La prolifération des groupes armés et l'implantation rapide des jihadistes a conduit, en 2019, à une intensification de la violence au Burkina Faso. Le gouvernement devrait adopter une approche intégrée de la sécurité et mettre fin aux crises du monde rural en résolvant notamment la question foncière.
Amid ongoing jihadist violence in north, security forces, Koglweogo community defence groups and volunteers stepped up attacks against civilians, especially targeting ethnic Fulani, whom they accuse of supporting jihadists, killing over 100; and jihadist attacks against security forces and civilians continued to spread southward. In north, suspected Koglweogo 2 March killed nineteen Fulani civilians in Cisse village, Soum province. Security forces 6 March reportedly killed 32 civilians in Mansila area, Yagha province. Suspected Koglweogo 8 March killed 43 Fulani in Dinguila and Barga villages, Yatenga province. Suspected soldiers 9 March killed ten Fulani civilians in Gountouwa-Oola village, Oudalan province. Jihadist attacks persisted in Sahel, North and Centre-North regions. In Sahel region in north, suspected Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP) militants 1 March killed seven Tuareg civilians in Beiga village, Oudalan province; suspected Jihadist Group to Support Islam and Muslims (JNIM) roadside bombing 8 March also killed two civilians between Petalkoulerou and Baraboulé towns, Soum province. In North region, suspected explosive device from JNIM 3 March killed four soldiers between Banh and Koumbri villages, Loroum province; and suspected jihadists 18 March killed four civilian volunteers supporting security forces in Robolo village. In Centre-North region, civilian volunteers fighting alongside security forces 6 March repelled suspected ISWAP attack on Namssiguia village, Bam province, killing three; suspected jihadists 14 March attacked Namisguima military camp, Sanmatenga province, killing soldier, one militant also killed; unidentified assailants 28 March killed sixteen civilians in Moméné village, Bam province. France 5 March authorised extradition of François Compaoré, brother of former President Blaise Compaoré; François was arrested in Paris in 2017 after Burkinabè authorities issued international arrest warrant on charges of involvement in 1998 murder of journalist Norbert Zongo. In response to COVID-19, govt 20 March closed borders and imposed curfew.
Face à la percée jihadiste au Burkina Faso, porte ouverte sur les pays du Golfe de Guinée, ceux-ci craignent des attaques sur leurs territoires. Les Etats de la région devraient améliorer le partage du renseignement, renforcer les contrôles aux frontières et renouer un lien de confiance avec la population.
Au Mali, au Burkina Faso et au Niger, le boom aurifère représente une nouvelle source de financement, voire un terrain de recrutement pour divers groupes armés, y compris jihadistes. Les Etats sahéliens devraient rétablir leur présence aux abords des mines d’or et mieux formaliser l’exploitation aurifère artisanale.
Créée en février 2017, la Force conjointe du G5 Sahel est une force de nouvelle génération dans un espace sahélien où se bousculent des initiatives militaires et diplomatiques parfois concurrentes. Il ne suffira pas de fournir des armes et de l’argent pour résoudre les crises sahéliennes. Pour atteindre ses objectifs, la force doit gagner la confiance des populations et des puissances régionales et obtenir leur soutien.
Jihadist violence in the West African Sahel has now spread to the north of Burkina Faso. The response of Ouagadougou and its partners must go beyond the obvious religious and security dimensions of the crisis, and any solution must take into account deep-rooted social and local factors.
In a troubled region, Burkina Faso is a rare example of religious diversity and tolerance. But a perceived discrepancy between a significant number of Muslims and their low level of public representation has created tensions. To safeguard Burkina’s model of peaceful coexistence, the government must address this sensitive issue through careful reforms, particularly in the education system.
Burkina is a gateway to coastal West Africa and there is a real concern that jihadist groups may see it as a launching pad to gain other footholds in the coastal region.
In Burkina Faso, the intelligence system did not rest on an institution but on the shoulders of one man, General Gilbert Diendere. We know that some of the 566 soldiers have joined jihadist groups.
There is a strong sense [in Burkina Faso] that the state has never really done much for the north. [...] Strengthening its military presence isn’t enough – they need to establish trust.
The new rulers [in Burkina Faso] want to use justice when it serves them but they don't want to sink their own ship.
Justice is important for the Burkinabe, and the lack of justice and impunity is one of the reasons people rose against [Burkina Faso's President] Compaore.
Burkina Faso is suffering mounting insurgent attacks and social unrest. In this excerpt from our Watch List 2019 for European policymakers, Crisis Group urges the EU to support the return of some Burkinabé troops from Mali and to fund social programs that could ease discontent.
Attacks on the Burkina Faso army headquarters and the French Embassy on 2 March 2018 were better organised, involved heavier weapons and were more sustained than anything seen so far in Burkina Faso. In this Q&A, our West Africa Project Director Rinaldo Depagne says the jihadist assault further exposes worrying weakness in the Burkinabé security forces.
Rural insurgencies across the Sahel are destabilising the region and undermining local security and governance. In this excerpt from our Watch List 2018, Crisis Group urges the EU and its member states to continue support for the Alliance for the Sahel and promote local dialogue to buttress law and order.
Un rapport de Crisis Group est le fruit de plusieurs mois de travail de terrain, de rédaction et de débats. En outre, comme le montre ce reportage photo, le moment où l'analyste présente cette nouvelle publication à ses lecteurs est également le point de départ d'un nouveau cycle de recherche.