Tracking Conflict Worldwide

CrisisWatch is our global conflict tracker, an early warning tool designed to help prevent deadly violence. It keeps decision-makers up-to-date with developments in over 70 conflicts and crises every month, identifying trends and alerting them to risks of escalation and opportunities to advance peace. In addition, CrisisWatch monitors over 50 situations (“standby monitoring”) to offer timely information if developments indicate a drift toward violence or instability. Entries dating back to 2003 provide easily searchable conflict histories.


Latin America & Caribbean


Kenya-led multinational security mission began arriving in Haiti to help quell surging gang violence, while PM Conille assumed office and formed new govt.

First personnel from Kenya-led security mission landed in Haiti. First wave of police officers from much-anticipated foreign security mission 25 June arrived in Haiti. Mission faces enormous task of helping a police force riddled with corruption stem rampant gang violence while ensuring protection of civilians in urban warfare. Earlier, human rights group Amnesty International 4 June expressed concern about lack of transparency on measures taken to ensure respect for human rights during operations and called for all safeguards to be implemented, including transparent complaint mechanisms for timely investigations into allegations of misconduct.

Gang violence continued as police chief stepped down. Gang alliance known as Viv Ansanm launched more attacks, though scaled back violence in days before mission arrived. Notably, gang members 9 June murdered three police officers in Delmas commune of capital Port-au-Prince after their armoured vehicle fell into ditch dug by gangs. Gang violence also affected parts of Artibonite department, Haiti’s breadbasket. Notably, Ti Bwadom gang attacks 14-15 June in Terre-Neuve and Lagon communes killed around twelve people. Viv Ansanm’s self-appointed spokesperson Jimmy ‘Barbecue’ Chérizier 23 June urged PM Conille to refrain from conducting operations against gangs and instead to engage in dialogue; Conille 25 June responded, saying gangs must lay down their arms and recognise state authority. International Organization for Migration 18 June reported 60% increase in displacement since March. Meanwhile, police high command 14 June dismissed its director Frantz Elbé, replacing him 19 June with Normil Rameau, former police director under President Moïse. 

PM Conille assumed office and appointed new govt. Garry Conille was officially installed as prime minister 3 June; one week later, official gazette 11 June published names of fourteen new cabinet members. All members of Transitional Presidential Council reportedly participated in appointment of ministers while Conille selected heads of five most important ministries. Conille 12 June promised govt would prioritise fight against corruption in order to restore Haitians’ confidence in their leaders and institutions.

Latin America & Caribbean


Kenya’s president announced security mission would begin deploying in June, raising risk of violent gang response; Transitional Presidential Council (TPC) named Gary Conille as Prime Minister. 

Violence continued, with gangs notably targeting police stations. In bid to block deployment of Kenya-led security mission, gang alliance known as Viv Ansanm continued their attacks in capital Port-au-Prince and other cities, displacing thousands. Notably, UN humanitarian agency 4 May reported that 2 May attack on Delmas commune of Port-au-Prince forced over 3,700 people to flee. Gangs 10-11 May stormed police station in Gressier town, 20km south west of Port-au-Prince; police 12 May regained control, while International Organization for Migration next day said gang violence had forced around 4,500 residents from area. Gangs 17-18 May demolished Croix-des-Bouquets police station on northern outskirts of capital; 21 May torched police station in Cesselesse area. Gangs 21 May partially destroyed Martissant’s police station, 22-23 May demolished police station in Grand Ravine. Meanwhile, police 2 May reopened roads to Varreux oil terminal, blocked by gangs since 22 April; Toussaint-Louverture airport in Port-au-Prince 20 May reopened after nearly three-month closure.

Deployment of Kenya-led security mission in June could fuel violence. Preparations for multinational security mission continued, with Kenyan President Ruto 24 May announcing first batch of police would arrive in June despite hopes it would deploy around 23 May to coincide with his state visit to U.S. Contingent could be met with fierce gang attacks upon arrival.

TPC agreed on decision-making norms and chose new Prime Minister. Newly-established TPC late April-early May held negotiations after it emerged that four of the seven groups which make up body had agreed to always vote in unison and thus control council’s decisions. Majority bloc 7 May agreed to minimum of five votes for all major decisions, namely appointments to key posts, and five-month rotating presidency. Council 12 May issued call for candidates to take over from interim PM Michel Patrick Boisvert; TPC 28 May selected UN children’s agency regional director for Latin America and the Caribbean, Garry Conille, as new PM.

