CrisisWatch

Tracking Conflict Worldwide

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CrisisWatch is our global conflict tracker, a tool designed to help decision-makers prevent deadly violence by keeping them up-to-date with developments in over 70 conflicts and crises, identifying trends and alerting them to risks of escalation and opportunities to advance peace.

Global Overview

CrisisWatch Digests

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Africa

Angola

Government claimed negotiations held on “special status” of Cabinda enclave, but civil society and FLEC separatists denied talks took place.

Burundi

Leader of FNL rebels, Agathon Rwasa, declared group ready for peace talks with government, but Bujumbura dismissed remarks and asked for input from Regional Initiative for Burundi members. UN Security Council called for talks with regional support. Gradual disengagement of UN peacekeepers continued with withdrawal of Ethiopian soldiers. Main opposition Hutu party FRODEBU called on ministers to withdraw from government, alleging President Nkurunziza manipulating power. Final 1,846 political prisoners freed as part of controversial amnesty launched January.

Central African Republic

Refugees fleeing unrest in north claimed attacked by government troops: 7,000 have fled to Chad since January, with 50,000 more internally displaced. Government confirmed existence of rebellion in northwest for first time 13 March; accused former President Patasse and MLDC party of fuelling unrest.

Chad

Fighting between government forces and rebels intensified, with risk of further deterioration. Military launched operation against SCUD base 20 March: army said base destroyed while rebels claimed repelled attack. Army commander General Itno killed 31 March in clash with rebels and Sudanese militia. SCUD announced would try to stop President Deby from holding 3 May presidential elections, while opposition called for boycott of poll. Earlier, government blamed rebels for reported assassination attempt on Deby. AU endorsed plan to deploy military observers to Chad/Sudan border as provided under February peace agreement.

Côte d’Ivoire

Prospects of long-delayed peace process improved: Forces Nouvelles leader Guillaume Soro returned to Abidjan 14 March for first full session of transitional government headed by PM Charles Konan Banny. Military dialogue began with ex-rebels 1 April on disarmament and forming new national army. UN troops who fled due to January’s violent demonstrations prepared to redeploy in Guiglo. Head of independent election commission formally began work after political parties agreed on distribution of executive posts in commission.

Democratic Republic of Congo

EU agreed to send German-led military mission of up to 1,450 troops to assist during elections scheduled for late June/early July: 400 to be stationed in Kinshasa; others on standby outside DRC. EU asked for UN Security Council approval. Elections face possible delay due to slow candidate registration. Former rebel group RCD-Goma announced would contest polls, while supporters of Etienne Tshisekedi’s UDPS party staged mass rallies in Kinshasa calling for reopening of voter registration. Joint UN-DRC military operations continued against militias in Ituri, but insecurity remained widespread, including in Kivus and Katanga, with thousands displaced. DRC elite commandos ordered to withdraw after dozens mutinied and ransacked UN base 3 March. Leader of UPC militia, Thomas Lubanga, first war crimes suspect to face charges at International Criminal Court.

Eswatini

Police cracked down on opposition PUDEMO party rally, arresting several party leaders.

Ethiopia

Series of explosions in Addis Ababa killed 1 and led to fears of continued unrest. Eritrea denied Ethiopian claim Eritrean-backed “terrorists” responsible. Court dropped charges against 18 of 129 opposition members on trial for treason and genocide. 395 prisoners arrested during 2005 post-election unrest freed, bringing total released to 11,600. EU report reaffirmed May 2005 parliamentary elections did not meet international standards.

Ethiopia/Eritrea

Little progress in resolving border dispute despite talks between Eritrea, Ethiopia and Boundary Commission in London. Ethiopia pushed its November 2004 peace proposal that states parts of Commission’s 2002 ruling require further discussion, while Eritrea rejected calls for new talks. UN Security Council extended UN mission mandate to 15 April to give parties more time to resolve differences. Eritrea expelled 3 international aid agencies, saying had not met operational permit requirements.

Gabon

Main opposition leader, Pierre Mamboundou, in hiding after government forces raided his party’s headquarters.

Gambia

Government said it thwarted coup plot by army. 28 arrested, including 15 officers, but supposed leader, former defence chief Ndure Cham, still at large. Intelligence and defence heads replaced and Independent newspaper editors arrested in “coup” aftermath.

