CrisisWatch is our global conflict tracker, an early warning tool designed to help prevent deadly violence. It keeps decision-makers up-to-date with developments in over 70 conflicts and crises every month, identifying trends and alerting them to risks of escalation and opportunities to advance peace. In addition, CrisisWatch monitors over 50 situations ("standby monitoring") to offer timely information if developments indicate a drift toward violence or instability. Entries dating back to 2003 provide easily searchable conflict histories.
Democratic Republic of Congo
Basque Country (Spain)
Peace process back on track after 9-month deadlock as President Nkurunziza and Palipehutu-FNL rebel leader Agathon Rwasa agreed 17 June to reactivate September 2006 deal. Government agreed to release FNL political prisoners; asked FNL to provide detailed list of members held, accelerate assembly of troops and identify assembly sites. Limited progress made during talks within Joint Framework for the Monitoring and Follow-Up (MCVS) of September 2006 ceasefire agreement. Political scene dominated by negotiations between government and opposition FRODEBU and sidelining of supporters of arrested ruling CNDD-FDD party chairman Hussein Radjabu. FRODEBU called for Nkurunziza resignation, attempted impeachment and joined boycott of new parliamentary session with Radjabu supporters and Leonard Nyangoma’s CNDD. Simultaneously, FRODEBU continued negotiations with government over integration of its ministers in cabinet.
UNHCR noted increased spillover of insecurity and refugees from Central African Republic. Suspected rebels from CAR killed 1 civilian and seized 22 in Landou and Ouro Kessoum 24 June; Cameroon sent Rapid Intervention Battalion to east to combat insecurity.
Insecurity continued in north. International NGOs called for urgent deployment of UN force to protect civilians. Aid operations suspended in north west after Médecins Sans Frontières staff member killed 11 June, in alleged mistake by Popular Army for the Restoration of Democracy.
French FM Bernard Kouchner 11 June urged President Deby to allow international peacekeeping troops and UN police along border with Sudan to secure region. Deby remained noncommittal, repeatedly stating he wants police and gendarmes, not soldiers. Meeting of foreign ministers in Paris 25 June reiterated call for force in Chad. Kouchner announced French air support to humanitarian organisations supplying refugee camps in east, with airlift of aid supplies starting 17 June. Libya organised Tripoli negotiations between Khartoum- backed Chadian rebel leaders and N’Djamena 23 June. Rebels continued to demand inclusive political dialogue, non- starter for Deby.
Anjouan island government held elections 10 June in defiance of postponement ordered by federal government and African Union (AU). Order followed unrest after federal government installed new leader for Anjouan. Violence peaked 5 June when former coup leader Mohamed Bacar’s forces opened fire on crowd awaiting new leader’s plane. AU declared poll results “null and void” 19 June after Bacar claimed victory and named new government. AU ministerial delegation, indicating willingness to use force if necessary, flew to Moroni 25 June demanding new elections, disarmament and integration of Anjouan gendarmerie into national army.
Rocket attack on PM Guillaume Soro’s plane 29 June killed 4 but Soro spokesman and President Gbagbo said would not affect peace accord; arrests made but no clear responsibility for attack emerged. Progress continued on implementing 4 March Ouagadougou peace accord. President Laurent Gbagbo appointed judges to conduct mobile court operations for national identification; government freed civilian and military prisoners through amnesty for crimes committed as part of civil conflict; and reappointment of regional administrators in north began 18 June. Leader of loyalist Young Patriots militia, Charles Blé Goudé, visited Forces Nouvelles stronghold of Bouaké 9 June and pledged to “make peace”. First meeting of Permanent Concertation Framework was held in Yamoussoukro 12 June, attended by Gbagbo, Soro, RDR party leader Alassane Ouattara, and former President (and presidential candidate) Henri Konan Bédié. Disarmament and reintegration of military yet to begin.
Prospect of escalated conflict heightened in east, although tension between opposition and government eased in Kinshasa. National Assembly passed law on rights and duties of political opposition 14 June. Senate extended opposition MLC leader (and Senator) Jean-Pierre Bemba’s leave of absence to end July. Eastern “mixage” of dissident general Laurent Nkunda’s troops with army units widely seen as failed as dissidents refused to integrate top command. President Joseph Kabila made major changes to security forces replacing some put in place by transition’s power-sharing agreement as well as officers accused of corruption - seen as preparation for new offensive against Nkunda. Army began sending weapons to Goma, Beni and Kisangani early June; reports also indicated shipments to local militia and Rwandan FDLR, while Rwanda allegedly had helped Nkunda recruit. Clashes between army and FDLR rebels continued. UN Security Council delegation called for diplomatic and political action to settle looming Kivus crisis. 2 soldiers arrested for killing journalist of UN-sponsored Radio Okapi in Bukavu 15 June.