Latin America & Caribbean


Transitional council was sworn in after lengthy negotiations, gang offensive continued amid deteriorating humanitarian crisis, and deployment of multinational security mission remained uncertain.

Transitional council sworn in, Edgard Leblanc selected to head body. After weeks of negotiations, cabinet of outgoing PM Henry 12, 16 April published two documents formalising creation of transitional presidential council and naming its seven voting members and two non-voting observers. Henry 24 April resigned; Council was sworn in next day with heavy police protection, 30 April it named former senate President Edgard Leblanc to head body. Four council members (forming majority bloc) same day proposed former sports minister Fritz Bélizaire as their candidate for prime minister, however, threatening new crisis as three remaining voting members accused their colleagues of violating procedures for designating PM. 

Gang offensive continued. Gang alliance known as Viv Ansanm continued their offensive, mostly in capital Port-au-Prince. Notably, gangs 1 April launched assault to seize control of national palace; gang members from Canaan gang 7 April demolished police station in Bon Repos neighbourhood; and armed attack 11 April in Cabaret town north of capital killed ten. Gangs also looted and burned down dozens of pharmacies, clinics, shops and private residences. Police conducted some successful counter-operations, 5 April seizing significant number of weapons and ammunition at Cap Haitian port, 6 April recovering ship carrying rice that gangs had hijacked two days before. Self-defence groups stepped-up activities, pushing back gangs from several neighbourhoods in capital and beyond. 

Violence aggravated humanitarian crisis. Notably, International Organization for Migration 9 April reported some 95,000 people had fled capital since early March; World Food Program 11 April warned its food stocks could run out by end of April; and head of UN children’s agency 22 April said essential services had collapsed in many areas.

Deployment of multinational security mission remained uncertain. Kenyan President Ruto 25 April welcomed swearing-in of council as “a crucial step in the political transition of Haiti” and reiterated Kenya’s readiness to send security mission, though start date still unknown. Earlier, eight private sector organisations in Haiti 15 April sent letter to Ruto expressing concern about delays to mission and called for its rapid deployment. 

Latin America & Caribbean


Gangs launched coordinated attacks across Port-au-Prince, targeting critical sites, freeing over 4,700 inmates and forcing thousands to flee; outside pressure yielded agreement to form new govt.

Chaos erupted in capital as rival gang coalitions launched coordinated attacks. Gang violence dramatically escalated after G9 and Gpèp rival gang coalitions late Feb joined forces and launched coordinated offensive in capital Port-au-Prince and surrounding areas. Gangs throughout March targeted critical sites, including police stations, ports, airport and govt buildings; 18 March attacked several upscale neighbourhoods in Pétionville commune, killing at least fifteen. In response, mobs 20 March killed at least two suspected gang members in Pétionville commune. Police 26 March reported deaths of seventeen suspected gang members, including leader of Delmas 95 gang, since 29 Feb. Violence displaced thousands and forced tens of thousands more to flee Port-au-Prince amid ever-worsening humanitarian crisis. 

Plan to form transitional council moved forward after initial difficulties. Several political parties 5 March agreed to create transitional govt led by rebel leader and ex-convict Guy Philippe, who has ties to gangs. Outside partners subsequently stepped up efforts to form more representative govt as foreign support for Henry collapsed. Leaders from CARICOM (body of Caribbean nations) and other countries 11 March called emergency meeting in Jamaica, same day announced transitional government comprised of seven-member presidential council and two non-voting civil society representatives would be established; council tasked with appointing new PM, creating path toward elections and preparing for Kenya-led security mission. Henry that night announced he would resign after council is installed. Formation initially held up by disagreements, though council members 27 March issued first statement, announcing preparations for their installation and pledging to devise plan that can restore order. Meanwhile, G9 leader Jimmy ‘Barbecue’ Chérizier 29 March said he would consider laying down weapons if gangs are included in peace talks.

Kenya halted plans to deploy security mission. Kenyan govt 12 March paused plans to deploy police in Haiti, citing changes to conditions on the ground. Kenyan President Ruto next day said Nairobi would resume preparations when presidential council is installed. Only $10.8mn has been deposited in UN-managed trust fund to cover mission, estimated to cost $600mn.