Guinea

President Conté temporarily evacuated to Switzerland mid-month for medical treatment. Amidst coup fears, opposition parties proposed establishing transitional government with international support. Trade union general strike that crippled Conakry ended early March after government reached agreement with civil servants; spurred National Consultation with civil society and opposition.

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau/Senegal: Fierce fighting between G-B army and Senegalese Casamance rebels near border killed at least 12 and displaced 5,000. Rebel group’s hardline wing rejects 2004 peace deal with Senegal. Rebels blamed for landmine that killed 12 in minibus outside G-B town of Sao Domingos 16 March.

Liberia

President Johnson-Sirleaf called upon Nigeria to extradite former President Charles Taylor to face war crimes charges before Special Court for Sierra Leone. Taylor fled but captured 29 March and transferred to Sierra Leone. Tribunal requested trial be held in Hague in interests of regional security. Johnson-Sirleaf visited EU, U.S. and UN to garner support for ambitious reform agenda, expressing hope UN sanctions on timber and diamonds would be lifted. UN Security Council approved extended UN mission mandate to 30 September; UNSG Annan had recommended 1-year extension for 16,000-strong mission with fewer troops and more police.

Nigeria

Attacks on oil infrastructure by rebels continued in Niger Delta region, but in positive development, MEND rebels released all 9 foreign hostages taken February. Violence marred disorganised 7-day census, including 10 killed in clashes between census workers and Biafran separatists angry over omission of ethnicity question. Members of senate constitution review committee recommended 3-year extension of tenure for president and state governors, which would allow for controversial third term for President Obasanjo. Obasanjo agreed to make former Liberian President Charles Taylor available to Special Court for Sierra Leone, following request by Liberia. Taylor fled but recaptured 29 March and extradited to Liberia.

Rwanda

U.S. State Dept. report on human rights noted improvements but criticised government for arbitrary arrests and interference in judicial system. Dr. Aisha Kirabo Kakira elected new mayor of Kigali, completing final stage in decentralisation plan aimed at weakening ethnic divisions. UN genocide tribunal asked Tanzania to try remaining suspects after its mandate expires 2008.

Senegal

Guinea-Bissau/Senegal: Fierce fighting between G-B army and Senegalese Casamance rebels near border killed at least 12 and displaced 5,000. Rebel group’s hardline wing rejects 2004 peace deal with Senegal. Rebels blamed for landmine that killed 12 in minibus outside G-B town of Sao Domingos 16 March.

Sierra Leone

Special Court asked International Criminal Court in Hague to host trial of former Liberian President Charles Taylor to avoid regional instability. Liberia handed Taylor to Special Court following extradition from Nigeria. Trial for Revolutionary United Front spokesman Omrie Golley and 2 co-accused continued despite reports all needing medical attention. Charles Margai, Golley’s lawyer, appeared before Supreme Court in relation to harassment of Vice President Berewa in Bo, December 2005.

Somalia

Heavy fighting between Islamic Courts’ militia and members of U.S.-backed Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism killed up to 140 in Mogadishu. Talks to resolve conflict collapsed and escalation feared. UN Security Council welcomed first in-country session of full transitional parliament in Baidoa but warned violence could undermine political progress; also indicated readiness to consider arms embargo exemption for possible IGAD/AU peace-support mission if approved by Somali parliament. U.S. navy clashed with seagoing militias after UNSC encouraged operations against piracy off Somali coast.

Somaliland

Fighting between rival Puntland and Somaliland clans killed 6 in border village 29 March. Exploratory activities by Australian oil company in disputed border zone threatened to further aggravate tensions.

Sudan

AU extended peacekeeping mission until 30 September and “in principle” accepted transfer of operation to UN. Sudanese government maintained opposition to re- hatting: President al-Bashir said AU did not need foreign assistance at Arab Summit 28 March, but First Vice President Kiir stated UN troops could enter if had clear mandate. UN Security Council asked UNSG Annan to expedite planning for transfer of mission. AU also endorsed plan to deploy military observers to increasingly volatile Chad/Sudan border. Seventh round of Darfur peace talks threatened by rebel in-fighting and continued clashes in Darfur. Faction of SLA rebels renounced leader el-Nur, but AU maintained both el-Nur and Minawi as SLM/A representatives in talks. AU proposed placing rival forces in Darfur behind buffer zones to demilitarise humanitarian supply routes and camps for IDPs. In south, government-allied militia killed 12 SPLA soldiers in ambush near Abyei, while UN buildings in Yambio and Yei attacked by alleged Ugandan LRA rebels. Grenade attack 12 March killed 4 in Massala, eastern Sudan.