Federal High Court found 38 opposition members guilty 11 June on charges including “outrages against the constitution” in connection with 2005 election violence. Human rights groups condemned trial. Some defendants reportedly signed deal for release. PM Zenawi announced crackdown on ONLF in Somali region of Ethiopia early June. ONLF accused government 25 June of bombing 3 villages, killing 40. Aid agencies corroborated government crackdown in area.
Ethiopian PM Zenawi announced 28 June strengthening army in preparation for attack by Eritrea. Military build-up reported on both sides. Ethiopian FM Seyoum Mesfin wrote to UNSG Ban Ki-moon 7 June reiterating Ethiopia’s acceptance of April 2002 Boundary Commission demarcation decision – but called for number of preconditions and blamed Eritrea for lack of progress. Asmara continued to reject dialogue and dismissed letter saying it puts too many conditions on demarcation.
National Assembly approved commission to investigate January-February 2007 violence. PUP appointed businessman Mamadou Sylla, whose release from prison by presidential intervention triggered the violence, honorary president of party alongside President Lansana Conté.
UN called on international community to pay $20 million budgetary shortfall, or risk seeing reform efforts unravel. Civil servants threatened nationwide strike after 5 months without salary.
Curfew imposed mid-month in Maseru after spate of attacks on cabinet ministers’ homes; lifted 22 June. Dispute between opposition and government over allocation of seats after February elections still unresolved.
Auditor-General John Morlu accused President Johnson-Sirleaf’s administration of being “3 times more corrupt than its predecessor”. Government rejected allegations and summoned Morlu before parliament 26 June. UNSC panel of experts reported Liberian government not enforcing UN’s travel ban and assets freeze targeting associates of former president Charles Taylor, and Taylor may maintain access to considerable wealth through investment holdings in Liberia and Nigeria. Major UNHCR repatriation operation ended 30 June; over 100,000 refugees returned.
President Amadou Toumani Touré inaugurated for new 5-year term 8 June. Opposition leader Oumar Mariko called for electoral commission to be dissolved for allegedly tolerating widespread fraud. Constitutional court approved list of candidates for 1 July legislative elections. Unrest on Mali-Niger border continued with attack on security post of Tin-Zaouatine by rebel Tuareg contingent 1 June.
Insecurity mounted in northern region of Agadez with surge in attacks from recently formed Tuareg Mouvement des Nigériens pour la Justice (MNJ). 15 government soldiers died in attack on army outpost in Tazerzait region 22 June. Government and rebel forces agreed to halt military action during ICRC visit to MNJ camp (from 26 June) to care for wounded fighters. President Mamadou Tandja refuses to recognise MNJ. Government of PM Hama Amadou dismissed 31 May over fraud accusations. Former infrastructure minister Seini Oumarou to replace Amadou despite opposition complaints Oumarou implicated in same corruption scandal.
Appointment of new ministers delayed by in-house haggling in ruling People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and attempts by President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua to bring opposition into government. Leading opposition candidates, former VP Atiku Abubakar and Mohammadu Buhari ruled out participation in government until election petitions are determined, but their parties (Action Congress and ANPP) began formal talks with PDP 26 June towards forming government of national unity. Supreme Court sacked new Anambra State Governor, Andy Uba (PDP), and reinstated his predecessor in 14 June ruling seen as evidence of independence of highest court. Niger Delta militants and Yar’Adua government made conciliatory gestures: MEND and NDV announced suspension of some hostilities; militants freed 25 hostages between 11-16 June; court granted bail on health grounds to NDPVF militia leader Mujahid Dokubo-Asari 14 June. Peace initiatives threatened by continued violence: soldiers and militants battled over oil facilities with over 30 killed. Post-election violence continued with 2 prominent Yar’Adua supporters killed in month.
First-round legislative election vote marred by delays, logistical problems and protests 24 June. 40 parties boycotted polls but main opposition participated. Second round vote 22 July.
