CrisisWatch is our global conflict tracker, an early warning tool designed to help prevent deadly violence. It keeps decision-makers up-to-date with developments in over 70 conflicts and crises every month, identifying trends and alerting them to risks of escalation and opportunities to advance peace. In addition, CrisisWatch monitors over 50 situations (“standby monitoring”) to offer timely information if developments indicate a drift toward violence or instability. Entries dating back to 2003 provide easily searchable conflict histories.
After March suspension of participation in joint ceasefire monitoring mechanism, Palipehutu-FNL rebels agreed to hold talks with government to address outstanding concerns, including FNL role in armed forces, government. Talks still pending at month end due to venue disagreement. Hussein Radjabu – ousted ruling CNDD-FDD party chairman – arrested on allegations of destabilising nation 27 April.
Rebel Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (UFDR) signed peace deal with government 13 April establishing ceasefire in north east. Government forces raided villages in north west 17-19 April, killing 1 in Mann, causing thousands to flee. Rebel Popular Army for the Restoration of the Republic and Democracy (APRD) attacked army convoy 24 April south of Paoua killing 1 soldier.
Chadian and Sudanese troops clashed in Darfur 9 April, first battle between armies amid rising tensions. 17 Sudanese, 9 Chadian soldiers and many rebels reported killed. After denials, Chad admitted crossing border “in pursuit” of rebels: said wants peace but will defend against rebels and Janjaweed militias crossing into Chad. Libya and Eritrea reportedly deployed border observers to lower tensions, defuse calls for UN force in eastern Chad. Death toll up to 400 in 31 March attacks on villages in eastern Chad by Sudanese and local Janjaweed militia aided by Chadian rebels.
Peace further consolidated as Guillaume Soro sworn in as PM 4 April. Transitional government announced 11 posts for President Laurent Gbagbo’s party and allies, 7 for Soro’s New Forces and 5 each for opposition RDR and PDCI. Gbagbo, Soro, French and UN troops agreed to December deadline for withdrawing foreign troops from buffer zone. Increase in violence around zone reported late April. President Gbagbo signed amnesty law 13 April for national security offences committed during conflict, excluding crimes against humanity, war crimes and economic crimes. World Bank agreed 20 April to lend $100 million for disarmament of former combatants in exchange for repayment of debt interest.
Political deterioration continued after heavy March fighting as opposition Movement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC) leader Jean-Pierre Bemba flew to Portugal 11 April with permission from senate for 60- day absence. Public prosecutor called on senate to lift Bemba’s immunity 12 April. MLC suspended participation in lower house of parliament 14 April due to intimidation and harassment including looting of MLC headquarters, homes of several MLC leaders. Opposition returned to parliament 25 April after President Joseph Kabila agreed to discuss concerns. Fighting between militias and army intensified in Kivus as Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC) continued offensive against Rwandan FDLR and Rasta rebels, killing 22 near Uganda border 27 April. Rebel FNI leader Peter Karim handed himself in 7 April for integration into army as colonel along with 7 officers. UNSC extended MONUC mandate through 15 May allowing more time to discuss France’s draft resolution. Burundi, Rwanda, DRC and Uganda adopted joint military strategy 19 April to fight rebel groups in Great Lakes region, but DRC said no foreign forces to operate in its territory.
Attack on oil field in remote Ogaden region 24 April killed 74, including 9 Chinese. Ogaden National Liberation Front claimed responsibility; Ethiopia blamed Eritrea. Addis denied reinforcing troops in Mogadishu 6 April, said civilian casualties and instability exaggerated 24 April. High Court released 25 journalists and opposition supporters for lack of evidence, dismissed charges against others, in controversial trial following disputed 2005 elections.
Tensions persist as accusations traded. Ethiopia said killed 23 Eritrean-backed rebels, captured 18, received surrender of 112. Kenya announced effort to begin intense diplomacy between rivals. Eritrea suspended membership in regional Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) 21 April over Somalia policy rifts.
PM Lansana Kouyaté led ministerial delegation to France and Belgium 14-22 April. EU called for investigation into violence committed during January-February civil unrest. Head of National Assembly El Hadj Aboubacar Somparé called for investigation 5 April into excessive use of force by military in January-February. Hundreds of traders attacked and set fire to police station in Kindia in reaction to alleged police brutality 23 April.