Uganda

Opposition leader Besigye asked Supreme Court to overturn February vote that saw President Museveni reelected; verdict due 6 April. Besigye treason trial began 15 March after court earlier found him not guilty of rape. Museveni announced Uganda will send troops to DR Congo if attacked by LRA rebels hiding there. LRA blamed for 2 attacks on UN buildings in south Sudan.

Zimbabwe

“Anti-senate” faction of divided MDC party elected former leader Morgan Tsvangirai as new head during party congress. Government continued crackdown on opponents, arresting 16 on conspiracy charges after alleged discovery of weapons cache, and charging MP from MDC for criticising President Mugabe. Government proposed new terrorism bill that could allow life sentences for opponents. Inflation climbed to record high of 782%.

Asia

Afghanistan

Taliban announced start of “Spring offensive” with 29 March attack on U.S. and Canadian troops in southern Helmand province that killed 2 soldiers and 32 Taliban: escalation of violence expected. Taliban targeted prominent pro-government officials in south and east, including former governor of Ghazni province, Helmand province intelligence chief and senior official in Langman province. Relations with Pakistan deteriorated to worst level since fall of Taliban as sides engaged in war of words over cross-border militant infiltrations. Assassination attempt in Kabul 12 March on Sibghatullah Mujaddedi, former president and head of National Reconciliation Commission, blamed by Mujaddedi on Pakistani military intelligence. 16 Pakistanis killed near border town of Spin Boldak 22 March: Kabul claimed they were militants, Islamabad tourists. New cabinet presented to National Assembly for confirmation 22 March, in first confrontation between executive and legislature.

Bangladesh

Leaders of banned Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen (JMB), Abdur Rahman and Bhangla Bhai, arrested after February sentence in absentia. Suspected JMB member, Mollah Omar, died along with family in explosion during military operation 13 March. Opposition alliance led by Awami League (AL) clashed with police during attempted siege on electoral commission, which they accuse of bias. Ruling Bangladesh National Party (BNP) proposed joint BNP-AL election committee 21 March.

China (internal)

PM Wen Jiabao promised to uphold land rights of farmers at annual National People’s Congress. Talks with Japan failed to resolve issue of overlapping claims on gas fields - exacerbated by Japanese PM Koizumi’s continued visits to Yasukuni shrine.

India

Religious, Maoist and northeastern separatist violence continued throughout month. 2 bombs claimed by Kashmiri militant group Lashkar-e-Kahar killed 15 in Hindu city of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Police shot dead 4 suspected Islamic militants in western Gujarat for planning to attack religious sites. Maoists in Chhattisgarh continued to target security forces and civilians: 4 villagers suspected of being police informers killed and CPI-Maoist group apologised after 24 March mine blast killed 14 civilians. Clashes with police in Dantewada district left 6 Maoists and policeman dead 26 March. Northeastern separatists in Manipur state clashed with security forces 11 March, killing 7. U.S President Bush signed deal to give India access to U.S. civilian nuclear technology: Delhi agreed to open 14 nuclear facilities to inspection, but 8 military sites to remain closed. 4 died in clashes in Lucknow after Muslims protesting Bush visit tried to force Hindu traders to strike.

India-Pakistan (Kashmir)

India and Pakistan announced schedule for third round of composite dialogue. Meetings began 28 March and will conclude June followed by 2 high-level review sessions July. Pakistani accusations of Indian inaction on Kashmir and Indian calls for end to cross-border terrorism soured atmosphere. Indian PM Manmohan Singh made conciliatory speech while inaugurating bus service 24 March. Clashes continued between security forces and militants while Lashkar-e-Kahar militants claimed responsibility for bombings in Indian Uttar Pradesh state.

Indonesia

Jakarta increased security presence in eastern province of Papua amidst increasing unrest. Violent protests erupted in Timika, Jayapura and Jakarta, demanding closure of Freeport mine due to concerns over local land rights and environmental degradation. 4 police and airforce officer killed in 16 March clash with protesters in Jayapura. Parliament missed 31 March deadline for approval of law on Aceh autonomy. Aceh Monitoring Mission scaled down as half foreign monitors withdrawn, rest to remain until 15 June. Government launched new reintegration program in Aceh late March involving cash disbursements to former GAM combatants and militia for economic empowerment projects, but questions raised over accountability mechanism. Supreme Court reinstated 10-year verdict for former East Timorese militia leader Eurico Guterres; all other defendants acquitted.

