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Tracking Conflict Worldwide

CrisisWatch is our global conflict tracker, a tool designed to help decision-makers prevent deadly violence by keeping them up-to-date with developments in over 70 conflicts and crises, identifying trends and alerting them to risks of escalation and opportunities to advance peace.

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January 2023

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Protests rejecting Boluarte’s take-over intensified across country, killing scores and prompting widespread concern nationally and internationally; new president resisted calls to resign.

Renewed protests left dozens dead as security forces clashed with protesters. Protests, which first erupted in Dec 2022 after former President Castillo’s impeachment, 4 Jan resumed after two-week pause in southern Puno, Cusco, Apurimac and Arequipa regions, and central Junin department. Protesters continued to demand immediate elections, closure of Congress, new Constitution and removal of President Dina Boluarte, who was sworn in 7 Dec following Castillo’s removal. Violence 9 Jan escalated in Puno’s Juliaca city, where clashes between protesters and police left 19 dead. Massive protests in capital Lima 19-20 Jan once more descended into violence, leaving one dead and dozens more injured as police used tear gas to push back protesters. Police 21 Jan arrested well over 200 demonstrators who had stormed university in Lima day before. As of 30 Jan, 58 people have died during protests.

Boluarte refused to resign amid concerns over mounting violence. Prosecutor’s office 10 Jan opened investigation against Boluarte and members of her cabinet for alleged crimes of “genocide, aggravated homicide and serious injuries”. UN same day released statement voicing concern for “rising violence”, while EU 21 Jan condemned security forces’ “disproportionate use of force”. Boluarte 13 Jan apologised for violence but insisted she would not resign nor call constitutional assembly. Govt next day extended 30-day state of emergency in Lima and several other regions for another month. Boluarte 24 Jan called for “truce” and blamed “radicals” for violence, 27 Jan urged Congress to bring tentative April 2024 elections forward to Oct 2023; Congress next day rejected proposal but is set to vote again.

Relations with Honduras and Bolivia grew increasingly strained. Lima 9 Jan banned former Bolivian President Evo Morales and eight Bolivian citizens from entering Peru, accusing them of interfering in Peru’s internal affairs. Morales, who has denounced Castillo’s arrest as illegal, same day said ban aimed to “distract from “human rights abuses”. Foreign ministry 26 Jan recalled its ambassador to Honduras after Honduran President Xiomara Castro 24 Jan condemned Boluarte’s “coup d'état”.

December 2022

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Failed attempt to dissolve Congress ended brief presidency of Pedro Castillo, prompting countrywide protests that turned deadly amid security crackdown.

Castillo impeached after failed attempt to close Congress and rule by decree. Congress 1 Dec approved motion to initiate impeachment proceedings against leftist President Castillo, third impeachment attempt since he took office in June 2021, and summoned Castillo to respond to accusations of constitutional breaches on 7 Dec. Political crisis came to a head as Castillo 7 Dec attempted to dissolve Congress and replace it with an “exceptional emergency government”. Political elites denounced “attempted coup” and Congress later that day voted to remove Castillo from power on grounds of “moral incapacity” and swore in VP Dina Boluarte as president. Shortly after, authorities detained Castillo on “rebellion” and “conspiracy” charges and transferred him to Barbadillo prison in capital Lima. Supreme Court 15 Dec extended Castillo’s pre-trial detention to 18 months.

Protests erupted across country, turning deadly amid violent security response. Castillo supporters 7 Dec took to streets in Lima and southern Arequipa cities, demanding dissolution of Congress and immediate elections. In following days, protests spread to other regions, notably Apurimac and Ayacucho; demonstrators blocked highways and forced several airports to close, prompting govt 14 Dec to declare 30-day state of emergency. Ombudsman 16 Dec denounced security forces’ use of firearms and tear gas as they clamped down on protests. As of 18 Dec, clashes between protesters and security forces had left at least 27 people killed and around 650 injured. In attempt to ease tensions, Boluarte 16 Dec proposed bringing 2026 elections forward to Dec 2023; Congress initially rejected proposal, but 20 Dec approved tentative plan for April 2024 polls.

