CrisisWatch

Tracking Conflict Worldwide

CrisisWatch is our global conflict tracker, a tool designed to help decision-makers prevent deadly violence by keeping them up-to-date with developments in over 70 conflicts and crises, identifying trends and alerting them to risks of escalation and opportunities to advance peace.

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December 2022

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Strikes over rising fuel prices triggered anti-govt protests country-wide, leading to violent clashes with police; authorities reached deal with protestors mid-month, largely ending contestation.

Growing economic hardship triggered protests that turned violent. Truck drivers 5-9 Dec held strikes, particularly in country’s south, to protest against rise in fuel prices, as diesel cost had nearly doubled since Jan 2022. Protests spread across country as thousands 14-15 Dec took to streets to demand lower prices, notably in southern city of Maan, capital Amman and northern city of Irbid; young demonstrators reportedly set fire to tyres to block highways and attacked public buildings, while anti-riot police fired tear gas as part of clampdown. Notably, as clashes between protesters and anti-riot police 15 Dec erupted in Maan, unknown assailant shot dead police officer. Security forces 19 Dec launched raid on suspected killer’s hideout, killing one alleged militant who allegedly embraced “takfiri radical ideology”, arresting five and seizing stash of weapons; operation left three police officers dead.

Authorities agreed to meet protester’s demands, which largely appeased tensions. Protests largely ended after truck drivers and govt 17 Dec signed agreement in which govt pledged to meet protesters’ demands, although sporadic anti-govt demonstrations in southern provinces continued. Authorities 17 Dec reported that 44 people had been arrested over protests.

April 2021

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Govt accused former crown prince of plot to destabilise country. Authorities 3 April placed former crown prince and half-brother of King Abdullah II, Prince Hamza bin al-Hussein, under de facto house arrest for allegedly conspiring with foreign parties in “malicious plot” to destabilise country as police arrested over dozen other high-profile figures. Following arrest, Hamza 3 April recorded video in which he accused govt of “incompetence and corruption”. FM Ayman Safadi next day said plot had been foiled at “zero hour” and those detained will be referred to state security court. In sign of tensions subsiding, Hamzah 5 April pledged allegiance to King Abdullah; authorities next day banned publication of information regarding alleged plot. Abdullah 7 April said “sedition has been nipped in the bud”. PM Bisher al-Khasawneh 12 April denied that there had been “coup” and said Hamzah will not face charges. Authorities 22 April released 16 people detained on sedition charges.

March 2021

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Deaths of COVID-19 patients due to lack of critical medical supplies prompted health minister’s resignation and sparked protests. At least six patients 13 March died due to oxygen shortage in COVID-19 ward in hospital in Al Salt town, north west of capital Amman, prompting health minister to resign same day. Protests 14, 15 March erupted in Salt as well as Irbid, Karak, Aqaba, and Amman cities over economic impact of lockdowns and pandemic emergency laws; police used tear gas against protesters and detained over 200 in total. Police 24 March broke up protests held to mark 10th anniversary of Arab Spring pro-democracy protests, detaining dozens of activists. Meanwhile, tensions surfaced with Israel. Israeli PM Netanyahu’s first public visit to United Arab Emirates(UAE)was cancelled on 11 March after Jordan refused to approve Netanyahu’s flight path from Amman to UAE capital Abu Dhabi, following Jordanian Crown Prince Hussein bin Abdullah’s cancellation of planned visit to Jerusalem’s Holy Esplanade compound over dispute with Israel regarding security arrangements at site; Netanyahu in turn ordered Israel’s airspace closed to flights from Jordan – direct violation of 1994 Israeli-Jordan peace accord; however, move ultimately reversed before being implemented. FM Ayman Safadi 21 March publicised new military agreement signed with U.S. in Jan, allowing free entry of forces, aircraft and vehicles onto Jordanian territory.