ICTR announced plans to transfer cases of 16 genocide suspects to Rwandan courts in attempt to reduce backlog of 27 cases. ICTR President Dennis Byron urged UN Security Council to discuss tribunal or another mechanism to proceed with unfinished cases after 2008.
Casamance violence continued. Government soldiers clashed with MFDC in Sindian 20 June and official wounded 25 June by suspected MFDC fighters. Legislative elections held 3 June, marred by opposition boycott and turnout rates under 35%. President Abdoulaye Wade’s PDS- led coalition took 131 (increase from 90) of 150 seats. Wade appointed former budget minister, Cheikh Hadjibou Soumare, new PM 19 June.
Trial of Former Liberian President Charles Taylor by Special Court of Sierra Leone (SCSL) opened 4 June in the Hague. Taylor, charged with 11 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, boycotted proceedings; failed to appear again 25 June, citing lack of funds for adequate defence team. Judge ordered SCSL to bolster Taylor’s team by 31 July. Court delivered first verdicts 20 June against 3 Armed Forces Revolutionary Council militia leaders guilty on 11 counts of war crimes, including first legal condemnation of recruitment and use of child soldiers. Following mediation by Liberian President Johnson-Sirleaf, Guinean troops began to withdraw from disputed Yenga region 11 June ending 7-year presence. Parliament dissolved 25 June in preparation for postponed 11 August parliamentary and presidential elections.
Violence escalated across country. Blasts in Mogadishu, Baidoa and widespread attacks targeting Transitional Federal Government (TFG) officials or troops also killed numerous civilians. Government imposed curfew in Mogadishu mid-June in response to escalating violence. 5 killed in Baidoa cinema explosion 15 June. Police opened fire on crowd waiting for food aid in Mogadishu 26 June killing 5. Clan clashes in Kismayo led TFG to threaten military intervention. Burundi promised deployment of peacekeepers in July; pledges by other countries still unfulfilled. UN Security Council stressed need to plan possible UN takeover from AU. Somali National Reconciliation Congress postponed to 15 July. Chairman of Reconciliation Committee contacted remnants of Islamic Courts in Doha and Asmara; positive step in terms of inclusion at Congress. Delay seen as stalling by TFG to avoid loss of power while Islamists refused to participate until Ethiopian troops leave.
14 killed in clan fighting 1 June in disputed Buhodle district between Somaliland and Puntland.
Small steps forward but no promise of short-term security improvement in Darfur. Khartoum agreed, again, to allow hybrid AU/UN force in Darfur after high-level meeting in Addis Ababa 11 and 12 June, reconfirmed following UN Security Council delegation visit 17 June. But UN command and control publicly rejected by President Bashir 19 June. New force would still not be operational until well into 2008. UN Special Envoy to Darfur Jan Eliasson outlined new 3-part AU/UN roadmap for Darfur to UNSC 8 June: convergence of initiatives under AU/UN lead; pre-negotiation on positions of Khartoum and non-signatories to Darfur Peace Agreement; and peace negotiations. Eliasson and AU Special Envoy Salim Salim aim for new negotiations by August. France hosted meeting of over 15 FMs from concerned countries 25 June but no significant progress. Oxfam announced permanent withdrawal from Gereida in Darfur, citing reluctance by authorities to improve security. SPLM initiative to unify Darfur rebel movements postponed as key groups refused to attend, and confusion within SPLM over who is invited. Other initiatives to unite Darfur rebels being pursued by Asmara and various NGOs. AU Peace and Security Council extended AMIS mandate until end of year 22 June. Sudanese presidential adviser, responsible for Darfur affairs, Majzoub al-Khalifa, killed in road accident 27 June.
Talks between Ugandan government and LRA in Southern Sudanese capital Juba led to agreement on contentious third agenda point - accountability and reconciliation - 29 June. Both parties agreed national legal and institutional frameworks provide “sound basis” for ensuring accountability and reconciliation. Internal Affairs Minister and Chief Negotiator Ruhakana Rugunda stated Uganda would seek review of ICC indictments of 4 LRA commanders. LRA rebels continued to delay assembly in Ri-Kwangba, on Sudan/DRC border, as required by Cessation of Hostilities Agreement, scheduled to expire end June.