Latin America & Caribbean


Violent protests erupted calling for PM Henry’s resignation as gang violence, both between rival outfits and against govt, wreaked havoc in Port-au-Prince. 

Anti-Henry protests spread across country. Former coup leader Guy Philippe, who has urged Haitians to join him in peaceful revolution to remove acting PM Henry, 6 Feb joined anti-govt protests in Pétionville neighbourhood of capital Port-au-Prince. Demonstrations 7 Feb took place in over twenty cities, turning violent as protesters looted and set fire to state buildings; police killed five members of Brigade for the Security of Protected Areas, armed environmental agency led by close friend of Philippe. Henry that night urged calm and promised to hold meetings with opposition to organise elections. Leading politicians including Jean Charles Moïse, now allied with Philippe, and former PM Claude Joseph 18 Feb organised fresh protests in Port-au-Prince, Ouanaminthe and Les Cayes cities. CARICOM (body of Caribbean nations) 28 Feb announced Henry agreed to hold elections by Sept 2025. 

Resurgent gang rivalry displaced thousands, wave of attacks rocked capital. After two-month lull in fighting between G9 and Gpèp coalitions in Cité Soleil, at least three gangs from Gpèp 5 Feb launched attack on area controlled by rival gang from within G9 coalition; UN 13 Feb said fighting displaced almost 10,000. G9 leader Jimmy ‘Barbecue’ Chérizier 29 Feb claimed responsibility for wave of attacks on police stations and airport in Port-au-Prince; he stated it was coordinated offensive by gangs belonging to G9 and Gpèp to capture national police chief and govt ministers, and prevent Henry (on visit to Kenya – see below) from returning to Haiti. Apparent gang coordination suggests they could now be seeking to form united front and potentially join forces with Guy Philippe and his allies to oust PM in coming months.

Preparations for Kenyan-led multinational mission to Haiti continued. Henry 29 Feb visited Kenya amid efforts to overcome legal obstacles preventing Nairobi from instigating multinational mission to Haiti. Canada and other countries 22 Feb pledged another $120mn for mission amid funding concerns. U.S. ambassador to UN 26 Feb said Benin offered to contribute 2,000 troops to mission. 

In another important development. Judge 19 Feb charged 51 individuals in relation to 2021 killing of President Moïse.

Latin America & Caribbean


Former rebel leader rallied support for protests to topple acting PM Henry, raising risk of instability in coming weeks. 

Former rebel leader sought to oust PM. With acting PM Henry due to step down on 7 Feb but unlikely to stick to his pledge, supporters of former rebel leader Guy Philippe 15 Jan launched protests in several cities demanding Henry’s resignation. Philippe, meanwhile, expanded alliances with security forces and political actors as he called on “all sectors” to join “revolution” to transform Haiti. Most notably, he forged alliance with several units of Brigade for the Security of Protected Areas (BSAP), armed body attached to National Agency for Protected Areas led by his close friend Jeantel Joseph. Joseph took part in several anti-govt demonstrations and promised to bring protests to capital Port-au-Prince to oust Henry, prompting govt 23 Jan to sack him; move angered BSAP members, who 24 Jan clashed with police in north east Ouanaminthe commune. Govt 29 Jan ordered all BSAP workers to report to nearest Ministry of Environment office for registration. Philippe’s movement could gain steam in coming weeks, especially if gangs join alliance, raising risk of clashes in Port-au-Prince and other cities. 

Gang-related insecurity persisted in capital and in south. In Mariani village south west of Port-au-Prince, police operations failed to oust gang led by alias Bout ba, whose members throughout Jan kidnapped dozens along National Route 2 and attacked people travelling by boat to avoid route. In Port-au-Prince, members of Bel-Air gang led by Kempès Sanon 16 Jan launched several days’ attack on Solino neighbourhood, trapping residents in their homes and killing unconfirmed number. Clashes between G9 coalition and at least two gangs that defected from coalition 28 Jan broke out in capital. 

Kenyan court prohibited police deployment to Haiti. Kenya’s High Court 26 Jan prohibited deployment of police officers to Haiti, saying National Security Council lacked authority to dispatch police beyond Kenya’s borders and that no “reciprocal agreement” exists between two nations; Kenyan President William Ruto 30 Jan, however, said mission “is on course” and could go ahead “as soon as next week”.