July 2020

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

PM Omar Razzaz’s comment on one-state solution for Israel-Palestine conflict sparked public outcry, while teachers late July took to streets in capital Amman. After Jordan, Egypt, France and Germany in joint statement 7 July warned Israel that annexing portions of West Bank would have implications for bilateral relations, PM Razzaz in interview with British newspaper 21 July said Jordan would consider “one-state democratic solution” to Israel-Palestine conflict. Largest parliamentary bloc al-Islah 23 July condemned PM’s statement and called for his dismissal; King Abdullah 22 July met United Arab Emirates’ Crown Prince Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed al-Nahyan, reaffirming country’s commitment to two-state solution. Meanwhile, police 25 July raided offices of opposition-run Jordan Teachers Association (JTA) and arrested senior members on corruption charges, including union’s leader who was charged with incitement following his 22 July speech critical of govt; move comes after JTA threatened to stage protests over salary dispute that triggered month-long strike in Sept 2019. Attorney general 25 July suspended JTA’s operations for two years while placing gag order on media coverage of situation. After teachers 29 July took to streets in Amman to oppose union leaders’ arrest, clashes with anti-riot police erupted; several demonstrators reportedly injured and dozens arrested. State media 29 July announced parliamentary elections to be held 10 Nov. Jordan’s Court of Cassation 15 July ruled that country’s Muslim Brotherhood branch has no legal standing and should be dissolved; Brotherhood 23 July questioned decision’s timing, given prospective Israeli annexation of portions of West Bank, and declared its intent to appeal.

June 2020

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Israel-Jordan relations continued to worsen amid possible looming Israeli annexation of West Bank. King Abdullah mid-June reportedly refused phone call from Israeli PM Netanyahu; 16 June warned U.S. lawmakers that any unilateral Israeli move toward annexation would be “unacceptable”. Meanwhile, FM Safadi 18 June met with Palestinian Authority’s President Abbas in occupied West Bank to coordinate response to possible annexation; said annexation would endanger peace process and “kill” two-state solution (see Israel-Palestine).

May 2020

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Constitutional Court 13 May ruled that cancellation of natural gas deal with Israel would be illegal, citing inconsistency with Israel-Jordan peace treaty; Jordanian parliament in Jan voted in favour of banning gas imports from Israel. Amid rising tensions between Jordan and Israel, King Abdullah 15 May warned of “massive conflict” if Israel proceeds with annexation plans in West Bank. Israeli security forces 20 May shot and wounded Jordanian south of Galilee Sea suspected of smuggling weapons into Israel.

January 2020

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Tensions between Jordan and Israel persisted. Jordan early Jan received first delivery of Israeli gas under new deal. Protesters 3, 10 and 17 Jan took to streets in capital Amman and other cities calling on govt to cancel deal. Parliament’s lower house 19 Jan passed law to ban Israeli gas imports. In Saudi capital Riyadh, Jordan and seven other countries on Red Sea and Gulf of Aden 6 Jan established regional alliance to ensure maritime security. After release of U.S.’s Israeli-Palestinian peace plan 28 Jan, dozens protested at U.S. embassy in Amman and thousands protested across country 31 Jan.

November 2019

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Around 400 activists 3 Nov demonstrated peacefully in capital Amman demanding Israel release two Jordanian citizens it detained in Aug and Sept. After Jordan late Oct recalled its ambassador in protest against Israel’s detainment of its citizens, Israel 6 Nov released Jordanian detainees and Jordanian ambassador returned to Israel 12 Nov. UN 15 Nov extended until 2023 mandate of UN agency for Palestinian refugees (UNRWA). King Abdullah II 21 Nov said Jordan-Israel relations at “an all-time low”.

September 2019

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Thousands of teachers 5 Sept demonstrated in capital Amman to demand higher wages and clashed with security forces, who used tear gas to disperse protesters; 50 teachers arrested. Teachers’ syndicate (JTA) 8 Sept launched nationwide strike demanding govt raise teachers’ pay by 50% and accountability for security forces’ conduct during 5 Sept protests, talks between govt and JTA failed to reach resolution.