Planned demonstrations suspended early month as President Vieira began political consultations, dissolved government and appointed consensus candidate Martinho Ndafa Cabi of opposition PAIGC PM 9 April. Cabi promised to hold legislative elections next year, named new opposition-dominated government 17 April. Justice, foreign affairs, internal ministries assigned to close Vieira associates.
Member of opposition Liberian Action Party Alex Tyler elected speaker of House 5 April. Head of National Commission on Disarmament, Demobilization, Rehabilitation and Reintegration (NCDDRR) appealed for $18 million for remaining 23,000 ex-combatants not included in donor-funded programs. President Johnson Sirleaf issued executive order 12 April transferring full responsibilities from UNDP to NCDDRR. Government announced plan 17 April to train Quick Reaction Unit to assume duty upon UNMIL’s departure in response to public riots. UNSC lifted 6-year-old diamond ban, lauded country for meeting demands of Kimberley Process 27 April. Government signed military agreement with U.S. 18 April.
Attack on French-run uranium mine in north 20 April, 1 soldier dead. Movement of Nigerians for Justice blamed.
Tensions and discontent heightened following presidential, parliamentary and governorship elections marred by violence, fraud and serious logistical problems. Action Congress candidate Atiku Abubakar ran in 21 April presidential poll only after Supreme Court overturned prior disqualification 16 April. Umaru Yar'Adua of ruling People's Democratic Party (PDP) declared winner in landslide. International observers, local monitors and civil society criticised results. Opposition rejected, called for interim government, new elections and mass protests 1 May. Re-run of annulled polls 28 April consolidated PDP victory, but fraud, low turnout reported. Political violence in 10 states before and during 14 April governorship and state legislature elections caused over 60 deaths, with 2 major police stations razed in Port Harcourt. PDP won 27 of 36 governorships and 26 state legislatures;
Government filed case against France in International Court of Justice: seeks declaration France violated diplomatic immunity of President Paul Kagame and others by issuing arrest warrants for alleged involvement in 1994 assassination of then-president Habyarimana. Brussels court opened trial of former Rwandan Maj. Bernard Ntuyahaga for 1994 killing of 10 Belgian peacekeepers. Rwandan military high court upheld genocide conviction and life sentence for Hutu general Laurent Munyakazi 27 April.
President Abdoulaye Wade sworn in for second 5- year term 3 April despite opposition accusations of doctored voter lists and vote buying. Observers declared polls fair. 12 opposition parties vowed to boycott June legislative elections.
MP and speaker, Justice Edmond Cowan, announced parliament to be dissolved on 25 June ahead of 28 July parliamentary and presidential elections. Elections groups warned limited time between dissolution and polls would cause prejudice, pose logistical difficulties. Earlier dissolution urged.
Fighting raged in Mogadishu after tentative ceasefire early month. Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopian troops stepped up offensive against Islamist insurgents and Hawiye clan militia 18 April. Violence appeared to level off and PM Ali Mohamed Ghedi claimed victory 26 April, but situation fragile. Some 400 killed in 9 days, up to 400,000 displaced since February. Heavy clashes in southern port town Kismayo 23 April between army troops that splintered into clan militias left up to 25 dead. Deputy PM Hussein Aideed of Hawiye clan in Eritrea with other MPs 19 April: announced alliance opposed to Ethiopia’s presence in Mogadishu, accused troops of genocide. Somali parliament voted 17 April to expel MPs in Asmara. Peace talks between Hawiye clan elders and Ethiopian commanders still pending. National reconciliation congress set 16 April postponed. Still only 1200 Ugandans of 8000 planned AU peacekeepers deployed. Ugandan killed 31 March after mortars hit AU base.
Fighting between Puntland and Somaliland forces mid-April around Dhahar, city within Somaliland’s post-independence boundaries, left 1 dead. Puntland retook city. Somaliland defence minister sacked 15 April.
