in Safana area, 10 May abducted 45 in Jibia area and 18 May abducted 21 in Batsari area. In Niger state, armed groups 5 May killed eight and abducted over 100 in Shadadi town; 30 May abducted about 200 children in Rafi area; and next day killed at least 15 in Mariga area. In Sokoto state, armed groups 21-23 May killed 25 in Sabon Birni, Isah and Rabah areas. In Zamfara state, armed groups 22 May killed 19 farmers and two police officers across Gusau, Maradun and Zurmi areas; 24-25 May, killed 20 in Bungudu area. Meanwhile, several media organisations 20 May reported Abubakar Shekau, leader of Boko Haram faction (JAS), had blown himself up or was seriously wounded in attempt to kill himself to escape capture by rival group Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) in Borno state (north east); move followed major ISWAP offensive on Shekau’s Sambisa forest stronghold and seizure of territories formerly under his control. ISWAP also attacked military base in Borno’s Ajiri town 2-3 May; fighting killed five soldiers, 15 members of Civilian Joint Task Force and at least six civilians. Military killed at least 59 insurgents throughout month, including at least 40 in Konduga area mid-month.
Country’s multiple violent conflicts further escalated, notably in Borno and Zamfara states, leaving hundreds killed and tens of thousands displaced. In North East, jihadists stepped up attacks as Ramadan started 12 April. Notably, Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) 10-14 April launched three attacks on Damasak town, Borno state, killing at least 20 civilians and displacing about 65,000. Boko Haram combatants from Abubakar Shekau-led faction (JAS) 9 April killed at least 11 civilians in Hong area, Adamawa state, with 5,000 more displaced. ISWAP 23-28 April seized strategic Geidam town, Yobe state, 26 April overran army camp in Mainok town, Borno state, killing about 33 soldiers. Herder-farmer and intercommunal violence rose in several states. Notably, gunmen killed at least 17 farmers in Guma area, Benue state, 23-24 April; 14 farmers in Doma and Keana areas, Nasarawa state, 24-27 April; 19 herders in Awkuzu town, Anambra state, 26 April. Violence involving Fulani traders and vigilantes, followed by armed attacks on villages 19-22 April left at least 83 killed in Maru, Bakura and Maradun areas of Zamfara state. Local militia 8 April killed 11 soldiers amid intercommunal violence in Konshisha area, Benue state. In North West and North Centre, kidnappings for ransom and other violence ran high. In Niger state, gunmen 31 March-1 April killed at least 14, including six soldiers, in Shiroro area, 21 April attacked military camp in Munya area, and 24 April kidnapped 35 in Shiroro and Munya areas. In Kaduna state, gunmen 20-22 April abducted 100 in Chikun and Kajuru areas, later killing at least five of them. In South East and South South, gunmen stepped up attacks on security personnel and facilities, but also ethnic Hausa and Fulani northerners, killing 13 northerners in Enugu and Imo states 29 March-3 April, and freeing over 1,800 inmates at Owerri prison in Imo state 5 April. Authorities blamed Eastern Security Network (ESN), armed wing of outlawed separatist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), and security forces 24 April raided ESN headquarters in Awomama town, Imo state, killing 11 including senior commanders. IPOB immediately promised “hell” to those involved.
Jihadists mounted significant attacks in north east, criminal violence continued unabated in north west, and suspected Biafra secessionists’ attacks on security forces persisted in south east. In Borno state in north east, Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) targeted major humanitarian hub and military base despite military operations. Insurgents 1-2 March attacked Dikwa town, setting UN office ablaze and forcing evacuation of aid workers from Dikwa, Monguno and Ngala towns. ISWAP 11 March ambushed military convoy near Gudumbali town, reportedly killing 15 soldiers and four Multinational Joint Task Force troops, and 14 March attacked army’s super camp in Damasak town, killing at least 12 soldiers. Special forces 15 March reportedly killed 41 jihadists in operations near Gamboru and Ngala towns; 27 March killed 48 members of Boko Haram faction led by Abubakar Shekau (JAS) around Chibok and Askira towns. UN humanitarian office 16 March reported “worst [humanitarian] outlook in four years” in north east, with close to 2mn people internally displaced and up to 5.1mn facing hunger during lean season. In north west, armed group violence remained high. Notably, in Zamfara state, unidentified gunmen 16 March attacked Kabasa village, killing at least ten, including three soldiers; army said troops thwarted attack, killing scores. Also in Zamfara, 279 female students kidnapped late Feb released 2 March. In neighbouring Kaduna state, unidentified gunmen 11 March abducted 39 students in Afaka town; 15 March abducted several students and three teachers at primary school in Birnin Gwari area, later freed all children; 18 March killed 13 and burnt 56 houses in Zangon Kataf, Kauru and Chikun areas. Herder-farmer relations continued to deteriorate in south, with many incidents of violence, notably 27 people killed 28-29 March in attacks on four farming villages in Ebonyi state (south east) by suspected herders. Also in south east, attacks on police personnel and facilities by suspected members of Eastern Security Network (ESN), paramilitary wing of secessionist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), continued; troops 24 March killed 16 ESN in Aba town, Abia state.