August 2019

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Govt, as custodian of Jerusalem’s holy sites, condemned Israel’s 11 Aug decision to allow Jews access to Holy Esplanade on first day of Muslim holiday Eid al-Adha, which coincided with Jewish holiday Tisha B’Av. Jordanian FM 18 Aug summoned Israel’s ambassador demanding end to Israeli violations at Holy Esplanade and next day MPs recommended expelling Israeli ambassador and reconsidering Israel-Jordan peace treaty. Following govt decision to impose anti-smuggling measures, demonstrators 23-24 Aug clashed with security forces in Ramtha on border with Syria.

July 2019

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Govt 16 July restored diplomatic ties with Qatar, two years after breaking them off over Gulf crisis.

June 2019

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

U.S. 12 June announced Jordan would attend U.S.-led conference 25-26 June in Bahrain aimed at building support for Middle East peace plan among Arab states. Hundreds took to streets of capital Amman 21 June in protest against peace plan and called for govt to boycott Bahrain conference. Govt 22 June announced it would attend. U.S. same day unveiled economic part of peace plan which would include $7.4bn of investments in Jordan over ten years.

February 2019

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Two blasts in Wadi Al Azraq area, Balqa governorate in west 14 Feb killed five people, including four security officers; govt 15 Feb said explosives matched material used by militant cell in Fuheis, Balqa governorate in Aug 2018. Arrest of two men who refused to show identification in Anjara, Ajloun governorate in north west 15 Feb triggered riots and clashes with police 16 Feb, one person killed.

January 2019

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Foreign ministry 22 Jan announced it had appointed chargé d’affaires to Syria to work in embassy in Damascus after warming of ties.

December 2018

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Hundreds demonstrated throughout Dec against austerity measures and high unemployment; clashes between police and protestors 13 Dec in capital Amman led to arrest of seventeen protestors.

November 2018

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Parliamentary delegation 19 Nov visited Syrian President Assad for first time since 2011 to discuss cooperation in trade, tourism and transport; including reopening of Ramtha-Daraa border, shut for seven years.

August 2018

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Assailants 10 Aug detonated bomb under police car at music festival in Fuheis, mainly Christian town 20km north west of capital Amman, killing one officer. Security forces 12 Aug traced suspects to building in nearby Salt; during raid suspects detonated explosives causing building to partially collapse; four security personnel and at least three suspects reportedly killed. Interior minister 13 Aug said assailants were Islamic State supporters and had planned more attacks.

June 2018

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Amid widespread anger at austerity measures, thousands protested late May and early June after govt adopted draft law that would, if approved by parliament, increase income tax. As demanded by protesters, PM Hani al-Mulki and cabinet resigned 4 June. King Abdullah next day appointed Education Minister and former World Bank economist Omar al-Razzaz as PM and asked him to form new govt; protests subsided 7 June after al-Razzaz pledged to repeal proposed tax bill. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and United Arab Emirates 11 June pledged $2.5bn to stabilise country. Qatar 13 June pledged $500mn investment package, including 10,000 jobs for Jordanians in Qatar. World Bank 28 June pledged $500mn to support economic reforms.

March 2018

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Govt 29 March accepted new Israeli ambassador to Jordan, whom Israel appointed in Feb; normal relations interrupted following July 2017 killing of two Jordanians by Israeli embassy guard at Israel’s embassy in Amman.

February 2018

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Israel 8 Feb appointed new ambassador to Jordan, after resuming normal bilateral relations mid-Jan, interrupted by July 2017 killing of two Jordanians by Israeli embassy guard at Israel’s embassy in Amman; same day Jordan complained it was “not officially notified” of appointment by Israel.

January 2018

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Israel and Jordan 18 Jan announced end to bilateral diplomatic crisis resulting from July 2017 killing of two Jordanians by Israeli guard at Israel’s embassy in Jordan and Israel agreed to pay compensation; dispute remained over whether Israel had apologised (or merely expressed regret) and whether it had committed to try guard (or merely continue internal review).