Govt expelled Mexico’s ambassador. Mexico, Bolivia, Colombia and Argentina 12 Dec released joint statement condemning “undemocratic harassment” of Castillo since he took office and urging new govt to respect “the will of the citizens pronounced at the polls”. Mexican President Lopez Obrador next day reaffirmed his support for Castillo while Mexican FM Marcelo Ebrard 20 Dec announced Mexico had granted Castillo’s family asylum; govt same day expelled Mexican ambassador, citing “unacceptable interference in internal affairs”.

June 2021

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Tight presidential runoff vote fuelled electoral crisis as right-wing supporters rejected results, alleging fraud, and some called for military to step in. Following 6 June presidential polls, right-wing Popular Force presidential candidate Keiko Fujimori next day alleged wide-scale fraud and irregularities; 9 June demanded electoral authorities nullify 200,000 votes. Organization of American States 11 June said its electoral observation mission had “not detected serious irregularities”. Fujimori supporters 12 and 15 June protested in capital Lima calling for annulment of contested ballots. National Office of Electoral Processes 15 June declared vote count complete, said left-wing Free Peru party candidate and political newcomer Pedro Castillo had won 50.12% of votes – about 44,000 more than Fujimori; Castillo same day claimed victory. Hundreds of retired officers mid-June sent letter to leaders of armed forces demanding they do not accept Castillo as new president and supporting Fujimori’s claims of fraud; President Sagasti next day condemned letter, said it was being investigated by Attorney General’s Office. Supporters of both candidates 19 and 26 June protested in Lima, with Fujimori’s followers denouncing fraud and Castillo’s supporters calling on electoral authorities to confirm his election. One of four magistrates in National Jury of Elections (JNE), responsible for resolving all legal challenges and officially declaring winner of presidential vote, 23 June quit amid disagreements with other JNE officials over requests to nullify votes; replacement sworn in 26 June.

May 2021

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Maoist rebels staged deadly attack ahead of 6 June presidential election. Suspected remnants of Maoist revolutionary group Shining Path 23 May killed at least 16 people in San Miguel de Elne village, Valle de los Ríos Apurímac, Ene y Mantaro (VRAEM) region known for coca production; pamphlets warning against voting in 6 June presidential election reportedly found on site after attack. Interim President Sagasti next day said he had ordered deployment of armed forces and police in area, promised there will be “no impunity” for those behind massacre.  

December 2020

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Demands for repeal of decades-old agrarian law fuelled mass protests across country, leaving several dead. Agriculture workers late Nov-early Dec initiated protests demanding higher wages; as protests spread northward from country’s south, cutting off transit on highway critical to food supply for capital Lima, police 3 Dec intervened to disperse protesters in Virú town, La Libertad department, leaving one dead. Hundreds of workers from metallurgical plant in La Oroya town, Junín department, 4 Dec joined protesters and blockaded highway in La Oroya district, demanding govt turn over management of mining complex. Congress same day repealed agrarian law but 19-20 Dec failed to reach consensus on law’s replacement, specifically clause on higher base salaries, prompting agricultural workers to renew protests 21 Dec. Congress 29 Dec passed agricultural reform bill, raising base salaries of agricultural workers by 30%. Workers’ unions, who had been demanding increase in daily wage from $11 to $18, immediately decried bill as insufficient. Clashes next day broke out between protesters and police in Chao district, La Libertad department, reportedly leaving two protesters killed, while another individual died in vehicle stranded by protest. Meanwhile, earlier in month, National Police Commander General Orlando Velasco and two other generals 1 Dec resigned in protest at police reform program launched by President Sagasti following heavy-handed response to Nov protests against impeachment of former President Martín Vizcarra; Interior Minister Cluber Aliaga 7 Dec resigned, claiming that use of force by police in Nov was justified.