Korean Peninsula

Nuclear negotiations remained stalled. Military talks held between North and South, at highest level since Korean War, made little progress. Cabinet-level talks due in April uncertain after Pyongyang protested annual U.S./South Korea military exercises. Significant bilateral meeting held in New York with U.S. administration to explain economic sanctions imposed September 2005. U.S. concerned as NK military reportedly conducted short-range missile tests despite agreed moratorium.

Myanmar

Counter-insurgency by military in western Karen state reportedly forced villagers to flee homes, bringing total internally displaced to 5,000 since January. Crackdown believed connected to military junta’s sudden move of capital to Pyinmana. After long-awaited inspection of democratic progress on behalf of ASEAN, Malaysian FM Syed Hamid Albar concluded little change has occurred and expressed frustration not allowed to visit National League for Democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi. French contingent of Médecins Sans Frontières closed operations in Mon and Karen states due to restrictions imposed by authorities.

Nepal

Widespread clashes between Maoists and security forces continued while government threatened clampdown. Escalation of violence feared ahead of 6-9 April planned demonstrations called by political parties and supported by Maoists. Maoist 6-day nationwide road blockade caused chaos while clashes with army included Palpa district clash 1 March where 31 killed. U.S. President Bush called on Maoists to end violence and urged King to reach out to political parties, while visiting Chinese delegation called for “reconciliation among constitutional forces”. 7-party alliance and Maoists held talks in Delhi to refine 12-point agreement. Tensions emerged within Maoist ranks as leadership criticised by central committee members. UN human rights commissioner in Nepal visited political detainees including CPN-UML leader M.K. Nepal; called detentions “illegal”.

Pakistan

Fierce fighting in North Waziristan risked spreading to neighbouring tribal regions. Government claimed nearly 200 local Taliban militants and 5 soldiers killed. Further 25 killed in operation outside Miranshah near Afghan border. Unrest in Balochistan continued with series of mine blasts and attacks on infrastructure: 26 killed in Dera Bugti 10 March. In North West Frontier Province’s Khyber Agency, clash between supporters of rival clerics killed 26.

Philippines

President Arroyo ended week-long state of emergency tied to alleged coup attempts and protests in capital 3 March. Government announced arrests of suspected organisers and increased defence spending to quell unrest. Administration pushed “people’s initiative” petition to prompt referendum on constitutional shift from presidential to parliamentary system. Bombing on Jolo island 27 March killed 9; police suspect Abu Sayyaf group. Informal negotiations between government and Moro Islamic Liberation Front rebels resumed but yielded no firm agreements; to reconvene April.

Sri Lanka

Initial calm after positive late February peace talks between Tamil Tigers (LTTE) and government gave way to further unrest. 10 killed in low-level violence, while LTTE denied involvement in 25 March attack on navy gunboat that killed 8. President Mahinda Rajapakse’s United People’s Freedom Alliance won overwhelming victory in local elections suggesting support for negotiations with LTTE. Next round of talks due 19-20 April but LTTE and government exchanged accusations of violating ceasefire: state of emergency renewed for another month. Norway announced replacement of peace envoy Erik Solheim with Jon Hanssen-Bauer.

Taiwan Strait

President Chen Shui-bian and opposition held competing rallies promoting rival positions on independence and relations with China. Kuomintang and People’s First Party leaders visited U.S. to explain opposition to U.S. arms deal they see as overpriced and unnecessary. China announced defence spending increase of 14%.

Thailand

Mass demonstrations against PM Thaksin Shinawatra continued in capital ahead of 2 April elections. Main opposition Democratic Party submitted evidence to electoral commission of fraud by ruling Thai Rak Thai party. Almost daily violence continued in south, including attack by militants in Pattani province killing 6 Muslim officials and journalist 16 March, day after gunmen shot dead principal of Yala province Islamic school linked to separatist groups.

Europe & Central Asia

Albania

PM Berisha reconfirmed Albania’s commitment to existing borders after FM Mustafaj’s controversial comments that Albania could not guarantee inviolability of borders if Kosovo becomes independent.

