Reports continued of bread shortages and growing concern among population over end of free natural gas, water and electricity starting in Jan 2019, declared by President Berdymukhammedov in Sept.
The death of President Saparmurat Niyazov of Turkmenistan from heart failure was announced on 21 December 2006.
The cotton industry in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan contributes to political repression, economic stagnation, widespread poverty and environmental degradation.
Sapamurad Niyazov's Turkmenistan, one of the world's most repressive regimes, has not responded to quiet diplomacy, modifying a few policies only when faced with a threat of sanctions or other punitive action.
More international involvement is needed in all spheres of youth activity in Central Asia, where around half the population is under 30.
The Annual Meeting of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) commencing on 3 May 2003 is an opportunity to assess frankly and honestly the records of the governments of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
More than a decade after their independence, each of the Central Asian states is on its own particular path of political and economic development. While most have achieved at least partial integration within the international community, one stands out as an exception: the remote former Soviet republic of Turkmenistan, on the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea.
Originally published in Foreign Policy en español
Originally published in Les Echos
Originally published in EUobserver
Originally published in Caucaz.com