November 2020

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

President’s impeachment sparked deadly protest, largest in decades. Congress 9 Nov voted to remove President Martín Vizcarra from office following allegations of corruption during his time as governor of Moquegua region (2011-2014); next day swore in Congress head Manuel Merino as interim president amid protests, as thousands took to streets in capital Lima, disputing legality of procedure and claiming Vizcarra’s impeachment was manoeuvre by MPs who could be affected by his anti-corruption reforms; riot police used tear gas to keep protesters away from Congress building. In following days, protests spread to other cities, notably Trujillo and Cusco. Thousands 14 Nov gathered again in Lima in largest demonstration in decades; clashes between police and protesters left two protesters dead and dozens injured. Merino resigned 15 Nov. Congress next day elected centrist congressman Francisco Sagasti as new interim president. Sagasti 23 Nov announced creation of commission to reform police, named new police chief and removed 18 senior police officers suspected of using excessive force in recent protests.

August 2020

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Amid highest COVID-19 fatality rate globally and plunging economy, series of protests and incidents turned deadly. After group of indigenous people armed with spears 2 Aug entered pipeline station of state-owned Petroperú oil company in Marañón region to demand medical care for COVID-19 patients, Petroperú next day said protesters occupying site forced them to halt operations; company 17 Aug said protesters agreed to leave station after it committed to implementing social development projects in area. Around 70 armed indigenous people 2 Aug entered PetroTal Corp oil production field in Loreto region to voice demands for economic and medical support; attack led to violent confrontation with police that left three indigenous people killed and 17 injured on both sides. After govt 12 Aug strengthened COVID-19 restrictions, police 22 Aug raided clandestine party at nightclub in capital Lima; ensuing stampede left at least 13 dead. National statistics agency 20 Aug said GDP had dropped by 30.2% in second quarter of 2020 compared to same period last year. Govt 31 Aug reported 28,944 deaths from COVID-19; country now registers highest virus-related fatality rate per capita globally.

June 2014

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Govt early June sent new regulations to Congress on investment in energy, mining and oil; regulations seek to reduce fines and speed up registration processes; civil society and social organisations worried about lack of environmental protection, while investors considered proposal positive for economy. President Humala reshuffled cabinet appointing new interior and foreign affairs ministers.

April 2014

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Security forces 10 April arrested 28 people suspected of links to Shining Path militant group, issued 6 arrest warrants against Peruvians living abroad, in operation involving over 300 police and army personnel. Detainees include 2 attorneys representing jailed Shining Path leader and rebel group’s political wing Movement for Amnesty and Fundamental Rights (MOVADEF). President Humala’s cousin also detained.

August 2013

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Security forces 11 Aug launched military operation against Shining Path guerillas which led to death of movement’s second-in-command “Comrade Alipio” and 2 others; operation took place in Huanta province in Ayacucho region, traditional Shining Path stronghold.

December 2011

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Following bitter protests over large mining project in northern Cajamarca region, President Humala 4 Dec declared 60-day state of emergency, lifted after Cajamarca governor 13 Dec announced end of mining strike. Dialogue between central and regional govts reinstated 19 Dec. Comrade Artemio, regional leader of weakened Shining Path guerillas, admitted in 6 Dec press interview that armed struggle “no longer possible”, called for political solution. Govt reported over 230 social conflicts in country, mostly over natural resources, mining.

September 2009

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Police 21 Sept announced capture of influential Shining Path commander Brandy Maldonado Vásquez. Several military personnel killed in suspected Shining Path attacks during month, including 2 pilots 3 Sept when rebels shot down helicopter in Acobamba district.

August 2009

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

5 killed, including 3 police, in 2 Aug suspected Shining Path rebel attack in Ayacucho department; 3 rebels, 2 soldiers killed in 26 Aug VRAE region clash.

July 2009

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

PM Simon and 8 ministers resigned 8 July following June violent indigenous protests that killed dozens; President García 11 July appointed Congress President Velásquez Quesquén as new PM.

June 2009

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Protests by indigenous groups over decrees encouraging private oil, mining and agricultural development in Amazon turned violent: 22 police and some 30 protesters killed, dozens injured in 5 June clash in Amazonas department. Congress 18 June repealed 2 of most controversial decrees; PM Simon 16 June announced will resign when situation “calm”. 1 soldier killed, 4 injured in 6 June suspected Shining Path rebels attack in Ayacucho department; military 9 June launched new offensive against rebels in coca-growing VRAE region.