Armenia

Opposition failed to collect enough support for parliamentary investigation into alleged fraud in 2005 referendum on constitutional amendments. Millennium Challenge Account compact, worth $235.5 million in aid, signed with U.S.

Azerbaijan

Campaigning for May reruns of November elections in 10 constituencies began 14 March. Opposition Azadlig bloc refused to field candidates citing illegitimacy of current parliament. Trial against 3 opposition youth activists accused of attempting to overthrow government began 31 March. U.S. State Dept. rights report criticised police brutality and political intimidation.

Basque Country (Spain)

ETA announced “permanent” ceasefire 22 March, raising hopes for solution to longstanding conflict. Spanish PM Zapatero indicated government would seek parliamentary support for peace talks “before summer” if ceasefire sincere and comprehensive. Basque nationalist party Batasuna organised strike 9 March after 2 ETA members died in custody; 2 bombs exploded same day.

Belarus

Incumbent Aleksandr Lukashenko declared winner of 19 March presidential election with 82.6% of vote. OSCE observers said poll not free and fair. Opposition came under pressure in run-up to election with series of arrests, beatings and clampdown on independent press. Protests held against election violations in Minsk, culminating in large rally 25 March, violently broken up by police. 1,000 reportedly arrested after week of protests, including senior figure Alexander Kozulin. EU and U.S. declared would target sanctions at those responsible for electoral violations and post-election crackdown. UN Special Rapporteur Adrian Severin led UN call for immediate investigation into deteriorating rights situation. Russia congratulated Lukaschenko.

Bosnia And Herzegovina

Potentially momentous breakthrough as vital EU/U.S.-sponsored constitutional reforms agreed by 7 main political parties. Reforms would create single rotating presidency, larger and more efficient parliament, and curtail powers of Council of Ministers. Agreement now awaiting parliamentary approval. First-round negotiations with EU on Stabilisation and Association Agreement began 17 March. High Rep. Schwarz-Schilling announced gradual repeal of laws banning certain officials from public office, except those dismissed for aiding ICTY indictees. Republika Srpska (RS) court, in second ever war crimes conviction in RS, sentenced Bosnian Serb to 20 years.

Chechnya (Russia)

Kremlin-backed strongman Ramzan Kadyrov approved as new PM by parliament 4 March. At least 7 Russian soldiers reported dead in clashes with rebels.

Cyprus

Turkey rejected UN envoy Michael Moller’s meeting request, questioning his neutrality. EU said Turkey must live up to commitments regarding Cyprus, including opening of ports, or jeopardise progress over EU membership. Turkish Cypriot census scheduled for 26 March postponed to 30 April.

Georgia

Relations with Russia thawed after sides resolved visa row and signed agreement on Russian withdrawal of military by 31 December 2007. Joint Control Commission meeting held in North Ossetia 27-28 March; agreed to reconvene in Tskhinvali in April. Head of Abkhaz government- in-exile Irakli Alasania appointed Georgian presidential envoy to negotiations with Abkhazia. Alasania met with de facto Abkhaz FM Sergei Shamba, agreeing to revive bilateral talks through Georgian-Abkhaz Coordinating Council, suspended since 2001. Abkhaz officials blamed Georgia for 8 March shooting of 4 civilians; Tbilisi denied charge. UN Security Council extended UNOMIG mandate until 15 October. Unrest increased in Javakheti region after death of ethnic Armenian in clash with Georgian youths 9 March.

Kazakhstan

Questions continued to be raised over official investigation into February murder of opposition leader Altynbek Sarsenbaev. Jailed opposition leaders Bulat Abilov and Petr Svoikbegan began hunger strike in protest. In positive development, Abilov and Sarsenbaev’s Naghyz Ak Zhol party registered by authorities. President Nazarbaev visited Uzbekistan, expressing support for President Karimov’s suppression of 2005 Andijon uprising.

Kosovo

Provisional government revitalised after Kosovo Protection Corps Head and former KLA commander Agim Ceku elected new PM by parliament 10 March, following Bajram Kosumi’s resignation. Serbia condemned nomination. Ceku promised to reach out to Serb minority and appointed Serb as deputy minister of interior. UNMIK chief Jessen- Petersen pushed for Serbs to end boycott of institutions, but Serbia responded with call for 17,000 Kosovo Serbs to quit UNMIK and Kosovo government jobs. Second round of status talks on decentralisation held in Vienna; third round due 3 April, with divided Mitrovica in spotlight. UK FM Straw argued Kosovo’s independence “almost inevitable”; Russia and China reportedly indicated would not block it in UN Security Council. Mitrovica Serbs protested after Serb youth seriously wounded in stabbing 28 March; 2 policemen dismissed over issue.

