As waves of protests have hit the hydrocarbon-rich Algerian south since 2013, authorities maintained a tenuous peace through handouts, repression and policing. To calm tensions, the state needs to clarify policies, communicate with local protestors and address underlying issues of governance.
Originally published in Slate Afrique
President Bouteflika’s National Liberation Front (FLN) and its coalition ally Rally for National Democracy (RND) won majority of seats in 4 May legislative elections, with FLN winning 164 and RND 97 of 462 seats. Turnout was reported at 38.25% and quarter of ballots cast were spoiled or blank. Bouteflika 24 May appointed former Housing Minister Abdelmadjid Tebboune as new PM; govt formed 25 May including new energy, finance and foreign affairs ministers. Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) claimed 2 May IED attack on army vehicle in Tebessa province in east, no casualties reported; AQIM militants 8 May killed three soldiers in Mekournou Mountains in Ain Defla province in north. Military killed Islamist militant in Jijel province in north 10 May and six more 12-13 May in same region.
Algeria has emerged as an indispensable broker of stability in North Africa and the Sahel. But, especially as it enters a generational transition in domestic politics, it needs better strategies to deal with financial pressures, a neighbourhood in turmoil, cross-border jihadi threats, and ongoing tensions with France and Morocco. It should also resolve a presidential succession that is paralysing institutions.
This is the third of a series of briefings and reports on Islamism in North Africa. The first provided general background on the range and diversity of Islamic activism in the region, and subsequent papers examine with respect to particular states, the outlook and strategies of the main Islamist movements and organisations, their relations with the state and each other and how they have evolved. The analysis focuses on the relationship between Islamic activism and violence, especially but not only terrorism and the problem of political reform in general and democratisation in particular.
Islamism, terrorism, reform: the triangle formed by these three concepts and the complex and changeable realities to which they refer is at the centre of political debate in and about North Africa today.
In late April 2001, lethal provocations by elements of Algeria’s National Gendarmerie triggered protracted and deadly rioting in Kabylia. That the unrest from Kabylia’s Black Spring continues to this day reflects the political system’s nation-wide failure to adopt reforms that address its deficit of democratic representation.
Multiparty parliamentary elections are a comparatively recent innovation in Algeria, and in each instance to date the outcome has been overshadowed by the process that preceded or followed it.
Originally published in International New York Times