Criminal groups abducted hundreds in north west, while ethnic and regional tensions ran high in south amid farmer-herder conflict; meanwhile, tensions rose in south east between govt and Biafra secessionists. Criminal groups in Feb reportedly killed at least 112 and kidnapped over 450 people, mostly in Katsina, Kaduna, Sokoto and Zamfara states (north west), but also in Niger state (Middle Belt). Notably, armed group 17 Feb abducted 42 students and school personnel in Niger state, released them 27 Feb; 26 Feb kidnapped 279 girls in Zamfara state. Meanwhile, Auwalun Daudawa, who masterminded Dec 2020 abduction of 344 students in Katsina state, 8 Feb laid down arms along with five of his troops. Amid rise in herder-farmer and intercommunal violence in south since Jan, clashes between ethnic Hausa and Fulani on one hand, and ethnic Yoruba on the other, early Feb killed two dozen people in Oyo state capital Ibadan (south west). Nobel laureate in literature Wole Soyinka 6 Feb warned situation could spiral into civil war and former President Abdulsalam Abubakar 16 Feb said it could lead to “point of no return”. In Imo state (south east), security forces stepped up operations against Eastern Security Network (ESN), paramilitary wing of outlawed secessionist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB); army 18 Feb deployed helicopters and hundreds of troops in Orlu and Orsu areas, razing several ESN camps; IPOB same day said govt had triggered “second Nigeria-Biafra war”. Boko Haram (BH) attacks continued in Borno state (north east) despite military operations. Army 9-10 Feb repelled insurgent attacks on base in Rann town and on Askira Uba town, killing at least 50 combatants. BH splinter group Islamic State West Africa Province 15 Feb killed at least seven soldiers in Marte area; next day launched coordinated attacks in Marte and Gubio areas, death toll unknown; 19 Feb raided several villages in Dikwa area, displacing thousands. BH rocket attack on state capital Maiduguri 23 Feb reportedly left 16 dead. Military 15 Feb said troops had killed some 80 insurgents from BH faction led by Abubakar Shekau (JAS) in “recent” operations in Sambisa forest; at least two senior JAS figures reportedly among those killed.
Jihadist attacks and criminal violence continued unabated in north east and north west. Attacks by Boko Haram (BH) factions against military continued in Borno state (north east) despite military operations. Notably, suicide bombing by BH splinter group Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) 11 Jan killed six soldiers in Talala village and ISWAP insurgents 15 Jan reportedly temporarily took over army base in Marte town; number of casualties unknown. Army 3 Jan launched new counter-insurgency operation to dislodge BH factions from Borno state (notably islands of Lake Chad), parts of Adamawa and Yobe states, reportedly killing over 60 combatants in Yobe state 9-10 Jan and “several” others in airstrikes in Konduga, Kaga and Bama areas of Borno state 12-14 Jan. Armed criminal groups continued to launch attacks and abductions across several regions, reportedly killing at least 71 security personnel and civilians and kidnapping at least 191 people throughout month in Katsina, Zamfara and Kaduna states (north west), Niger, Nasarawa and Kogi states (Middle Belt), and Taraba state (east). Meanwhile, security forces continued operations to stem violence in north west. Notably, military 9 Jan reportedly killed at least 50 gunmen in Kaura Namoda area and 17 Jan killed another 35 in two separate clashes in Bungudu and Maradun areas, all Zamfara state. Amid mounting pressure from Senate, President Buhari 26 Jan dismissed four military chiefs. Farmer-herder tensions continued. Governor of Ondo state in south west 18 Jan issued seven-day ultimatum to ethnic Fulani herders to vacate state’s forest reserves which have turned into hideouts for criminals; order yet to be enforced; in Ibarapo area of neighbouring Oyo state, ethnic Yoruba mobs 22 Jan attacked Fulani communities, killing at least three. In Imo state in south east, secessionist group Indigenous People of Biafra 25 Jan clashed with security forces in Orlu area, reportedly leaving several killed.