April 2009

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

2 separate suspected Shining Path rebels attacks killed 14 soldiers in Ayacucho department 9 Apr. Army 16 Apr doubled estimated Shining Path size to 600; govt 17 Apr pledged more military spending to boost offensive against rebels in coca-growing VRAE region. Supreme Court 7 April sentenced ex-President Fujimori to 25 years in prison for human rights crimes.

January 2009

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Shining Path rebels early month threatened to “continue and expand” guerilla war; govt said will seek “final defeat” of rebels in 2009, 15 Jan announced creation of militarised zone in central Peru where rebel attacks most frequent.

November 2008

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Suspected Shining Path attacks left 4 police dead, 4 injured 27 Nov in San Martín department; 3 killed, 1 injured 16 Nov in Ayacucho department.

October 2008

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Shining Path rebels launched deadliest attacks in almost a decade: 12 soldiers, 2 civilians killed 10 Oct in Huancavelica province; 2 soldiers killed 14 Oct in Vizcatan. Attacks linked to renewed military offensive against rebels in Vizcatan beginning Aug. Cabinet replaced mid-Oct due to corruption scandal; President Alan Garcia 11 Oct appointed new PM, Yehude Simon, of centre-left PHP party.

March 2008

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

PM Castillo 17 March warned Venezuela against providing covert funding for radical leftist groups; call followed arrest of 2 alleged Coordinadora Continental Bolivariana members for importing $150,000 alleged Venezuelan cash - Caracas denied. Suspected Shining Path rebels killed police officer in Apurimac River valley 23 March. Shining Path logistics leader Félix Mejía Asencio captured 18 March in Upper Huallaga. 2 alleged FARC members captured 19 March in Iquitos.

November 2007

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

100 police to be sent to coca-growing region of Apurimac and Ene river valley in south-central Peru after rebels killed police chief in Ocobamba 1 November. 4 police killed in clash with suspected remnants of Shining Path rebel group in Huancavelica region 14 November. Government asked for increased funding for security forces to fight terrorism and insurgency in Amazon.

April 2007

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Authorities regained control of major roads 25 April after roadblocks by coca farmers protesting eradication programme erupted in violence twice in month. 1 killed, 5 injured in central Peru after suspected Shining Path ex-rebels attacked crop destruction team. President Alan Garcia announced plan for aerial bombardment of drug trade infrastructure, declared state of emergency in 3 provinces.

December 2006

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Lima placed southeastern province of Abancay under 30-day state of emergency 6 December after thousands protested governor’s transfer of funds.

October 2006

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Shining Path founder Abimael Guzmán sentenced to life imprisonment for crimes committed during Peru’s “dirty war”. Achuar Indians led 13-day blockade that shut down half of country’s oil output in protest at poor environmental conditions; government ended standoff by promising tax and heath concessions.

September 2006

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

President Garcia made controversial decree granting legal assistance to hundreds of military officials due to face trial for alleged human rights abuses during Peru’s 1980s and 1990s conflict against Shining Path guerrillas. Former intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos given 20-year prison term for arms sales to Colombian FARC in 1999.

August 2006

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Opposition leader Ollanta Humala, runner-up in June’s presidential run-off election, indicted on charges of human rights abuses allegedly committed during Peru’s 1990s struggle against Shining Path guerrillas. Abimael Guzman, Shining Path leader, asked government for general amnesty for crimes committed during 1980-2000 conflict.

July 2006

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

President-elect Alan Garcia took office 28 July, while his APRA party gained control of legislature, with election of Mercedes Cabanillas as head of congress.

June 2006

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Presidential runoff poll 4 June deemed free and fair by EU and OAS. Former President Garcia won with 53% of vote, defeating nationalist candidate Humala whose party won largest share of seats in April congressional elections. Venezuelan President Chavez declared Garcia’s victory fraudulent, aggravating relations between countries.

May 2006

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Presidential runoff to be held 4 June between nationalist candidate Humala and former President Garcia, top 2 after first round 9 April. Campaigning by candidates continued amidst allegations of foul play on both sides; 5 killed in clashes between supporters. Relations with Venezuela remained tense. Chile’s Supreme Court released former Peruvian President Fujimori on bail pending extradition decision.