Government of Sudan agreed 16 April to “heavy support package” to allow up to 3000 UN personnel into Darfur to support 7000 AU troops there, but Khartoum continued to resist deployment of 20,000 AU/UN hybrid force. Agreed package includes attack helicopters and armoured personnel carriers. Agreement followed debate of increased sanctions, week of visits to Khartoum by Chinese envoy Zhai Jun, SA President Thabo Mbeki and U.S. Dep. Sec. State John Negroponte. China involvement deemed key, though Khartoum had already committed to deal last November. U.S. stated 23 April that Khartoum must agree to hybrid force in matter of weeks or face tougher economic sanctions. Existing UNMIS force given 6-month extension 30 April. 5 AU Senegalese peacekeepers killed near Chad border 1 April in deadliest attack since 2004 deployment; 2 further deaths saw deadliest month for AU. Senegal threatened 13 April to pull out 500-strong contingent unless support provided. Leaked UN report accused Khartoum of flying arms and equipment into Darfur, disguising planes as UN aircraft, in violation of arms embargo. Rebels reported government airstrike against Jemmeiza village and further 73 killed in northern Darfur.Transitional Darfur Regional Authority inaugurated 24 April as step in implementation of 2006 Darfur Peace Agreement.
Significant steps taken to get peace process back on track. In mid-April meeting chaired by UN Special Envoy, former Mozambique President Joaquim Chissano, government and LRA leaders renewed cessation of hostilities through end June, agreed to restart Juba talks 26 April under southern Sudanese VP Riek Machar’s mediation. 2 groups of rebel fighters in southern Sudan to converge in Ri-Kwangba; African Union, DRC and UN officials to help verify. LRA demanded 12- month suspension of International Criminal Court (ICC) arrest warrants against leaders to complete peace process.
No public signs of progress for SADC initiative led by South Africa President Mbeki to mediate between President Mugabe and opposition MDC. Ruling ZANU-PF reportedly took steps to consolidate chance of success in harmonised presidential and parliamentary elections now due March 2008. MDC factions led by Morgan Tsvangirai and Arthur Mutambara submitted shared roadmap to Pretoria, calling for transitional government and new constitution leading to free and fair elections. Crackdown on civil society continued: all NGO licences revoked, protests repeatedly broken up, arrests continued. EU added 5 deputy ministers to list of targeted sanctions against ZANU leaders.
President Karzai and Pakistan President Musharraf signed pact to fight terrorism in Istanbul 30 April as war of words between 2 on fight against militants eased somewhat. Amid continued concern about targeting civilians, U.S. State Dept. said 2006 saw 53% increase in terrorist attacks against noncombatants while rights group reported suicide attacks killed 8 times as many civilians as combatants in 2006. NATO forces took control of strategic southern town Sangin after coordinated ground and air bombing campaign in push around Kajaki dam, site of important electricity works. Heavy fighting in Herat province at month-end included NATO attack that killed 6 civilians, prompting large anti-U.S. protests. Australia announced plans to increase troop contribution by 400 to 950 by mid-year; new forces to deploy to Uruzgan. President Karzai admitted holding reconciliation talks with some Taliban leaders, ruled out talks with foreign Taliban or Mullah Omar. Taliban kidnappers of 2 French aid workers (and 3 local staff) conditioned release on withdrawal of French troops, but released French woman 28 April.
Interim government crackdown on alleged corruption reached highest levels of political elite. Former PM and head of Awami League Sheikh Hasina charged with murder but allowed to return from holiday after initial attempt to force exile. BNP leader Khaleda Zia resisted pressure to take exile in Saudi Arabia. Over 100,000 reported arrested since January, 79 reported killed in custody. 3 bombs detonated 1 May at train stations in major cities, group called “new al Qaeda” claimed responsibility. Army chief General Ahmed made 2 April speech calling for “own brand of democracy”, blasting decades-long failure of political parties. World Bank released $200m in withheld funds in sign of support for interim government.
Ministerial delegation sent to Brussels to unfreeze EU aid delivered promise to lift state of emergency in May and hold parliamentary elections by March 2009, 1 year earlier than initially promised. UN fact-finding mission visited country.
In Assam, state government said prepared to enter peace talks with United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA), rebel group blamed for dozens of deaths this year. 3 shot dead in Manipur state 23 April, likely People's United Liberation Front in-fighting. Naxalites in Jharkhand state killed 8 members of breakaway faction in gun battle 10 April. In Chhattisgarh, Maoists killed 2 farmers apparently for selling land to steel company; police killed 2 Maoists in targeted strike 15 April; state extended ban on Maoist party.