Jihadist and criminal violence continued in north east and north west, while authorities came under international scrutiny. Boko Haram (BH) factions continued to launch attacks in north-eastern Borno state despite ongoing military operations. BH combatants 7-30 Dec killed at least 24 security personnel, one civilian and abducted at least 38 people including two aid workers in Damboa, Konduga, Jakana, Mafa and Jere areas. Army 6-8 Dec killed 13 combatants apparently from BH faction led by Abubakar Shekau (JAS) in Magumeri, Bama and Gwoza areas; airstrikes 11 Dec killed “several” JAS combatants in Gwoza area; army next day repelled attack in Askira-Uba area by same faction, killing over 20 combatants. Suspected JAS suicide attack 19 Dec killed three civilians in Konduga town. BH 24 Dec killed 11 civilians in Pemi village. Armed group violence and abductions continued in north west, particularly Katsina state: gunmen 11 Dec stormed secondary school in Kankara town and abducted over 300 schoolboys; govt and local security officials immediately blamed attack on criminal groups but Shekau 15 Dec claimed responsibility; schoolboys released 17 Oct. Also in Katsina, armed group 17 Dec attacked convoy of traditional and religious ruler from Kaura Namoda town (Zamfara state), in Funtua area, killing eight guards; 19 Dec briefly kidnapped about 80 Islamic school students in Dandume area. In Niger state (Middle Belt), armed groups 8-15 Dec killed four and abducted around 30 civilians, prompting 5,000 others to flee. In Enugu state (south east), unidentified gunmen 26 Dec killed Oruku community’s traditional chief in Nkanu East area. Federal parliament 1 Dec summoned President Buhari over insecurity in north, reflecting rising discontent including within ruling party; Buhari rejected convocation, claiming lawmakers lack power to summon him on security matters. Meanwhile, govt suffered international setbacks. U.S. 7 Dec designated Nigeria as “country of particular concern” with regard to religious freedom, paving way for sanctions. Office of International Criminal Court (ICC) Prosecutor 11 Dec said there is “reasonable basis to believe” that both BH and security forces have committed war crimes and crimes against humanity in Nigeria, concluded ICC investigation is warranted.
Jihadist and criminal violence continued in North East and North West, and authorities cracked down on instigators of #EndSARS protest movement. In Borno state in North East, jihadists 1 Nov killed 12 civilians and kidnapped nine others in Chibok town. Landmine laid by jihadists next day killed nine soldiers in Abadam town. Boko Haram (BH) 21 Nov killed seven soldiers and two civilians in attack on Borno state governor’s convoy on Gajiram-Monguno axis. Jihadists 28 Nov killed at least 43 farmers and abducted unconfirmed number of people in Zabarmari village near state capital Maiduguri. Meanwhile, army and vigilantes 2 Nov killed “scores” of BH insurgents in Nganzai town, and airstrikes 8 and 10 Nov targeted Islamic State West Africa Province and BH insurgents in Abadam and Gwoza towns, death toll unknown. In North West, criminal violence continued to take high toll on civilians. In Kaduna state, unidentified gunmen 6-7 Nov abducted 13 in Dande village, Chikun area, and near state capital Kaduna; 15-17 Nov killed at least 16 and abducted many others in several attacks across state. In Katsina state, unidentified gunmen 8 Nov killed three civilians and kidnapped 13 others in Sabuwa area; same day kidnapped six police officers in Dogondaji area. In Zamfara state, unidentified gunmen 11 Nov killed civilian and abducted five others in Anka area; 20 Nov attacked mosque in Dutsen Gari village, reportedly killing five and abducting 18 others, including imam; 30 Nov killed eight civilians and abducted 38 in Talata-Mafara area. In South, clashes between rival cult groups, notably Aye and Eiye, 1-15 Nov killed over 40, mostly around Edo state capital Benin City. After protests against Special Anti-Robbery Unit (SARS) turned deadly last month, govt late Oct-early Nov launched legal action against individuals and organisations affiliated with protest movement, including seizing travel documents and freezing bank accounts.