April 2006

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Presidential and parliamentary elections held 9 April. Presidential runoff vote likely to be between nationalist candidate Humala and former President Garcia set for 28 May; with conservative Flores third. With nearly 70% of votes counted for 120-seat congress, Humala’s Peru Union party in lead; final results due early May. Peru recalled ambassador to Venezuela, accusing President Chavez of interference in election with his backing of Humala.

March 2006

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Ollanta Humala, nationalist presidential candidate who led failed 2000 uprising, overtook front-runner, centrist Lourdes Flores, in run-up to 9 April presidential election. Leader of Marxist rebel group Tupac Amaru, Victor Polay Campos, sentenced to 32 years in prison in civilian retrial.

February 2006

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Preparations continued for 9 April presidential and legislative elections. Shining Path guerrilla commander Hector Aponte, believed responsible for killing 8 police in December 2005, killed in shootout with security forces.

January 2006

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

National election agency ruled former President Fujimori, currently jailed in Chile, not eligible to run in 9 April presidential election. Government submitted request for Fujimori’s extradition for corruption and rights abuses. Venezuelan President Chavez accused of interfering with presidential campaigns.

December 2005

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Government declared state of emergency after Shining Path guerrillas killed 8 police 20 December in Huanuco region northeast of Lima; earlier guerrillas killed 5 police near southern town of San Francisco. Former army officer Ollanta Humala, leader of brief revolt against former president Fujimori in 2000, registered as Peruvian Nationalist Party candidate for 9 April presidential elections.

January 2005

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Four-day uprising led by Retired Major Antauro Humala ended in bloodshed. After occupying police post in Andean town of Andahuaylas 1 January and taking 10 hostages, Humala’s 200 nationalist paramilitaries demanded resignation of President Alejandro Toledo, who responded by sending 1,000 troops to put down rebellion. Humala arrested, 6 killed, including 4 policemen.

December 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

President Alejandro Toledo dismissed commanders of army and air force, raising questions about irregular promotions within armed forces. President has been criticised for allowing too much decision-making autonomy to armed forces high command. State of emergency declared in southern town of Andahuaylas as armed group led by radical former soldier stormed police station, holding 10 officers hostage.

November 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Retrial of Shining Path leader Abigael Guzman twice suspended: 5 November after chaotic scenes in courthouse; second time after 2 of 3 judges stepped down because of prior involvement in terrorism trials. New judges chosen but no new date set. Mining companies called on government to end violent anti-mining demonstrations after some 350 protesters broke into camp in northern Peru, setting fire to tents and vehicles.

October 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Violent clashes between coca farmers and police killed 3 in troubled southern department of Puno 19 October. Protesters briefly took over hydroelectric power station, demanding suspension of forced eradication of coca in southern border province of Carabaya. Thirty-day state of emergency declared in 2 municipalities (San Gaban and Antauta); government agreed to set up discussions with coca farmers. Jailed Shining Path leader Abigael Guzman and 17 other Shining Path leaders back to court 5 November after their 1992 trial by military tribunal was ruled unconstitutional by Supreme Court.

September 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Continued political instability. President Alejandro Toledo’s approval ratings fell due to crisis within “Peru Posible” party over corruption allegations. Violent Cajamarca protests throughout September over proposed mining activities. Protesting cocoa farmers briefly held 17 tourists Cuzco 28 September. Government renewed request to Japan for ex- president Alberto Fujimori’s extradition.

August 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

President Alejandro Toledo’s approval ratings doubled (to 15.2 %) after he opened personal bank accounts to public scrutiny, resumed gas extraction and signed agreement with Bolivia to allow Bolivian gas to be exported via port of Ilo, creating special commercial zone for Bolivian companies.

July 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Protesters overran southern city of Ayacucho 1 July, setting fire to buildings after police used tear gas to break up demonstration by teachers. Government blamed followers of Shining Path rebel group for mayhem. CGTP labour union called 1-day general strike 14 July in protest at government’s economic policies; 76 arrested. President Toledo’s approval rating reportedly remains below 7%.