Officials from ruling ZANU-PF and opposition MDC held SADC-backed mediation talks in Pretoria mid- month, first real face-to-face talks in 4 years. But government also taking parallel steps to tighten grip on power by proposing constitutional amendments. Talks set to reconvene in July. South African President Mbeki expected to brief SADC leaders on progress in mediation effort early July. As talks began, 5 men including serving and retired army officers were charged with treason for alleged coup attempt to overthrow President Mugabe and replace with ZANU strongman Emmerson Mnangagwa – who strongly denied involvement. Leaked internal memo from Heads of Agencies Contact Group said country could face “total economic collapse” by year’s end, as currency plummeted.
Series of 5 bombings 15-17 June, many in areas where insurgents have little support base, may signal change in tactics: largest attack yet in Kabul on police bus 17 June killed at least 24. Alleged Taliban spokesman pledged further attacks on capital. U.S. Sec. Defense Robert Gates said Iranian weapons being smuggled across border to Taliban insurgents; President Karzai dismissed claims. Anger over civilian casualties caused by international forces mounted following deaths in Chora district of Uruzgan and airstrikes in Helmand. President Karzai condemned “indiscriminate and imprecise operations” 23 June and demanded more coordination with Afghan authorities. 160-member EU Police mission (EUPOL) launched 17 June to support Afghan National Police; interior ministry reported 300 local police killed in last 3 months. UNODC report said opium production grew by 49% in 2006 and that country now accounts for 92% of world’s illicit opium production.
Government announced 3-week overhaul of electoral registry: photographs and fingerprints to be collected for all eligible voters in effort to block fraud. Former minister Amanullah Aman sentenced to 3 years on corruption charges in first major sentencing. Former PM Sheikh Hasina barred twice from leaving country as she continues to face corruption charges, as does former PM Khaleda Zia. Both deny all charges.
Government expelled New Zealand High Commissioner Michael Green; Auckland promised tougher sanctions. Cabinet agreed to early 2009 elections. Deputy commander Esala Teleni appointed police commissioner.
Round-the-clock curfew imposed on north eastern town of Moreh, where clashes between Kuki and Meitie ethnic groups killed 11 and led to closure of Myanmar border post. Maoists called 2-day strike 26-27 June in Bastar, Chhattisgarh state, to protest fuel and resource exploitation. Maoists also blamed for 1 July attack on 2 Bihar police stations and blew up railway station 27 June in West Bengal state.
Normalisation process slowed due to ongoing political turmoil in Pakistan. India said it would maintain troop levels along border of Jammu and Kashmir, citing increase in cross-border militancy.
Indonesian counter-terrorism police arrested Islamist terrorist network Jemaah Islamiyah leader Zarkasih alias Nuaim and military commander Abu Dujana in central Java 9 June. District election campaign in Bireuen district, Aceh marked by low-level violence; GAM candidate won with over 60% of vote.
Progress made as Pyongyang invited IAEA inspectors to Yongbyon nuclear reactor and agreed plan for verifying shutdown 29 June. Timing to be decided by 6- Party talks. Move came after funds unfrozen as part of February agreement finally received 25 June, and surprise visit by U.S. envoy Christopher Hill to Pyongyang 21 June. Hill, most senior U.S. official to visit since 2002, said on return NK understood highly enriched uranium issue needs satisfactory resolution and talks may resume week of 10 July. Seoul resumed food aid. Missile testing continued; 2 fired from west coast 7 June; unconfirmed reports of third test 19 June.
Ambush attacks on buses in Karen and Karenni states 21-22 June killed 27. Attacks came amid reports of increase in clashes between Karen and Shan State armies; state media said ethnic guerrilla forces responsible. National Convention due to resume 18 July to finalise new constitution. In first such meeting in years, U.S. Asst. Sec. State Eric John met with junta in Beijing, pushed for release of opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi. ICRC law violations by Myanmar authorities.
Constituent assembly poll date set for 22 November. Parliament passed amendment enabling it to abolish monarchy by two-thirds vote if king hinders polls. Another law passed mid-month earmarks spots for women and ethnic minorities in the half of assembly seats to be elected by proportional representation (roughly 250). UN began process of Maoist combatant verification. Unrest and strikes continued in Tarai plains.
Popular discontent with President Musharraf increased further. Demonstrations in support of suspended Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry continued across country, attracting tens of thousands. Government confirmed opposition activists detained ahead of planned protests. Supreme Court hearing on Chaudhry’s challenge to suspension order and misconduct charge continues. Week-long protest and foreign criticism forced Musharraf to suspend legislation targeting broadcasting outlets critical of his government 10 June. Opposition again rejected suggestions Musharraf eligible for re-election by outgoing legislature; expressed concerns elections will not be free and fair, claiming that voters list disenfranchised more than 20 million. Insurgency-related violence continued: militants ambushed vehicle in Quetta killing 6 soldiers and 3 civilians 14 June; airstrike by unconfirmed source killed 32 pro-Taliban militants North Waziristan 19 June - Pakistan denied claims it was U.S. missile attack launched from Afghanistan. 10 Pakistani civilians killed as NATO fired across border in battle with pro-Taliban insurgents 23 June.