Protests against police brutality and impunity turned violent in major cities, while jihadist and criminal violence persisted in North East and North West. Peaceful protests 5 Oct started in federal capital Abuja and largest city, Lagos, following public outcry at 3 Oct video showing police unit Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) shooting unarmed man in Ughelli town in Delta state. Federal govt 11 Oct acceded to protestors’ primary demand by disbanding SARS unit; govt 13 Oct however announced creation of new Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team to replace old unit which angered protesters. Protests subsequently grew, involving tens of thousands, and increasingly turned violent as authorities forcefully dispersed protesters, armed pro-police thugs attacked demonstrators, and looting and criminal violence erupted across many cities. Soldiers 20 Oct opened fire at protesters in Lagos city, killing at least a dozen according to rights groups; govt denied killings. Mobs subsequently destroyed at least 25 police stations, killed or wounded dozens of officers, facilitated jailbreaks enabling over 2,000 to flee, ransacked shopping malls and looted food warehouses. Govt 23 Oct reported 69 people killed in protest-related violence, including civilians, police officers and soldiers. As of 25 Oct, 27 state govts and Federal Capital Territory had set up judicial panels to investigate police abuses. Meanwhile, jihadist violence persisted in north-eastern Borno state despite counter-insurgency operations. Jihadists 12 Oct killed 14 farmers in Ngwom village; 16 Oct attacked Jakana military base, killing 14 soldiers; 25 Oct slaughtered eight farmers in Moranti village outside state capital Maiduguri. Military 1 and 17 Oct killed unspecified number of insurgents in air strikes in Ngala and Dikwa areas respectively; 25 Oct repelled insurgents’ attack on army camp in Damboa area, killing at least 20. Armed group attacks and kidnappings persisted in North West. Bandits 3-13 Oct abducted 28 civilians and killed six vigilantes in Katsina, Niger and Kaduna states, while community vigilantes 13 Oct killed 14 Fulani youths suspected of collaborating with local bandits in Wurma village, Katsina state. Bandits 29 Oct attacked villages in Dandume area, Katsina state, and Maradun area, Zamfara state, killing at least 21 including police and vigilantes.
Jihadists continued to target civilians and military in north east, while criminal violence persisted in north west and centre, spreading closer to capital Abuja. In north-eastern Borno state, suspected jihadists 1 Sept attacked army post in Magumeri town, killing at least ten soldiers; 6, 15 and 17 Sept launched several attacks on civilians, killing at least 24; and 25 Sept attacked state governor’s convoy near Baga town, reportedly killing up to 30. Meanwhile, in continued fight against jihadists, army 14 and 18 Sept killed 20 insurgents near Borno state capital Maiduguri and in neighbouring Yobe state’s Bade village; 20 Sept killed “scores” of insurgents after they ambushed and killed army colonel near Damboa town same day; 24-25 Sept launched airstrikes in several areas of Borno, leaving unknown number of insurgents dead. In north west, bandits and other criminal groups continued attacks and kidnappings, killing eight civilians and two police officers and abducting at least 44 civilians in Katsina, Sokoto and Kaduna states 14-27 Sept. Military 13-17 Sept reportedly killed several armed group members in airstrikes in Zamfara state’s Birnin-Magaji area and Maru town; 24 Sept killed 21 unidentified gunmen in Faskari area, Katsina state, but lost three soldiers including army colonel. Insecurity persisted in Middle Belt in centre. In Niger state, unidentified gunmen 2-4 Sept killed at least 23 civilians and abducted 53 others in several villages in Rafi, Rijau and Shiroro areas. Security concerns increased around federal capital Abuja. Unidentified gunmen 10 Sept kidnapped at least ten residents in Tungan Maje village, Federal Capital Territory. In neighbouring Nasarawa state, unidentified gunmen 14 Sept ambushed federal road safety agency convoy on Mararaban-Udege axis, killing two officers and kidnapping ten.