December 2017

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

International Criminal Court 11 Dec said it would refer Jordan to UN Security Council for hosting Sudanese President Bashir in March, whom Jordan as signatory to Rome Statute is required to arrest.

November 2017

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

U.S. and Russia 11 Nov announced details of ceasefire in south west Syria, first agreed between them and Jordan 7 July: non-jihadist Syrian opposition to maintain control of currently held areas and work with U.S. and Jordan to expel foreign fighters, and Russia to work with Syrian regime to end presence of non-Syrian, Iran-backed forces in 5km-wide belt along Jordanian border and opposition-held areas (see Syria).

August 2017

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Govt 14 Aug barred Israeli ambassador’s return until Israeli embassy guard who killed two Jordanians at Israel’s embassy in Amman 23 July had been investigated and tried (see Israel/Palestine).

July 2017

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Israeli guard at Israel’s embassy in Amman 23 July shot dead seventeen-year-old Jordanian, who reportedly attacked him with screwdriver, and bystander. After brief standoff, Israel allowed authorities to question guard in embassy; Israel withdrew all its embassy staff including guard 25 July. King Abdullah 27 July said Israeli PM Netanyahu’s handling of incident was “provocative” and “absolutely unacceptable” and conditioned return of Israel’s ambassador to Jordan on Israeli authorities opening criminal inquiry against guard in Israel (see Israel-Palestine).

June 2017

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Army 3 June repelled attack by unidentified militants from Syrian territory at Rukban on border with Syria in north, killing several.

December 2016

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Four Islamist militants 18 Dec clashed with security forces in Karak in south; four militants, seven police and three civilians reportedly killed, Islamic State claimed responsibility. Police clashed with suspected militants 20 Dec near Karak, four police and one suspect killed, two arrested.

June 2016

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Suicide car bombing claimed by Islamic State (IS) 21 June at al-Rukban on Jordan-Syria border killed seven soldiers and injured thirteen others, prompted govt to close border with Syria and suspend humanitarian access to some 60,000 Syrian refugees (see Syria). Gunman 6 June killed five intelligence personnel near AlBaqaa Palestinian refugee camp north of Amman.

April 2016

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Police 13 April raided and sealed offices of largest opposition party, Muslim Brotherhood (MB), in Amman and other places in following days, reportedly implementing judicial decisions to transfer properties from MB, which lost license in 2015, to rival splinter faction Muslim Brotherhood Society; MB said closures illegal.

March 2016

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Security forces 1 March raided suspected Islamic State (IS) cell in northern Irbid, killed seven militants, seized weapons, ammunition and explosives, reportedly foiled planned attack; one security force member killed.

February 2016

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Ahead of 4 Feb donors conference on Syria (see Syria), King Abdullah II said Jordan “at boiling point” as refugee influx – with 635,000 registered Syrian refugees in Jordan, in addition to over a million other Syrians living there according to govt – putting enormous pressure on social services, infrastructure and economy; called for increased international assistance.

February 2015

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Authorities 4 Feb executed two jihadi prisoners after captive Jordanian fighter pilot burned alive by Islamic State (IS, formerly ISIL) in Syria; govt vowed to step up involvement in U.S.-led anti-IS coalition.

April 2014

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Warplanes 16 April hit vehicles crossing border from Syria which officials claimed carried armed Syrian rebels.

June 2013

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

U.S. 9 June began military exercises in Jordan after sending Patriot missile battery and F-16 fighters 3 June; at Jordan’s  request U.S. Sec Defence Hagel 15 June and President Obama 21  June agreed to leave missiles, jets and several hundred troops to deal with potential spillover from Syria; Russia expressed concern. Authorities 11 June arrested 3 reportedly travelling to join Syrian conflict;1 reported killed, 2 wounded 19 June in clashes at border between security forces and Syrians trying to enter Jordan. EU allocated $65.5mn to help with Syrian refugee influx.