Indian authorities said violence in India- controlled Jammu & Kashmir fell two-thirds in 2006 to lowest level in 17 years. No agreement in 11th round of talks between New Delhi and Islamabad on Siachen Glacier issue. New Delhi hosted 24 April roundtable on Kashmir, but separatist parties stayed away as talks skirted subject of territory. Thousands protested in Srinagar 16 April in response to continued civilian casualties at hands of Indian police forces.
Jakarta began clarification of power-sharing arrangement with Aceh government. Home Affairs ministry’s draft regulation gave Jakarta lead role in 31 policy areas and broad authority over regional issues; Governor Yusuf protested. World Bank report said March most violent since tsunami in Aceh, highlighting recent rising local tensions. Strike at Freeport mine 18-21 April caused 20% hit to production; management agreed to demands for better pay, local development initiatives. West Irian Jaya formally renamed West Papua 18 April; governors and MRP agreed to implementation of Special Autonomy Law.
6-party talks still on hold as North Korea failed to shut Yongbyon reactor by 14 April deadline. Washington initially said willing to give Pyongyang some leeway on timing, but President Bush said patience “not unlimited” and, with Japan, threatened new sanctions during visit by PM Abe. $25m frozen funds in Macau bank remained unreleased due to difficulties finding banks to take funds from designated money-laundering concern. Seoul sent negotiator Chun Yung-woo to Washington 23 April to discuss technical issues related to unfreezing funds and resumed food aid.
Opposition MDP chairman claimed beaten when detained after 16 April Male demonstrations against alleged wrongful death of man detained on drugs charges.
Continued Burmese offensive on Karen National Union (KNU) forces killed over 17, displaced hundreds over Thai border. Army reportedly seized 4 major rebel bases. In first application of February agreements with International Labour Organisation, 2 state officials convicted of using forced labour sentenced to 6 months' prison. UN humanitarian affairs deputy Wahlstrom met senior officials in attempt to resolve growing humanitarian access crisis. Myanmar and North Korea signed agreement 26 April to normalise relations during visit by North Korean delegation, while India announced increased military aid and cooperation.
Election commission said 110-day lead time needed to prepare for constituent assembly elections, effectively postponing proposed June polls to mid-autumn. Following Maoist arms registration, Nepalese army weapons stored 10-12 April; next phase verification of fighters. Maoists issued ultimatum calling for declaration of republic by 21 May, threatening mass civil disobedience if not met. Political deadlock over new polls date and Maoist deadline stalling verification and disrupting legislature sessions. Madhesi People’s Rights Forum (MJF) called 72-hour strike 23 April, renewing calls for greater representation for Tarai plains. But MJF registered as political party, said would join electoral process. Army 21-gun salute for king on anniversary of end to royal rule and reports of meeting between king and army chief of staff raised new controversy over monarchy, effectively suspended by interim constitution.
Internal security concerns rose after 28 April suicide bombing killed 30 and wounded interior minister at Peshawar political rally; prime suspects militants linked to al-Qaeda. Fighting between rival groups of pro-Taliban tribesmen continued in South Waziristan. Islamabad admitted military involvement for first time: supported Pakistani Taliban commander Mullah Nazir against rival pro-Taliban group allied with Uzbek fighters. Nazir now consolidating control over South Waziristan. Controversy deepened over March suspension of top judge Iftikhar Chaudhry, who faced hearing before panel of judges he claimed biased; protests called for President Musharraf’s resignation over issue. 90 Baloch members of Jundallah militant group arrested by Tehran in crackdown after spike in Baloch attacks last month.
Fighting escalated between factions of MNLF rebels allied with Abu Sayyaf militants on Jolo island. 11 April rebel mortar attack on marine base sparked army retaliation against rebel bases; MNLF beheading of 6 government workers followed. Organisation of Islamic Countries, mediator of failed 1996 Manila-MNLF peace agreement, called for end to fighting ahead of scheduled July talks in Jeddah. Violence rose ahead of May polls.