Jihadist and criminal violence continued in north east and north west, and herder-farmer tensions persisted in many states. In Borno state in north east, Boko Haram (BH) and BH faction Islamic State West African Province (ISWAP) attacks continued despite airstrikes by govt forces, which left dozens of insurgents killed 11-17 Aug notably on Lake Chad islands and in Sambisa forest. Suicide bomber 2 Aug killed herself and two others in Konduga town. Suspected ISWAP 10 Aug reportedly killed 13 civilians and several soldiers in Magumeri and Kukawa towns. After ISWAP 18 Aug again attacked Kukawa town, local sources reported they took hundreds hostage, while military said troops thwarted attack, killing eight insurgents and losing three soldiers. In Nasarawa state, near capital Abuja, troops 26 Aug raided camp of little-known Islamist group Darul Salam in Toto area; military reported over 400 group members surrendered, and troops seized artisanal explosive device-making factory and assault weapons. In north west, security operations against armed groups killed at least 25 and curbed attacks in some areas; but raids on villages continued, particularly in southern Kaduna state, leaving 33 killed in Zango Kataf area 6-8 Aug, and 11 others in Zango Kataf, Kajuru and Kachia areas 16-19 Aug. In Katsina state, gunmen 9 Aug abducted several women in Kurfi area. In Niger state, armed group 12 Aug killed 15 civilians in Ukuru village, Mariga area. Concerns over jihadist groups forging links with armed groups in North West continued. Commander of U.S. Special Operations Command Africa 5 Aug warned against “al-Qaeda starting to make some inroads” there. Amid persistent tensions between herders and farmers and other communal violence in many states, prominent Fulani herders’ group 13 Aug accused community vigilantes of killing 68 Fulani civilians in Kebbi state 29 April-11 Aug, warned “large conflict” was looming. In alleged fallout from long-running chieftaincy-related dispute, gunmen 10 Aug killed at least 13 in Edikwu village, Benue state.
Jihadists resumed attacks on Borno state capital in north east, armed groups inflicted heavy toll on army in north west, and attacks on farming communities spiked in Middle Belt. In Borno state in north east, insurgents 2 July shot UN helicopter near Damasak town, prompting UN to pause humanitarian flights to review risk assessments. Suspected Boko Haram faction Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) 7-16 July killed about 50 soldiers, including 37 in ambush along Maiduguri-Damboa highway 7 July. Troops 13 July repelled first insurgents’ attack in state capital Maiduguri in several months, and 19 July repelled ISWAP attack on army’s super camp in Damasak town, killing eight ISWAP commanders. ISWAP same day killed five humanitarian workers abducted in June. Insurgents 30 July fired four rocket-propelled explosives into Maiduguri killing seven, in second major security breach of city long considered beyond insurgent’s reach. In north west, military reported 80 armed men killed in operations 1-31 July, while armed groups continued attacks mainly in Katsina and Zamfara states. In Katsina, unidentified gunmen 6 July killed at least 25 in Yar Gamji village in Batsari area; first explosive device attack in Katsina 18 July killed seven children in Yammama village, Malumfashi area; armed group same day ambushed army unit in Jibia area, inflicting heavy toll on military by killing at least 23 soldiers; 20 July abducted seventeen women in Zakka town, Safana area. In Zamfara, armed group 6 July stormed Danfana village, Maru area, killing seven and abducting 20. Air force 9, 20 and 23 July bombed armed groups’ hideouts in Zamfara state forest, killing unspecified numbers. With armed groups deploying increasingly sophisticated weapons, army 10 July reported growing indications of connections between them and jihadist groups. Intercommunal violence and attacks on farming communities flared in Middle Belt, killing dozens. In southern part of Kaduna state, armed attacks on farming communities 9-24 July killed over 70 residents in Kaura, Kajuru, Kauru and Zangon Kataf areas. In Benue state’s Logo area, unidentified assailants 10 July killed seven in Chembe village. In other communal violence, unidentified gunmen 29 July killed fourteen at Agbudu village, Kogi state.