Government negotiator Silvestre Afable resigned abruptly as talks between Manila and Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) due to resume after postponement during May elections. Move possibly a sign of Manila taking harder line. Government-appointed replacement, Catholic priest Eliseo Mercado, forced to resign before taking up post after MILF objections. EU team in country to provide technical assistance to end extrajudicial killings.
New police commissioner Jahir Khan revived plans to rearm police, beginning with protection forces for PM Sogavare. Australian-led assistance mission RAMSI reiterated its disapproval.
Taiwan vowed to hold referendum on joining UN under own name despite Chinese and U.S. opposition. Legislature approved budget authorising spending on parts of long-delayed U.S. arms package 15 June; funds to be directed to purchase of maritime patrol aircraft and anti-missile defence equipment upgrade.
Violence continued unabated in restive south; coup leader Sonthi claimed insurgency “never more deadly”. Killing of 4 Buddhist teachers prompted indefinite closure of several schools 11 June. Over 500 Muslim protesters blocked road in Raman, Yala 13 June accusing Thai security forces of murder of local Muslim religious teacher. Bomb killed district chief (most senior civilian official killed in conflict) and 2 soldiers 19 June. Political crisis continued in Bangkok: ousted PM Thaksin supporters and pro-democracy activists held nightly protests but numbers dropped significantly by month-end. Political parties allowed to resume activity 5 June although ban on formation of new parties remains, preventing re-formation of Thaksin’s disbanded Thai Rak Thai. Coup leaders demanded Thaksin return to Thailand to face corruption charges after family accounts worth US$1.6bn frozen 11 June.
Parliamentary elections held 30 June without major incident. Campaign period marred by 3 June shooting in Viqueque district of 2 CNRT supporters by police (one off- duty). Series of house burnings and intimidation displaced over hundred families from Ermera district. President Ramos-Horta asked International Security Forces to stop search for fugitive rebel soldier Alfredo Reinado 19 June and called on prosecutor-general to discuss terms for Reinado’s surrender and weapons handover under mediation of Catholic Church.
Parliament failed, for second time, to hold presidential vote 27 June after no candidate presented.
Republican Party, despite winning outright majority in May parliamentary elections, signed coalition agreement with Prosperous Armenia Party (BHK) and cooperation deal with Armenian Revolutionary Federation Dashnaktsutyun (ARF) 6 June. BHK and ARF to have 3 ministerial portfolios each. Constitutional Court rejected opposition appeals for partial recounts and reruns of polls.
No breakthrough as Azerbaijani and Armenian Presidents Aliyev and Kocharian met during 9 June St Petersburg CIS Summit, despite optimism of OSCE Minsk Group negotiators. Armenian- Azerbaijani delegation of intellectuals, led by 2 countries’ Moscow ambassadors, visited Stepanakert and Yerevan 28 June. Azerbaijani army captured Armenian soldier 11 June; claimed he did not want to return. Campaigning for de facto 19 July presidential elections began.
FM Mammadyarov welcomed Russian President Putin’s proposal to U.S. at 6-8 June G8 Summit to establish joint missile defense system at Russian Gabala radar base in Azerbaijan. Defence minister Abiyev and Russian counterpart signed joint protocol on continued base use 20 June. Police forcibly dispersed small group of journalists protesting media crackdown in Baku 14 June.
ETA declared end to 15- month ceasefire 5 June. Day later former ETA leader Jose Ignacio de Juana Chaos, under house arrest since March, re-jailed. Batasuna leader Arnoldo Otegi also arrested, to start 15-month sentence for glorifying terrorism. PM Zapatero admitted government held secret talks with ETA before December 2006 Madrid airport bombing.
EU suspended trade preferences 21 June, citing Minsk’s failure to reform labour rights. U.S. renewed sanctions against President Lukashenka and 9 officials. UN Human Rights Council took Belarus off special watch list, reportedly under Russian pressure, despite last rapporteur’s warning of 2006 deterioration.