June 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Shining Path rebels killed 4 in 3 ambushes in central region. Unrest resurfaced in border town of Ilave with protests against provisional mayor, accused of ineptness and links to predecessor, who was lynched by angry mobs. Mayor and councilmen taken hostage 18 June by leaders of popular movements in province of San Román.

May 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Unrest in southern town of Ilave subsided after deal with government. Security forces to be reduced, community grievances addressed. Interior Minister Rospigliosi forced to resign after failure to end 3 weeks of violence, including lynching of mayor. Coca growers continued to demonstrate, clash with police in Tingo Maria. Anti-government strike in Cusco 27 May killed 2 when bus hit road block set up by demonstrators. Protests continued in Lima prompting President Toledo to miss EU-Latin America leaders summit. President Toledo's approval rating reportedly down to 6%. Peru pressed Japan for response to extradition request for former President Fujimori.

April 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Claimed leader of rebel group Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) announced armed struggle would commence if government did not provide adequate response. Congress approved murder charge against ex-president Fujimori for decade-old killing. Indigenous protesters beat allegedly corrupt local mayor of Ilave to death after he refused to step down.

March 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Government announced intention to dissolve its intelligence agency on grounds agency still had ties to former President Fujimori and his jailed spy chief Vladimiro Montesinos. Intelligence chief resigned early in month for allegedly plotting against government; successor resigned 2 days later after being investigated for corruption. Supporters of Fujimori launched new political party - though he faces numerous criminal charges if returns from exile in Japan.

February 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Beleaguered President Toledo reshuffled his cabinet for fourth time in less than 3 years. Polls show his popularity at 7%. Ex-President Fujimori, in exile in Japan, seeking to build political support for possible return to Peru – facing criminal charges if he does return. Angry coca farmers demanded greater financial assistance from government to grow alternative crops.

January 2004

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Interior minister warned of possible marches, road blocks and national strike during February 18-20 convention of coca growers in Lima. Widespread dissatisfaction with President Toledo may lead to further protests in coming months. Former spy chief Vladimiro Montesinos went on trial 20 January on charges he arranged supply of arms to Colombian FARC rebels.

December 2003

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Prime Minister Beatriz Moreno resigned 15 December at request of President Toledo, claiming she was victim of smear campaign. Toledo reshuffled cabinet, appointed Carlos Ferrero as PM. One of new ministers resigned within days after accused of corruption. Toledo claims mafia backed by ex- President Fujimori attempting to destabilise government by making unfounded allegations in media.

November 2003

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

President Alejandro Toledo apologised for estimated 70,000 deaths during 20 year fight against Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) rebel group. Peru’s Congress approved new charges against ex-President Fujimori, lifted his presidential immunity. Fujimori, in exile in Japan, still plans to run in 2006 presidential elections. Prominent leader of Shining Path captured by army.

October 2003

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Terrorist group Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) becoming more active, taxing Brazilian loggers and drug traffickers to access Peruvian markets. Ex-President Fujimori, in exile in Japan, announced intent to stand for 2006 presidential elections. Government announced torture charges against Fujimori, adding to charges already laid. New intelligence chief appointed after predecessor resigned in September following allegations of spying on journalists. Anger grows amongst coca farmers as U.S. and Peruvian governments eradicate plant.

September 2003

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Ex-President Alberto Fujimori commenced broadcasting radio messages to Lima from exile in Japan – prelude to intended political comeback. Intelligence chief resigned over state-sponsored spying on journalists. Imprisoned leader of MRTA rebel group says group has renounced armed conflict and wants to become political party.

August 2003

Latin America & Caribbean

Peru

Truth and Reconciliation Commission issued report on 28 August stating more than 69,000 people killed between 1980 and 2000. Maoist rebels, chiefly Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), responsible for more than half these deaths. Shining Path guerrilla group appears to be operating again, after having been thought largely wiped out in 1990s. Japan rejected request to extradite former President Fujimori. Although criminal indictments against him remain in place, Fujimori considering return to Peruvian politics for 2006 elections.

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