Latin America & Caribbean


Security situation remained dire, with violence in capital Port-au-Prince and anti-gang operations in south; govt-opposition negotiations failed to secure deal; and preparations for multinational mission continued.

Gang-related insecurity persisted in capital and in south. Gang violence continued to spread in capital; notably, NGO Doctors Without Borders 15 Dec indefinitely suspended activities at emergency centre in Turgeau district after group of armed men 12 Dec stopped ambulance leaving facility and killed patient. Gunmen 25 Dec killed four members of family and kidnapped four others in Croix-des-Bouquet district. Meanwhile, public prosecutors in southern Haiti carried out operations against gangs amid concerns over legality. Notably, Minister of Justice Emmelie Prophète 15 Dec publicly criticised Miragoâne commune’s public prosecutor Jean Ernest Muscadin for conducting illegal operation to drive out gang that had taken over Mariani village south west of Port-au-Prince in early Nov.

Negotiations between interim govt and opposition continued. CARICOM (body of Caribbean nations) experts 6-14 Dec visited Haiti for fifth round of negotiations between interim govt and opposition, but no agreement was reached. Spokesperson for civil society platform Montana Accord 8 Dec declined invitation to join talks, alleging disagreement over attendees and that acting PM Henry’s resignation was not on agenda; next day, however, sixteen members of platform’s leadership denounced spokesperson’s unilateral decision and said they would continue negotiations. UN Sec Gen 7 Dec expressed concern over limited progress of dialogue.

Reciprocal visits took place in preparation for Kenyan-led multinational mission. Kenyan delegation 5 Dec visited Haiti and met with govt officials and U.S. diplomats. Head of police Frantz Elbé 13-15 Dec travelled to Kenya for fact-finding mission and bilateral discussions between security forces; media later suggested first batch of 300 officers may arrive in Feb 2024.

In other important developments. UN Security Council 8 Dec added four gang leaders to sanctions list, while UK and U.S. sanctioned various former officials for involvement in abuses and corruption. Judge in Miami 19 Dec sentenced former Haitian senator to life in prison for conspiring to kill President Moïse in 2021.

Latin America & Caribbean


Ever-worsening gang violence displaced thousands, Kenya’s supreme court blocked police deployment to Haiti, and negotiations to resolve political crisis failed to produce breakthrough.

Gang efforts to expand territory triggered mass displacement. Alleged members of Grand Ravine gang 1 Nov launched offensive in Mariani district south-west of capital Port-au-Prince to expand territory along National Route 2 and increase extortion opportunities; International Organization for Migration 6 Nov estimated 2,500 people were displaced in five days of fighting. Meanwhile, Iskar Andrice, one of G9 gang coalition’s founders and key leaders, 12 Nov died in unclear circumstances; leader of rival Gpèp coalition Ti Gabriel next day launched attacks in several G9-controlled areas of capital’s Cité Soleil neighbourhood to expand turf; OCHA 17 Nov said clashes killed at least 166 and displaced over 1,000. Iskar’s successor David Ganier aka Black Alex Mana, 21 Nov killed by member of same coalition, James Edmond aka Benji, replacing him as gang head. Bel-Air gang 19 Nov launched offensive to invade Solino neighbourhood of capital.

Kenya’s high court extended orders blocking police deployment to Haiti. Kenya’s parliament 16 Nov approved govt request to deploy 1,000 police officers to Haiti as part of multinational support mission. Hours later, however, Supreme Court extended Oct order blocking deployment until it rules on case in late Jan. Kenyan President Ruto 21 Nov said mission should be 5,000-strong. Meanwhile, poll by Haitian company Diagnostic and Development early Oct found 70% of Haitians favoured deployment of international armed force.

Negotiations between interim govt and opposition made little progress. CARICOM (body of Caribbean nations) experts 8-14 Nov visited Haiti for fourth round of negotiations between govt and opposition but no agreement was reached. Meanwhile, president of High Council for Transition Mirlande Manigat 2 Nov criticised lack of progress in implementing Dec 2022 agreement between acting PM Henry, opposition and civil society to organise new elections.

Dispute with Dominican Republic over canal construction continued. Dominican soldiers 7 Nov breached border wall near site where disputed Haitian canal is being built into Massacre River; Haitians immediately protested, setting up barricades at border and burning tires (see Dominican Republic).

Latin America & Caribbean


UN Security Council approved Kenya-led security mission to Haiti, assassination of gang leader sparked inter-gang fighting, and tensions with Dominican Republic remained elevated.