May 2013

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

UN 23 May confirmed Jordan now hosting nearly 500,000 registered Syrian refugees; World Bank pledged $150mn loan, Russia earmarked $3.5mn through UNHCR to help with influx. Parliament 8 May called on govt to expel Israeli ambassador, recall Jordan’s ambassador from Tel Aviv, in protest at dispute over al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem (see Israel/Palestine).

April 2013

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

As number of Syrian refugees in Jordan reached 450,000, police and refugees clashed in Zaatari camp 20 April over poor conditions. U.S. Sec Defence 17 April announced U.S. sending 200 army planners to Jordan to help prevent spillover of Syrian crisis. Authorities 13 April arrested 8 Jordanians attempting to join Syrian rebel fighters. 4 killed in clashes between students at university in southern city Maan.

March 2013

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

U.S. President Obama 22 March met King Abdullah II in Amman, discussed Syria and Israel/Palestine conflict; Obama pledged $200 million in aid for Syrian refugees. Jordan 25 March closed border with Syria due to clashes in area.

February 2013

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Number of Syrian refugees entering Jordan reportedly reached 400,000; violence erupted 24-25 Feb in Zaatari camp over poor conditions. In first protests since 23 Jan parliamentary election, hundreds of opposition Muslim Brotherhood supporters demonstrated in Amman 22 Feb to demand faster political reform; opposition protests also held throughout country. Royal Court Chief Fayez Tarawneh 20 Feb continued consultations with parliament to choose PM.

January 2013

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Muslim Brotherhood boycotted 23 Jan parliamentary elections claiming electoral system rigged in favour of govt; approximately 2,000 demonstrated in Amman in favour of boycott, demanding King Abdullah II cede some powers.

December 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

King Abdullah II 6 Dec visited West Bank city Ramallah to congratulate President Abbas and Palestinian people on new UN status. King 11 Dec ordered release of over 100 protesters detained during Nov fuel protests.

November 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

13 Nov announcement that govt fuel subsidies to be removed sparked nationwide protests, rioting, strikes 13-18 and 23 Nov, calls for PM Nsour’s resignation. Protests in Amman 16 and 30 Nov drew thousands, some protesters reportedly called for King’s downfall. Over 100 arrested, scores injured when police violently dispersed several protests; 1 killed 14 Nov in Irbid, police claim he attacked police station. Former head of intelligence Mohammed al-Dahabi sentenced 11 Nov to 13 years in prison, $30m fine for embezzlement, money laundering, abuse of office.

October 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

King Abdullah 4 Oct dissolved parliament, called for early elections before end 2012, 10 Oct appointed Abdullah Nsour as new PM; thousands of Islamists demonstrated in Amman 5 Oct calling for further reforms. Soldier killed at Syrian border 22 Oct, several arrested. 11 militants arrested 21 Oct for allegedly planning attacks on Western diplomats, shopping centres in Amman.

September 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

About 200 protesters gathered mid-Sept in Amman demanding release of over a dozen opposition activists arrested during month; anti-govt protester Basil Bashabsheh released 19 Sept, 17 protesters remain in prison; officials denied ill treatment. King Abdullah 18 Sept endorsed new media law requiring govt licence for online publications.

August 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Jordanian, Syrian forces 10 Aug clashed on border when Syrian troops reportedly fired on refugees attempting to cross into Jordan. Registration for upcoming parliamentary elections began 7 Aug; govt 12 Aug criticised Muslim Brotherhood (MB), other opposition parties’ poll boycott over controversial elections law passed last month. Some 500 MB supporters rallied 3 Aug in Amman for press freedom; activists same day protested in Karak, Tafileh against elections, U.S. interference in internal affairs.

July 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Amended version of elections law approved 23 July by royal decree; PM Tarawneh said Independent Election Commission (IEC) expected to announced Dec date for parliamentary elections; opposition parties 24 July said changes to law insufficient, called for boycott. Human Rights Watch 7 July criticised Jordan for discriminating against Palestinian refugees fleeing Syria.