Scores of LTTE fighters and government troops killed in clashes in north and east throughout month. Fierce fighting reported on new Mannar front in north west. Further aerial attacks by LTTE increased fears of undetected attacks: 6 troops killed in attack on northern Palili air base 24 April, and though little damage reported after attack on oil facility near Colombo 29 April, airport closed briefly and some airlines withdrew flights. Defence Sec. Gotabhaya Rajapakse vowed to continue military offensive saying ceasefire had “no meaning”. Rebels maintained agreement only basis for future talks but current climate precluded negotiations. More than 30 killings reported in northern town of Vavuniya. Local and international rights groups said hundreds disappeared since January, expressed alarm at deteriorating press freedom including forced closure of newspapers. Colombo said unnamed diplomats interfering in local politics, threatened action. International Commission of Jurists criticised government investigation into killing of 17 aid workers August 2006 for bias and lack of transparency.
During annual military exercises 25 April, Taiwan made first open declaration they would fire missiles at mainland if attacked. Pro-independence think-tank promoted idea of interim “second republic” constitution in absence of democratic process with China; plan rejected by opposition KMT as clear independence move. During visit of KMT delegation to Bejing, Chinese President Hu Jintao urged closer ties. Trial of opposition leader Ma Ying-jeou began 3 April; outcome expected to influence upcoming presidential elections.
Situation in south remained volatile: month included burning of Buddhist woman in Yala, shooting by soldiers of 3 Muslim youths. Confidence in interim government continued to fall as disparate political groups held rallies criticising government. First draft of new constitution completed 17 April; many points of contention ahead of September referendum, including provisions giving coup leaders amnesty.
First round of presidential elections held 9 April: after 82% turnout, Fretilin candidate Francisco “Lu Olo” Guterres (28%) will face José Ramos Horta (22%) in second round 9 May. Limited campaign-related violence between Fretilin and other supporters in Viqueque and Dili, observers declared polls generally free and fair and devoid of violence. Losing candidates complained of irregularities and intimidation at poll; in Baucau, number of votes exceeded registered voters by factor of 3. Efforts to capture ex-army rebel Alfredo Reinado called off 23 April by Ramos. Sporadic clashes in Dili in late April, but security situation relatively stable.
State of emergency extended by 1 month for 6th time since 17 November riots in capital. MP Akilisi Pohiva said continued ban on political gatherings could prompt return to violence.
FM Besnik Mustafaj resigned; PM Berisha denied subsequent reshuffle would destabilise government.
Defence Minister Serzh Sarkisian appointed PM 4 April. Campaign for 12 May parliamentary elections began amid several apparently election-related violent incidents including 12 April attack on Prosperous Armenia Party local offices. Assassination attempt 3 April on Gyumri mayor killed 3.
Armenian and Azerbaijani FMs met for “constructive” talks in presence of Minsk Group chairmen in Belgrade 18 April. De facto NK authorities set presidential election for 19 July.
Intimidation of independent media continued as Eynulla Fatullayev, editor of 2 largest independent newspapers, sentenced to 2.5 years prison for article allegedly insulting Azeri refugees from Nagorno-Karabakh. Rights and media groups said case politically motivated. Journalist for Fatullayev papers attacked by unknown assailants. Former Health Minister Ali Insanov sentenced to 11 years on corruption charges. Supporters also say politically motivated. Police arrested 11 alleged Islamist extremists in Baku 12 April.
3 explosive devices caused damage in south west France 18 March; no immediate claim but ETA suspected. ETA told media ready to make “firm commitments” to non-violence if “attacks” on Basque homeland end. In run up to 27 May municipal elections, high court judge declared Basque National Action (ANV) party legal 29 April. Supreme Court hearing on eligibility of newly formed Patriotic Socialist Union (ASB), also accused of ETA links, scheduled for 16 May.
Opposition activist Andrei Kilmau arrested 3 April for online article criticising President Lukashenko: first arrest for online dissidence.
Justice Ministry announced revoking citizenship of 367 mujahideen naturalised after fighting alongside Bosniak soldiers during war: must leave or face deportation. High Rep. Schwarz-Schilling agreed with federal and entity PMs to form coordinating body on conditions in Srebrenica; relations between Republika Srpska (RS) and Federation deteriorated as tensions rose over returnees and area’s status. RS parliament adopted resolution allowing entity to organise referendum on BiH police reform 11 April. Office of High Representative warned move would set back BiH progress.
Ramzan Kadyrov inaugurated as president 5 April. Helicopter crashed, killing at least 18 servicemen; military did not confirm cause of crash. European Court of Human Rights found Russia culpable in disappearance of Shakhid Baysayev during military sweep in 2000, awarded widow damages.