UN approved Kenyan-led multinational mission. UN Security Council 2 Oct authorised one-year Multinational Security Support mission to Haiti, to be reviewed after nine months; force will support Haitian police, including by planning and conducting joint operations, restoring security and creating conditions for free and fair elections. Kenya, who is leading mission, 7 Oct began selecting officers for mission; first group of 200 police officers 10 Oct started pre-mission training in Kenya. High Court of Kenya 9 Oct temporarily blocked deployment amid opposition pressure, 24 Oct extended ban for two weeks.

Assassination of gang leader triggered new waves of violence. Late Sept killing of gang leader from G9 coalition known as Tyson, allegedly by other members of coalition, sparked clashes in following weeks between gangs from G9 and Gpèp coalitions in capital Port-au-Prince and surrounding areas. Notably, clashes 13-14 Oct erupted in La Saline district between at least three G9 gangs, trapping around 400 children and teachers in school. Members of 400 Mawozo gang operating in Croix-des-Bouquets 4 Oct set fire to Thomazeau police station, third such attack in two weeks. Attackers reportedly from Village-de-Dieu gang 18 Oct kidnapped High Council for Transition Sec Gen Antony Virginy Saint Pierre. Meanwhile, UNICEF 3 Oct warned of intensifying violence in Artibonite department, known as Haiti’s breadbasket; UN envoy 23 Oct warned “major crimes” had reached “record highs”.

Spat with Dominican Republic over canal construction continued. After Dominican Republic mid Sept shut border with Haiti over dispute about construction of canal by farmers on Haitian side of Massacre River, Dominican Republic 11 Oct partially reopened border to some commercial activity (see Dominican Republic).

In other important developments. Former senator 10 Oct pleaded guilty to role in 2021 assassination of President Moïse, while authorities 19 Oct arrested key suspect in Port-au-Prince and U.S. court 27 Oct sentenced retired Colombian army officer to life in prison. UN Security Council 19 Oct renewed sanctions regime on Haiti for one year.

Latin America & Caribbean


Dominican Republic closed its border with Haiti over canal dispute, which risks aggravating ever-worsening humanitarian crisis; gang violence in capital forced thousands to flee.

Dominican Republic closed border with Haiti. Dominican Republic 15 Sept shut all land, air and sea borders with Haiti over dispute about construction of canal by farmers on Haitian side of Massacre River; decision risks harming both countries’ economies when living conditions in Haiti have already deteriorated; UN Haiti expert William O’Neill 18 Sept warned closure would have “dire” humanitarian consequences. Tensions had been escalating in weeks prior to decision. Notably, Dominican govt late Aug raised concerns about potential negative effects of canal on environment and agricultural producers in both countries.

Gang assaults in capital Port-au-Prince triggered mass displacement. Gangs in G-pèp coalition continued offensives in various parts of Port-au-Prince in attempt to expand foothold toward centre. Armed assailants allegedly led by gang leader alias Kempès 6 Sept attempted to invade Solino neighbourhood in downtown Port-au- Prince, prompting civilians to set up roadblocks. Gang violence fuelled new waves of displacement. Notably, International Organisation for Migration 5 Sept reported that gang operations in capital had displaced over 20,000 since mid Aug; alleged members of Canaan gang 22 Sept staged attacks in Saut d’Eau commune and 25 Sept assaulted Mirebalais commune, both near capital, displacing over 10,000 people. Meanwhile, leader of G9 gang coalition Jimmy ‘Barbecue’ Chérizier 18, 19 Sept organised demonstrations, pledging to overthrow acting PM Henry.

Dialogue to resolve political crisis stalled. CARICOM (body of Caribbean nations) experts 4-10 Sept visited Haiti in third attempt to progress govt-opposition negotiations. Civil society platform Montana Accord 5 Sept called for Henry’s resignation, however; Henry dismissed calls and continued attending CARICOM- facilitated discussions. CARICOM mediators 11 Sept said tone of negotiations had hardened. Engagés pour le Développement party led by former PM Joseph organised demonstration in Port-au-Prince 17 Sept, during which Joseph announced party was leaving dialogue to join social movements calling for Henry's resignation.

In another important development. UN Security Council members early Sept received first draft of resolution authorising multilateral security mission for Haiti, 2 Oct approved force (await next month’s edition for full coverage).

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