Boko Haram factions launched deadly attacks on civilians in north east, armed groups’ attacks on villages left over 140 dead despite military offensives in north west, and ethnic and herder-farmer violence persisted in several states. In Borno state in north east, local security official 11 June said insurgents had carried out 19 attacks since start of month; notably, Boko Haram splinter group Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) 9 June killed at least 81 and abducted seven including village head in Faduma Kolomdi village, Gubio area. ISWAP 11 June released video showing execution of abducted soldier and policeman; 13 June attacked Usmanati Goni village in Nganzai area, killing at least 35; 28 June released video of five aid workers abducted earlier in month and reportedly demanded $500,000 ransom. Troops 11 June repelled insurgents’ attack on Monguno town, killing at least 41 insurgents; two soldiers also killed. Troops 27 June clashed with insurgents along Maiduguri-Damboa-Biu road, at least 20 insurgents and ten soldiers reported killed. In north west, military launched several ground and air operations against members of armed groups, notably killing 70 in Kaduna state’s Kachia forest 5 June and scores of others including prominent armed group leader in Zamfara state’s Doumborou forest 23 June. However, armed assailants continued to attack villages, killing over 140 civilians and abducting dozens in Katsina, Zamfara and Niger states. Notably, gunmen 9 June killed 60 villagers in Faskari, Dandume and Sabuwa areas of Katsina state, 2-3 June killed at least 21 in Maru and Talata Mafara areas, 20 June killed at least 26 in Ruwan Tofa village in Maru area, all in Zamfara state. Herder-farmer and ethnic violence persisted in several states: notably, nine people killed 3 June in Kajuru area, Kaduna state; nine farmers killed 14 June in Adana village, Benue state; and three farmers killed 19 June in Adiyani village, Jigawa state.
Banditry and other violence continued unabated in north west, communal violence flared across several states notably in Middle Belt, and jihadist attacks persisted in north east. In north west, armed groups’ attacks killed at least 160 civilians in Katsina, Niger, Zamfara, Kaduna and Sokoto states despite ongoing security operations. In Katsina state, unidentified gunmen killed at least 21 in attacks 13-17 May, and fifteen 28 May. In Niger state, gunmen 13 May kidnapped four construction workers in Erena town, later demanding ransom. In Zamfara state, gunmen 19 May killed at least fifteen in Tsafe area. In Kaduna state, armed attacks on villages 11-21 May killed at least 35 in Kajuru area. In Sokoto state, gunmen 27 May attacked several villages in Sabon Birnin area, killing at least 74 people. Military 28 May reported 392 bandits and others killed in operations in north west 6-28 May. In Middle Belt, communal violence flared across Adamawa, Taraba and Benue states, leaving at least 80 dead. In Taraba state, fighting between Ichen and Tiv ethnic groups killed eight in Bali area 10 May; gunmen killed eight ethnic Fulanis in Wukari area 19 May. In Adamawa state, Hausa and Chabo communities 14-15 May clashed in Lamurde town, killing 48. In Benue state, communal and bandit violence killed at least eight in Guma area throughout month. Fulani herders 12 May clashed with farming communities in Adamawa and Benue states, at least eight killed. In north east, military 1-17 May reportedly killed 215 suspected members of Boko Haram (BH) factions – Abubakar Shekau’s group (JAS) and Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP). However, jihadist attacks continued in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states. Notably, suspected insurgents 17 May killed at least twenty civilians in Gajigana village, Borno state. Federal govt’s human rights protection agency National Human Rights Commission 10 May said it had received 104 complaints of human rights violations by security forces enforcing COVID-19 lockdown including eleven extrajudicial killings 13 April-4 May.
Military stepped up operations against Boko Haram (BH) in north east, bandit-related violence continued in north west, communal violence flared in Middle Belt, and enforcement of COVID-19 measures fuelled abuses. In north east, military in coordination with regional force MNJTF ramped up operations to dislodge BH factions from islands of Lake Chad and parts of Borno and Yobe states, reportedly killing hundreds since late March. Notably, army reportedly killed 105 Islamic State West Africa Province fighters on outskirts of Yobe state’s Buni Gari village 18 April. Bandit-related violence continued in north west with at least 120 civilians killed in month in Sokoto, Zamfara, Niger, Kaduna and Katsina states. In Zamfara state, military 12 April intercepted caravan of bandits in Dansadau forest killing ten and rescuing eighteen captives; 20 April killed 21 bandits, lost four soldiers in Zurmi area; 24 April killed 89 bandits in same area. Herder-farmer violence continued in Middle Belt, including unidentified gunmen 1-14 April killing at least nineteen villagers in Bassa area of Plateau state, and clashes between Shomo and Jole ethnic groups leaving at least 25 dead in Taraba state 14 April. President Buhari 13 April extended COVID-19 lockdown in capital Abuja, largest city Lagos, and south-western Ogun state for another two weeks; 27 April extended lockdown for another week; most state governors took similar measures. Federal govt’s rights protection agency, National Human Rights Commission, 15 April said it had received “105 complaints of human rights violations perpetuated by security forces” while enforcing COVID-19 lockdown including at least eighteen extra-judicial killings 30 March-13 April.