Kyrgyzstan

Parliament elected Marat Sultanov new speaker 2 March. Central Electoral Commission overturned court ruling that allowed alleged organised crime boss Ryspek Akmatbayev to stand in April parliamentary by-elections; his supporters protested in Bishkek.

Moldova

Ukraine introduced new restriction on all goods from Moldova’s breakaway Transdniestria region, requiring Moldovan customs clearance. Transdniestrian and Russian authorities said amounted to economic blockade while EU issued statement in support of measures. Subsequently, Transdniestrian authorities announced withdrawal from peace talks; OSCE said next round would be postponed.

Montenegro

Former President Slobodan Milosevic died of heart attack 11 March in Hague before conclusion of his trial. Fears raised death could mark return to reactionary nationalist politics and derail EU integration process. Serbian government provided quasi-state funeral that passed nationalist torch from Socialist Party of Serbia to Serbian Radical Party. EU extended deadline by which war crimes suspect Ratko Mladic must be arrested to 30 April; failure will halt Stabilisation and Association Agreement negotiations. Belgrade called for 17,000 Kosovo Serbs to quit UNMIK and Kosovo government jobs despite UNMIK’s earlier plea for end of Serb boycott of institutions. Montenegrin parliament set independence referendum for 21 May; took control of all State Union military forces on its territory.

Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict

Armenian and Azerbaijani presidents exchanged threats to resume hostilities, as shooting intensified across ceasefire line. 1 Armenian and 2 Azerbaijani soldiers reported dead 8 and 18 March. U.S., French and Russian Minsk Group co-chairs met in Istanbul 20 March to discuss further negotiations. Armenian and Azerbaijani delegations to Parliamentary Assembly of Council of Europe agreed to extend monitoring commission mandate.

North Macedonia

Opposition withdrew threat to boycott forthcoming elections after government agreed to include party members alongside public officials on election boards. EU and NATO emphasised polls must be fair and democratic, warning integration processes could be jeopardised. Police criticised for killing suspected criminal during arrest in Albanian-suburb Kondovo, former militant stronghold.

Northern Ireland (UK)

Following February breakdown of political party talks, UK and Irish PMs met 8 March to discuss blueprint to restore devolution. UK army published timetable on troop withdrawal from province, from around 9,000 to 5,000 by August 2007. Sinn Féin leader Gerry Adams invited to White House St. Patrick’s Day celebrations, reflecting recent progress in IRA decommissioning.

Russia (Internal)

In Daghestan, Shamil Zainalov, pragmatic former minister of industry, unanimously appointed new PM 6 March by parliament. But security remained volatile with assassinations of senior policeman and official. In Ingushetia, 2 soldiers wounded in clashes with militants 10 March, while explosions damaged rail and telecommunications infrastructure.

Serbia

Former President Slobodan Milosevic died of heart attack 11 March in Hague before conclusion of his trial. Fears raised death could mark return to reactionary nationalist politics and derail EU integration process. Serbian government provided quasi-state funeral that passed nationalist torch from Socialist Party of Serbia to Serbian Radical Party. EU extended deadline by which war crimes suspect Ratko Mladic must be arrested to 30 April; failure will halt Stabilisation and Association Agreement negotiations. Belgrade called for 17,000 Kosovo Serbs to quit UNMIK and Kosovo government jobs despite UNMIK’s earlier plea for end of Serb boycott of institutions. Montenegrin parliament set independence referendum for 21 May; took control of all State Union military forces on its territory.

Tajikistan

Court jailed 8 supporters of rebel Mahmud Khudoyberdiyev for role in 1998 armed incursion in Sogd region. Agreement signed with U.S. to increase cooperation on border security and law enforcement.

Turkmenistan

European Parliament committee recommended supporting trade agreement with Turkmenistan; NGOs appealed for parliament to vote down proposal, citing country’s appalling human rights record. President Niyazov sacked senior energy officials for alleged corruption and reshuffled cabinet.