June 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

New electoral law passed 19 June allowing voters to cast 1 ballot for a local candidate and another for national party list, increasing Chamber of Deputies seats; opposition claimed changes insufficient. Syrian pilot 21 June granted political asylum after flying fighter jet into Jordan.

May 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

King Abdullah II 2 May swore in new cabinet; 7 May approved Independent Elections Commission to oversee elections to be held before end 2012. Opposition Islamists 3 May warned new govt setback for reform plans. Mass demonstrations 11 May demanded elected govt, criticised PM Tarawneh, 25 May protested govt plans to hike commodity prices, taxes.

April 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

PM Al-Khasawneh 26 April resigned, replaced by former PM al-Tarawneh. Reform legislation introduced to Parliament mid-month amending voting system, banning religious political parties. Journalist arrested 23 April for promoting “anti-regime sentiment”, after alleging corruption in Royal Court.

March 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

20 arrested by police, charged by military prosecutors with rioting, insulting King Abdullah II following 11 March demonstrations demanding reforms, jobs; further country-wide protests 16 March against “tight security grip” and corruption, demanded release of pro-reform protesters. Refugees in Jordan fleeing Syria violence reached 80,000.

February 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Former intelligence head al-Dahabi detained 9 Feb on charges of money laundering, abuse of power, embezzlement. Hundreds, mainly Islamic Action Front (IAF), marched 25 Feb in Amman alleging police fired tear gas in 24 Feb clash between Islamist demonstrators and govt loyalists in Mafraq.

January 2012

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Deaths of 2 people after self-immolation early Jan sparked demonstrations in Amman 13 Jan calling for economic reforms; participants attacked by counter-protesters. Hamas leader Khaled Meshal met with King Abdullah 29 Jan during first official visit since 1999 expulsion from country.

December 2011

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Police used tear gas to break up clashes 23 Dec between govt loyalists and Muslim Brotherhood’s political wing Islamic Action Front (IAF) in northern city Mafraq. IAF accused police of failing to protect them; govt promised investigation.

November 2011

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

King Abdullah 14 Nov suggested Syrian President Assad step down. Muslim Brotherhood 18 Nov joined opposition protests for first time, called for release of 100 Salafi activists. Abdullah 21 Nov visited West Bank for first time in 10 years, met PA President Abbas.

October 2011

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

PM al-Bakhit 12 Oct resigned over slow pace of political reforms. King Abdullah II replaced him with Awn al-Khasawneh, former International Court of Justice judge. New cabinet sworn in 24 Oct; Islamist opposition declined invitation to join but backed new govt’s reformist agenda. Intelligence chief also replaced 12 Oct following accusations of hampering reforms.

September 2011

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

Weekly protests for political and economic reform continued across country, though turnout fairly low. Police prevented 4 Sept protest outside Bahrain embassy against unconfirmed presence of Jordanian armed forces in Bahrain. Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 11 Sept discussed admission of Jordan, approved grant of $2bn. FM Judeh 14 Sept said Jordan supports Palestinian drive for recognition at UN but prefers negotiations toward creation of Palestinian state (see Israel/OPT).

August 2011

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

King Abdullah 15 Aug backed proposals for constitutional reforms devolving some of his powers to parliament, enhancing civil liberties; activists said reforms did not go far enough. Continued popular protests against corruption and economic disparities after PM Marouf al-Bakhit and 13 former cabinet members cleared by parliament of corruption charges 10 Aug. Peaceful protest calling for political reform 13 Aug attacked by thugs in Karak; violence denounced by opposition.

July 2011

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

In response to ongoing pro-reform, anti-corruption protests, King Abdullah 2 July reshuffled cabinet; included removal of unpopular interior minister Saad Hayel Srour. Major rallies continued.

June 2011

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan

King Abdullah 12 June announced future cabinets to be formed on basis of parliamentary elections, in concession to ongoing protests.

May 2011

Middle East & North Africa

Jordan