Boko Haram (BH) continued to target military in north east, while banditry-related violence persisted in north west leaving over 110 killed. In Borno state in north east, BH insurgents 4 March killed three soldiers in Damboa town near state capital Maiduguri, govt troops repelled attack killing nineteen insurgents; BH insurgents 15 March killed six soldiers in ambush in Banki area; air force 18 March targeted gathering of BH splinter group Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) leaders and fighters in Lake Chad area, killing several; military said counter-insurgency operation in Gorgi area killed more than 100 BH including top commander 21-23 March; 29 soldiers also killed; ISWAP militants 28 March ambushed vehicles near Maiduguri killing five. In Yobe state in north east, BH insurgents 23 March killed about 50 soldiers in ambush near Goneri village. In north west, security forces reported further indications of resurgence of long-dormant BH splinter Ansaru. Notably, military 17 March said joint police-air force operation in three villages in Kaduna state killed five Ansaru commanders and twelve bandits. Bandits continued attacks in Zamfara, Kaduna and Niger states, killing over 110 in March. In Zamfara state, bandits 8 March, attacked Yar Katsina village in Bungudu area, killing eight; 12 March stormed Katsira village in Gusau area, killing eleven vigilantes; 16 March stormed market in Birnin Tsaba village, Birnin Magaji area, killing two vigilantes; suspecting bandits were Fulani, villagers thereafter lynched three Fulani men; bandits 17 March killed sixteen in two villages in Maru area. In Kaduna state, hundreds of bandits 1 March attacked four villages in Igabi area, reportedly killing 51. In Niger state, bandits 22 March attacked security patrol team comprising soldiers, police and civil defence personnel in Shiroro area, killing 29. Air force 31 March attacked bandits’ camp in Pandogari area, Niger state, reportedly killing many.
Boko Haram (BH) insurgency continued in north east, bandit-related violence persisted in north west while security forces launched operations against jihadist group Ansaru, and herder-related violence flared up in Middle Belt and in south. In Borno state in north east, BH factions Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) and Abubakar Shekau’s group (Jama’tu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad, JAS) continued to attack civilians and security forces despite counter-insurgency operations, and ISWAP fighters reportedly executed faction’s senior commanders. Notably, suspected insurgents 9 Feb killed at least 30 civilians at Auno village, near state capital Maiduguri. Clashes between BH fighters and security forces 10 Feb in Konduga, Magumeri and Kala-Balge areas reportedly left three soldiers, three vigilantes and six insurgent dead. Military reportedly killed ISWAP fighters in Ngala area 4-5 Feb, and BH insurgents in Gwoza area 8 Feb and in Damboa area 9 Feb. In Adamawa state in east, BH 21-22 Feb attacked Garkida town, killing at least three soldiers and several civilians. ISWAP fighters 9 Feb reportedly executed faction leader Idris al-Barnawi and Ba’a Idirisa, son of deceased BH founder Mohammed Yusuf, for allegedly “going soft”. In north west, bandits carried out several attacks, killing at least 40 people in Kaduna state 3-12 Feb, and 30 civilians in Katsina state 14 Feb; clashes between bandits and vigilantes in Katsina state left 21 dead 27 Feb. Police 5 Feb reported it had raided camp of long-dormant jihadist group Ansaru in Kuduru forest, Kaduna state same day, killing over 250 militants and bandits, and losing two officers; Ansaru claimed 34 police dead. Police 9 Feb said it had arrested eight suspected Ansaru fighters involved in recent violence in Kaduna state. Herder-related violence continued in Plateau state, Middle Belt: suspected herders 9 Feb killed three civilians in Tyana village; 16 Feb killed two soldiers in Barkin Ladi; security forces 18 Feb burnt down Fulani settlement in Barkin Ladi after their two-day ultimatum to deliver 16 Feb attackers expired. In Delta state in south, herder-farmer clashes left fourteen dead in Uwheru 13 Feb.
Two Boko Haram (BH) factions – Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) and Abubakar Shekau’s group (JAS) – stepped up attacks in north east while in north west jihadist group Ansaru claimed first attack since 2013 as military continued operations against bandits, amid ongoing herder-related and criminal violence in Middle Belt and Niger Delta respectively. In north east, BH 20 Jan killed local leader of Christian association after abducting him 3 Jan in Adamawa state. In Borno state, military 4 Jan repelled BH attack in Konduga area, six insurgents and four soldiers killed. BH 4 Jan killed three civilians in Chibok area. ISWAP claimed responsibility for 7 Jan attack on Monguno town which killed eight soldiers. In apparent attempt to cut off Borno state capital Maiduguri from rest of country, insurgents attacked travellers on road linking Maiduguri to Yobe state capital, Damaturu: 9 Jan abducted seven, 28 Jan killed three others. BH 20 Jan reportedly killed twenty displaced persons and one soldier in Ngala town. Military 12 Jan reported four ISWAP commanders killed in Lake Chad area; air force 27 Jan reported scores of ISWAP fighters killed in same area 24-25 Jan. Suicide bombers 26 Jan killed three in Gwoza town; 30 Jan killed four in Maiduguri outskirts. In north west, army 12 Jan reported anti-banditry operations in Zamfara and Katsina states 16 Dec-9 Jan killed 106 bandits. Bandits killed 31 people in Zamfara state 14-15 Jan and at least twenty in Niger state 5-25 Jan. In Kaduna state, gunmen killed around 35 people 6-12 Jan; long-dormant jihadist group Ansaru claimed 14 Jan attack against prominent traditional chief’s convoy that killed at least six people. Violence continued in Middle Belt: 30 killed 1 Jan in Tawari town, Kogi state; twelve killed in Kulben village in clash between cattle rustlers and local youths 9 Jan and 23 killed 27 Jan in Kwatas village, both Plateau state. In Niger Delta, pirates 3 Jan killed four navy personnel and kidnapped three foreign workers in Bayelsa state; navy 7 Jan rescued kidnapped men.
Boko Haram (BH) insurgency continued in Borno and Yobe states in north east, bandit-related violence persisted in north west, and incidents of criminal and communal violence occurred in Niger Delta. In north east, BH continued to attack communities and execute captives, as military and vigilantes continued to fight both factions – Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) and Abubakar Shekau’s group. Notably, insurgents 12 Dec stormed security post at Mamuri about 80km north of Borno state capital Maiduguri, killing fifteen including hunters, vigilantes and policeman. ISWAP 13 Dec killed four of six humanitarian workers abducted near Damasak in July. Insurgents 14 Dec killed nineteen herders in fighting outside Fuhe village, near Ngala, Borno state; 22 Dec ambushed travellers on Maiduguri-Monguno road, Borno state, killing at least six and abducting five; 25 Dec issued video showing execution of eleven Christian men, claiming vengeance for U.S. killing of ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi in Oct. ISWAP fighters 22 Dec attempted to invade Yobe state capital Damaturu, but govt forces repelled them killing about 40. Air Force said it killed scores of insurgents in 31 Dec raid on camp in Abulam area of Sambisa forest, Borno state. In north west, bandit-related violence continued, notably in Zamfara and Niger states despite state govts’ dialogues with bandit leaders. In Zamfara state, bandits raided communities in rural areas of Kaura, Maru and Gummi local govt areas. In Niger state, bandits 1 Dec attacked Koki in Shiroro local govt area killing eleven people, 3 Dec stormed village in Kagara local govt area killing thirteen people and kidnapping nine. In Kaduna state, gunmen 8 Dec killed four youths in Zunuruk, Kaura local govt area. In Niger Delta in far south, pirates 3 Dec stormed oil vessel about 143km off Bonny Island in Rivers state abducting nineteen of 26 crewmembers. Gunmen 7 Dec killed six people at Chokocho, Etche local govt area, Rivers state, possibly in intercommunal feud.